Thematic Divisions in Book 12
1. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife2. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent3. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury4. The 'Bloody Commission'5. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester6. Five Burnt at Smithfield7. Stephen Gratwick and others8. Edmund Allen and other martyrs9. Edmund Allen10. Alice Benden and other martyrs11. Examinations of Matthew Plaise12. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs13. Ambrose14. Richard Lush15. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper16. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs17. John Thurston18. George Eagles19. Richard Crashfield20. Fryer and George Eagles' sister21. Joyce Lewes22. Rafe Allerton and others23. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston24. John Kurde25. John Noyes26. Cicelye Ormes27. Persecution at Lichfield28. Persecution at Chichester29. Thomas Spurdance30. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson31. John Rough and Margaret Mearing32. Cuthbert Simson33. William Nicholl34. Seaman, Carman and Hudson35. Three at Colchester36. A Royal Proclamation37. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs38. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs39. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw40. Scourging of John Milles41. Richard Yeoman42. John Alcocke43. Thomas Benbridge44. Four at St Edmondsbury45. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver46. Three at Bury47. A Poor Woman of Exeter48. The Final Five Martyrs49. John Hunt and Richard White50. John Fetty51. Nicholas Burton52. John Fronton53. Another Martyrdom in Spain54. Baker and Burgate55. Burges and Hoker56. The Scourged: Introduction57. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax58. Thomas Greene59. Bartlett Greene and Cotton60. Steven Cotton's Letter61. James Harris62. Robert Williams63. Bonner's Beating of Boys64. A Beggar of Salisbury65. Providences: Introduction66. The Miraculously Preserved67. William Living68. Edward Grew69. William Browne70. Elizabeth Young71. Elizabeth Lawson72. Christenmas and Wattes73. John Glover74. Dabney75. Alexander Wimshurst76. Bosom's wife77. Lady Knevet78. John Davis79. Mistress Roberts80. Anne Lacy81. Crosman's wife82. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk83. Congregation of London84. Englishmen at Calais85. Edward Benet86. Jeffrey Hurst87. William Wood88. Simon Grinaeus89. The Duchess of Suffolk90. Thomas Horton 91. Thomas Sprat92. John Cornet93. Thomas Bryce94. Gertrude Crockhey95. William Mauldon96. Robert Horneby97. Mistress Sandes98. Thomas Rose99. Troubles of Sandes100. Complaint against the Ipswich Gospellers101. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth102. The Unprosperous Queen Mary103. Punishments of Persecutors104. Foreign Examples105. A Letter to Henry II of France106. The Death of Henry II and others107. Justice Nine-Holes108. John Whiteman109. Admonition to the Reader110. Hales' Oration111. The Westminster Conference112. Appendix notes113. Ridley's Treatise114. Back to the Appendix notes115. Thomas Hitton116. John Melvyn's Letter117. Alcocke's Epistles118. Cautions to the Reader119. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material120. Priest's Wife of Exeter121. Snel122. Laremouth123. William Hunter's Letter124. Doctor Story125. The French Massacre
 
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Ambrose (St Ambrose)

(c. 340 - 397) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Bishop of Milan (374 - 397); doctor of the church

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 15, 20, 56, 91, 128, 131, 146; 1576, pp. 12, 16, 35, 63, 92, 95, 102, 108; 1583, pp. 12, 16, 35, 63, 91, 94, 101, 107.

 
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Brasey

Mayor of Cambridge.

Brasey carried John Hullier to prison and took from him all his books, writings and papers. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

 
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Brisley

Constable. Of Cambridgeshire.

At the stake, Brisley told John Hullier to be silent or repent. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

 
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Cuthbert Scott

(d. 1569)

Bishop of Chester (1556 - 1559) (DNB); master of Christ's College, Cambridge (1553 - 1556) (Venn)

Cuthbert Scott was appointed to debate with Latimer in the Oxford disputations of 1554 (1563, p. 934).

He was one of the official disputants in the Oxford disputations of 1554 (1563, pp. 936-38; 1570, pp. 1591-92; 1576, pp. 1358-59; 1583, pp. 1428-30).

