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1411 [1387]

Edw. 6. The determination of Doctor Ridley in Cambridge agaynst Transubstantiation.

MarginaliaAunsweres and disputers in those disputatiōs at Cambridge.In the third disputation answered M. Perne. Against whome disputed one M. Parkar (not Doct. Math. Parkar) M. Pollard, M. Vauisour, M. Yong.

MarginaliaAnno 1552.At length the disputations ended, the Bishop of Rochester Doct. Nicolas Ridley after the maner of Scholes, made this determination vpon the foresayde conclusions, as here followeth.

¶ The determination of Doctor Nicolas Ridley Bishop of Rochester, vpon the conclusions aboue prefixed.

MarginaliaThe determination of D. Nic. Ridley vpon the disputations.THere hath bene an ancient custome amongst you, that after disputations had in your common scholes, there should be some determination made of the matters so disputed and debated, especially touching Christian religion. Because therefore it is seene good vnto these worshipfull assistentes ioyned with me in commission from the kings Maiestie, that I should performe the same at this tyme: I will be your fauourable pacience declare, both what I do thinke and beleue my selfe, and what also other, ought to think of the same. Which thing I would that afterwardes ye did with diligence way and ponder, euery man at home seuerally by himselfe.

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Marginalia5. Princypall groundes to take away transubstantiation.The principal groundes or rather headsprings of this matter are specially fiue. 

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Catholics would agree with Ridley's 'grounds' or foundations of determining how Christ is present in the Eucharist, except the fourth. They would differ on how the first, second and fifth are defined and interpreted.

The first is the authoritie, maiestie, and veritie of holy Scripture.

The second is the most certayne testimonies of the auncient Catholicke Fathers, who, after my iudgement, do sufficiently declare this matter.

The third is the definition of a Sacrament.

The fourth is the abhominable heresie of Eutiches that may ensue of Transubstantiation.

The fift is the most sure beliefe of the article of our fayth: He ascended into heauen.

¶ The first grounde.

MarginaliaTransubstantiation agaynst the Scripture.This Transubstantiation is cleane agaynst þe wordes of the scripture, and consent of the auncient Catholick Fathers. The scripture sayth: I will not drinke hereafter of thys fruite of the vine &c. Now the fruite of this Vyne is wyne. And it is manifest that Christ spake these wordes after the Supper was finishd, as it appeareth both in Mathewe, Marke, and also in Luke, if they be well vnderstanded. There be not many places of the scripture that do confirm this thing, neither is it greatly materiall: For it is enough if there be any one playne testimonie for the same. Neither ought it to be measured by the number of Scriptures, but by the authority, MarginaliaScripture to be measured not by number but by authoritye. and by the veritie of the same. And the maiestie of this veritie is as ample in one short sentence of the Scripture, as in a thousand.

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Moreouer, Christ tooke bread, he brake bread, he gaue bread. In the Actes Luke calleth it bread. So Paule calleth it bread after the sanctification. Both of them speaketh of breakyng, which belongeth to the substaunce of bread, and in no wyse to Christes body, for the Scripture sayth: MarginaliaExod. 12.Ye shall not breake a bone of hym. Christ sayth, Marginalia1. Cor. 11.Doe ye this in my remembraunce. Saint Paule also sayeth: Doe ye this in my remembraunce. And agayne, As often as ye shall drinke of this cup, do it in the remembraunce of me. And our Sauiour Christ in the 6. of Iohn, speakyng against the Capernaits, sayth: MarginaliaIohn. 6.Labour for the meat that perisheth not. And when they asked: MarginaliaIohn. 6.What shall we do that we may worke the workes of God? He aunswered them thus: This is the worke of God, that ye beleeue in hym whom he hath sent. You see how he exhorteth them to fayth, for fayth is that worke of God. Agayne, This is the bread which came downe from heauen. But Christes body came not downe from heauen. Moreouer, Hee that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my bloud, dwelleth in me, and I in hym. My flesh (sayth he) is meat in deede, and my bloud is drinke in deede. When they heard this, they were offended. And whilest they were offended, he sayd vnto them: What if ye shall see the sonne of man ascend vp where he was before? Wherby he went about to draw them from the grosse and carnal eatyng. This body sayth he, shall ascend vp into heauen, meanyng altogether as S. Augustine sayth: It is the spirit that quickneth, the flesh profiteth nothyng. The wordes that I speake vnto you, are spirit and lyfe, and must be spiritually vnderstood. These bee the reasons which perswade me to incline to this sentence and iudgement.

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¶ The second ground.

MarginaliaThe second ground agaynst transubstantiation.Now my second ground agaynst this transubstantiation are the auncient Fathers a thousand yeares past. Andso farre of is it that they do confirme this opinion of transubstantiation, that playne they seeme vnto me, both to thinke and to teach the contrary.

MarginaliaDionys. in Eccle. Hierat.Dionysius in many places calleth it breade. The places are so manifest and playne, that it needeth not to recite them.