In an attempt to reinstate catholicism at the University of Cambridge, a commission under the direction of Cardinal Pole ordered the condemning and burning of the bones and books of Phagius and Martin Bucer. Members of the commission were Cuthbert Scott, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570].

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Cuthbert Scott was chosen by Pole to be a persecutor of the University of Cambridge. 1563, p. 1537, 1570, p. 2142, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1956.

Scott responded to John Stokes' oration at Cambridge University on 11 January 1557. 1563, p. 1539, 1570, p. 2144, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1958.

Brassey again excused himself at St Mary's church on 12 January 1557. Scott answered his words. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

Scott, Watson and Christopherson interdicted St Mary's Church, Cambridge, where Bucer was buried.1563, p. 1541, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 1959.

On 14 January 1557, after the examination of the provost and vice-provost of Cambridge, Thomas Bacon invited Perne, Dr Young, Dr Harvey, Swinborne, and Maptide to come to dinner. He was examined before Scott, Watson and Christopherson on 14 January 1557. 1563, p. 1541, 1570, p. 2146, 1576, p. 1866, 1583, p. 1960.

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Scott spoke with Nicholas Carre, as a former pupil of Bucer, about the heresies of Bucer. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1957.

Carre denounced Scott's opinion of Bucer and sent him into a rage, berating Carre for his words at Bucer's burial. Scott desisted when no one presented any evidence against Carre's actions. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1957.

Scott made an oration at the condemnation of Bucer and Phagius. 1570, p. 2148, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1961.

The condemnation of Bucer was given the bishop of Chester's seal. 1570, p. 2148, 1576, p. 1868, 1583, p. 1961.

John Hullier appeared before Shaxton, Young, Segewick, Scott, Mitch and others on Palm Sunday eve at Great St Mary's. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

Dr Dakins was given commission by the bishop of Chester to examine John and Richard Snell. 1570, [unnumbered sheet at beginning of volume 1], 1576, 2008, 1583, p. 2150.

Cuthbert Scott was a participant in the Westminster disputation of 1559. 1563, p. 1717, 1583, p. 2119.

Scott was in the Fleet but escaped to Louvain and died there. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2102.

 
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Ely

Elderly chantry priest at Windsor

At dinner at Windsor, Master Ely complained of laymen who meddled with the scriptures and was challenged by Robert Testwood. When Testwood supported the king's supremacy over the church, Ely called him a heretic, refused to have anything more to do with him and reported him to the dean's deputy. A few days later, the act of supremacy was passed and the dean returned, attacking papal supremacy. 1570, p. 1386; 1576, p. 1182; 1583, p. 1211.

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George Boyes

BA (1546-47), MA (1549). Proctor [of Trinity College] (1555 - 1556). (Venn)

George Boyes was present at the burning of John Hullier. He berated Hullier at the stake. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

 
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Gilbert Bourne

(d. 1569)

Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford (1531). Prebend of Worcester (1541). Bishop of Bath and Wells (1554 - 1560) [DNB]

Bourne preached a sermon at Paul's Cross on 13 August 1553, praising Bonner and criticising Edward VI. This so enraged his auditors that a dagger was thrown at him. At the request of Bourne's brother, Bradford quieted the mob; Bradford and John Rogers later escorted Bourne to safety. (Rerum, pp. 464 - 65; 1563, pp. 904 - 5; 1570, p. 1570; 1576, p 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 (recte 1409)).

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Bourne's sermon is briefly mentioned later by Foxe (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He was created bishop of Bath and Wells (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

He visited Walter Mantell repeatedly before his execution and unsuccessfully attempted to convert him to catholic teachings on confession and the Sacrament (1570, p. 1638; 1576, pp. 1397-98; 1583, p. 1468).

Together with Edmund Bonner and Henry Morgan, Gilbert Bourne condemned Thomas Tomkins on 9 February 1555. Before condemning Tomkins, Bourne exhorted him to recant. (1563, p. 1103; 1570, p. 1712; 1576, pp. 1461-62; 1583, p. 1535).

On 17 February 1555 Bonner, Bourne and others urged Thomas Higbed and Thomas Causton to recant. (1563, p. 1104; 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539).

On 13 August 1553 John Bradford saved Bourne from a riotous crowd when the bishop preached at Paul's Cross. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1604.

During Bourne's sermon at Paul's Cross on 13 August 1553, he had a dagger thrown at him from the crowd. 1563, p. 1173. The dagger touched Bradford's sleeve. 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610. John Bradford took over from him in the pulpit and the crowd's wrath subsided. Bradford then protected him when they left the pulpit. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

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On 14 February 1555 Percival Creswell, an old acqauintance of Bradford's, went to visit Bradford in prison. He offered to make suit for Bradford. He returned later, at 11 o'clock, with another man and gave Bradford a book by More, desiring him to read it. He told Bradford that the lords of York, Lincoln and Bath wished to speak with him. Then at 3 o'clock the same day, Dr Harding, the bishop of Lincoln's chaplain, went to see Bradford in prison. Harding talked of his fear for Bradford's soul, and that he himself had spoken against Peter Martir, Martin Bucer, Luther and others for their beliefs. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13.

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Philpot's fourth examination was in John Harpsfield's house before Bonner, Bath, Worcester and Gloucester. 1563, pp. 1393-98, 1570, pp. 1965-68, 1576, pp. 1692-95, 1583, pp. 1799-1803.

John Philpot's final examination, on 16 December 1555, was before the bishops of London, Bath, Worcester and Lichfield. 1563, p. 1442, 1570, pp. 1997-98, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, p. 1827.

The certificate for Richard Lush's condemnation was discovered by Foxe in Gilbert Bourne's register (Bath and Wells). 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

Robert Farrer's examination was before the bishops of Durham and Worcester, Sir Robert Rochester, Sir Richard Southwell and Bourne. 1563, p. 1732, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

Bourne was imprisoned in the Tower after the death of Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1993, 1583, p. 2063.

 
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Henry Barley

BA (1546 - 1547), MA (1550). Proctor (of Trinity College) (1553 - 1554). (Venn)

Henry Barley was present at the burning of John Hullier. He berated Hullier at the stake. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

 
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John Hullier

(d. 1556)

Martyr. Curate of Babraham, Cambridgeshire. [Fines]

Foxe recounts Hullier's early life and education. 1563, p. 1513, 1570, pp. 2086, 2196 1576, pp. 1800, 1895, 1583, pp. 1906, 2004.

John Hullier was examined and sent to Cambridge Castle by Thomas Thirlby, bishop of Ely, and his chancellor. 1563, p. 1514, 1570, pp. 2086, 2196, 1576, pp. 1800, 1895, 1583, pp. 1906, 2004.

He was conveyed to Cambridge town prison (the Tolbooth), where he remained for about a quarter of a year. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

John Hullier appeared before Shaxton, Young, Segewick, Scot, Mitch and others on Palm Sunday eve at Great St Mary's. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

Brasey, mayor of Cambridge, carried John Hullier to prison again and took from him all his books, writings and papers. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

Hullier was degraded. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

He was sent to the stake on Maundy Thursday. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

He was burned at Cambridge on 2 April 1556. 1563, p. 1515, 1570, p. 2086, 1576, p. 1800, 1583, p. 1906.

At the stake, Brisley, the sergeant, bade Hullier to be silent or repent. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

George Boyes, Henry Barley and Gray [all of Trinity College] were present at the burning of John Hullier. They berated Hullier. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

Books were burned with Hullier, who died slowly but patiently at the stake, uttering prayers and holding a communion book as he died. 1570, pp. 2196-97, 1576, p. 1896, 1583, p. 2004.

Hullier died before the gunpowder that Seagar Nicholson had given him took effect. 1570, p. 2197, 1576, p. 1896, 1583, p. 2004.

Many of Hullier's body parts were taken by the crowd. 1570, p. 2197, 1576, p. 1896, 1583, p. 2004.

Prayer of John Hullier. [BL Harley 416, fos.17v-20r. Printed only in 1563, pp. 1515-16.]

Letters. 1570, pp. 2087-88, 2088-89, 1576, pp. 1801-02, 1583, pp. 1906-08.