MarginaliaIgnatius ad Philadelph.Ignatius to the Philadelphians sayth: I beseech you brethren cleaue fast vnto one fayth, and to one kynde of preachyng, vsing together one manner of thankesgeuyng: for the fleshe of the Lord Iesu is one, and hys bloud is one which was shedde for vs: There is also one bread broken for vs, and one cuppe of the whole Church.

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MarginaliaIrennæus lib. 4. cap. 34.Irenæus writeth thus: Euen as the bread that commeth of the earth receauyng Gods vocation is nowe no more common breade, but Sacramentall breade, consistyng of two natures, earthly and heauenly: euen so our bodyes receauyng the Eucharist, are now no more corruptible, hauyng hope of the resurrection.

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MarginaliaTertullianus.Tertullian is very playne, for he calleth it a figure of the body, &c.

MarginaliaChrisost. ad Cesarsum.Chrysostome writyng to Cæsarius the Monke, albeit he be not receyued of dyuers, yet wyll I read the place to fasten it more deepely in your myndes: for it seemeth to shewe playnely the substaunce of bread to remayne. The wordes are these.

Before the bread is sanctified, we name it bread: but by the grace of God sanctifiyng the same thorough the ministery of the Priest, it is deliuered from the name of breade, and is counted worthy to beare the name of the Lordes body, although the very substaunce of bread notwithstandyng doe still remayne therin, and now is taken not to be two bodies, but one body of the Sonne, &c.

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MarginaliaCyprian. Lib. 1. Epist. 6.Cyprian sayth: Bread is made of many graynes. And is that naturall bread, and made of wheate? Yea it is so in deede.

MarginaliaTheodoretus.The booke of Theodoret in Greeke, was lately printed at Rome, which if it had not bene his, it should not haue bene set forth there, especially seeyng it is directly agaynst transubstantiation: For he sayth plainely, that bread styll remayneth after the sanctification.

MarginaliaGelatius in Epist. de duabus naturis in Christo.Gelasius also is very playne in this manner. The Sacrament (sayth he) which we receyue of the body and bloude of Christ, is a diuine matter: by reason whereof we are made partakers by the same of the deuine nature, and yet it ceaseth not stil to be the substaunce of bread and wyne. And certes, the representation and similitude of the body and bloud of Christ be celebrated in the action of the mysteries, &c.

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After this he recited certayne places out of Augustine and Cyrill, which were not noted.

MarginaliaIsych. Lib. cap.8.Isichius also confesseth that it is bread.

MarginaliaBertrame.Also the iudgement of Bertram in this matter, is verye playne and manifest. And thus much for the second groūd.

The third ground.

MarginaliaThe third ground.The third grounde, is the nature of the Sacramente, which consisteth in three things, that is, Vnitie, Nutrition, and Conuersion.

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Cyprian.

Three thinges in a Sacrament.

1. Vnitye. 2. Nutritiō. 3. Conuersion.

As touching vnitie, Cyprian thus writeth: Euen as of many graynes is made one bread, so are we one mysticall bodye of Christ. Wherfore bread must needes still remaine, or els we destroy the nature of the Sacrament.

Also they that take away nutrition, which commeth by bread, do take away likewise the nature of the sacrament. For as the body of Christ nourisheth the soule, euē so doth bread likewyse nourish the body of man.

Therfore, they that take away þe graynes or the vnion of the graynes in the bread, and deny the nutrition or substaunce thereof, in my iudgement are Sacramentaries: for they take away the similitude betwene the bread & the body of Christ. For they which affirme transubstantiation are in deed right Sacramentaries and Capernites. 

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'Sacramentaries and Capernites': Sacramentaries were the name given to sixteenth-century radical English Protestants who denied that Christ was truly present in the Sacrament, and thus the stance of the Edwardine Reformers. Capernites refers to the audience to whom Jesus gave 'The Bread of Life Discourse' in John 6: the people of Capernaum, who, according to Ridley, misunderstood Christ's words and believed that Jesus would give his own flesh and blood to eat. For Ridley, Catholics were Capernites.

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MarginaliaConuersiō.As touchyng conuersion (that lyke as the bread which we receyue, is turned into our substance, so are we turned into Christes body) Rabanus 

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Rabanus was a ninth-century German monk, teacher, theologian and Archbishop of Mainz.

and Chrysostome are witnesses sufficient.

The fourth ground.

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4. Ground.

The reall presence in the Sacrament standeth not with the truth of Christes humanitye.

They which say that Christ is carnally present in the Eucharist, do take from him the veritie of mans nature. 
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Ridley maintains that Catholics deny Jesus' humanity, because transubstantiation is only possible through divine power. Catholics would say that Christ's body, present in the Sacrament, is truly human (born of Mary, crucified, risen from the dead and glorified); and through the miraculous power of God, Christians may receive this human body, now glorified through its resurrection, under the signs of bread and wine.

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Eutiches granted the diuine nature in Christ, but his humane nature he denied. So they that defend transubstantiation ascribe that to the humane nature, which onely belongeth to the deuine nature.

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The fift ground.

The fift ground is the certaine perswasion of this Ar-

ticle