 
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John Young

(1514 - 1580)

DD (1553). Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge (1536). Original founder of Trinity College, Cambridge (1546). Vice-chancellor of Cambridge (1553 - 1554). Master of Pembroke College, Cambridge (1554 - 1559). Regius professor of divinity (1555). Deprived of all preferments under Elizabeth. Imprisoned (1561 - 1579). Removed to Wisbech castle and died there. (DNB)

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On 3 October 1553, Young challenged one 'maister Pierson' for ministering communion in his parish and refusing to say mass. On 5 October Pierson was discharged from his living (1563, p. 1000; 1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1466).

On 26 October 1553, John Young, acting on Stephen Gardiner's authority and in the presence of a Dr Walker, discharged John Madew as Master of Clare on the grounds that he was married. Madew was replaced by Roland Swynborne (1563, p. 1000; 1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

On 31 October 1553 Young sharply reproved one 'maister Thrackolde' for challenging Young over his lenient treatment of Henry Bovell. Bovell had refused to swear to Mary's supremacy over the English church, as was still required by statute (1563, p. 1000; 1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1466).

On 3 November 1553 Young ordered the curate of the Round Church in Cambridge not to minister in the vernacular and declared that all services in Cambridge town were to be held in Latin (1563, p. 1000; 1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1466).

On 12 January 1554, Young called a congregation general at Cambridge, and ordered that a mass of the Holy Ghost be celebrated there on 18 February, Mary's birthday. This was done (1563, p. 1000; 1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

John Young was one of the official disputants in the Oxford disputations of April 1554 (1563, pp. 932, 936-38 and 951-53; 1570, pp. 1591-93 and 1602-4; 1576, pp. 1358-59 and 1367-68; 1583, pp. 1428-30 and 1438-39).

[NB: A brief account of the Oxford disputations of 1554, printed only in 1563, mentions Young debating with Cranmer (1563, p. 933)].

According to Foxe, Young was present when William Glynn visited Ridley and asked Ridley's forgiveness for having spoken to him disrespectfully during Ridley's disputation on 17 April 1554 (1563, p. 971; 1570, p. 1618; 1576, p. 1380; 1583, p. 1451).

During Easter week William Wolsey conferred with Fuller, Christopherson and Dr Young. 1570, p. 1893, 1576, p. 1621,1583, p. 1715.

Young told Wolsey that laymen should not meddle with scripture, to which Wolsey counter-argued using scripture. 1570, p. 1893, 1576, p. 1621,1583, p. 1715.

Young was one of those who put the common seal of the University of Cambridge to the condemnation of Bucer and Phagius. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

John Young was present for the judgement against Bucer and Phagius on 17 January 1557. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2147, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1956.

When the commission found no witnesses to support Bucer and Phagius, they called aside DrsYoung, Sedgwick, Bullock, Taylor, Maptide, Hunter, Parker, Redman, as well as Brown, Gogman, Rud, Johnson, Mitch, Raven and Carre. They were all commanded to give witness against Bucer and Phagius. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2147, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1956.

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On 14 January 1557, after the examination of the provost and vice-provost of Cambridge, Thomas Bacon invited Perne, Dr Young, Dr Harvey, Swinborne, and Maptide to come to dinner. His examination took place before Scot, Watson and Christopherson on 14 January 1557. 1563, p. 1541, 1570, p. 2146, 1576, p. 1866, 1583, p. 1960.

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John Hullier appeared before Shaxton, Young, Segewick, Scot, Mitch and others on Palm Sunday eve at Great St Mary's. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

 
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Lewes

A Welshman. Guard.

One day in July [year not filled in in text], a Welshman called Lewes (described as one of the guard) entered the shop where Wilmot was apprentice. Lewes was asked what the news at court was, to which he responded that Crome had appeared before the council and was to appear at Paul's Cross. 1563, p. 1682, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1951, 1583, p. 2058.

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Wilmot told Lewes that he was sorry to hear the news of Dr Crome. 1563, p. 1682, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1951, 1583, p. 2058.

Lewes told Wilmot that there had been troubles since the Bible was translated into English, that Crome was a heretic and then falsely accused Cromwell of biblical translation. 1563, p. 1682, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

Foxe recounts Wilmot's conversation with Lewes. 1563, p. 1683, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

Wilmot told Lewes that Crome preached nothing but the truth. 1563, p. 1683, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

A young servant of Daubney spoke to Lewes about what he had heard about the charges against Thomas Fairfax and Richard Wilmot. 1563, p. 1685, 1570, p. 2260, 1576, p. 1953, 1583, p. 2060.

 
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Nicholas Shaxton

(1485? - 1556)

Bishop of Salisbury (1535 - 1539). Almoner to Anne Boleyn. [DNB]

Shaxton condemned Pygot and Wolsey on 9 October 1555. 1563, p. 1283 [states around 4 October], 1570, p. 1893, 1576, p. 1621, 1583, p. 1715.

Bishop Shaxton resigned his post after Latimer resigned his. 1563, p. 1353, 1570, p. 1908, 1576, p. 1635, 1583, p. 1739.

Henry VIII appointed Richard Stokesley (Bishop of London), Stephen Gardiner (Bishop of Winchester), Richard Sampson (Bishop of Chichester), William Repps (Bishop of Norwich), Thomas Goodrich (Bishop of Ely), Hugh Latimer (Bishop of Worcester), Nicholas Shaxton (Bishop of Salisbury) and William Barlow (Bishop of St David's) to compose a book of ecclesiastical institutions called the Bishops' Book. 1563, p. 1472.

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Richard Lush

(d. 1557?)

Possibly a martyr. Of Chew Stoke, Somerset.

The certificate for his condemnation was discovered by Foxe in Gilbert Bourne's register (Bath and Wells). 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

Articles were brought against Lush. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

Foxe did not know whether Lush died in prison or at the stake. 1570, p. 2197, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

 
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Richard Mitch

(fl. 1542 - 1576)

LLD (1557). Fellow of St John's (1542 - 1553). Migrated to Trinity Hall and was fellow there until 1561. Amd. advocate at Doctors' Commons and of the court of Arches (1559). (DNB)

Scot called Mitch and others before him at Peterhouse to testify against the doctrine of Bucer and Phagius on 17 January 1557. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2147, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1956.

When the commission found no witnesses to support Bucer and Phagius, they called aside DrsYoung, Sedgwick, Bullock, Taylor, Maptide, Hunter, Parker, Redman, as well as Brown, Gogman, Rud, Johnson, Mitch, Raven and Carre. They were all commanded to give witness against Bucer and Phagius. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2147, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1956.

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John Hullier appeared before Shaxton, Young, Segewick, Scot, Mitch and others on Palm Sunday eve at Great St Mary's. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

As Edwin Sandys took his seat in the university, Mitch conspired to have him seized from his chair but Sandys began his oration to justify his sermon. 1583, p. 2087.

Mitch and twenty followers came to drag Sandys from his seat. 1583, p. 2087.

[At the accession of Mary he organised an attack on the house of Dr Sandys, the vice-chancellor, who had exhibited sympathy for Lady Jane Grey. He eventually went abroad and was described in 1576 as a recusant who had fled England. (DNB)]

 
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Robert [?] Gray

One Gray was present at the burning of John Hullier. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

[Very probably Robert Gray: BA (1546 - 1547), MA (1549), BD (1557). Fellow of Pembroke (1547). Perhaps Fellow of Trinity (1555). Vicar of Barrington, Cambs. (1557). (Venn )]

 
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Thomas Read

(d. 1556)

Martyr. Freewiller. Of unknown occupation and origin.

Thomas Read was examined and condemned by Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 1522., 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

Thomas Read had a vision the night before his martyrdom instructing him not to attend mass. 1570, p. 2197, 1576, p. 1896, 1583, p. 2004.

He was burned at Lewes about 6 June 1556. 1563, pp. 1522, 1602, 1570, pp. 2095, 2196, 1576, pp. 1807, 1895, 1583, p. 1914, 2003.

[Read signed John Trew's confession of 20 January 1555 (new style 1556). See Bodley Ms 53, fo.125r; printed in Richard Laurence, ed. Authentic Documents Relative to the Predestinarian Controversy (Oxford, 1819), p. 70, and L. J. Clement, Religious Radicalism in England, 1535-1565 (Carlisle, 1997), p. 370. Note that Read's signature on the document is 'Thomas Arede'.

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Note that the privy council sent a letter on 3 May 1555 ordering that Thomas Rede, presently held in the King's Bench, be examined 'for being chief mover of a leude tumulte at Wallronde in Sussex' (APC V, p. 120). See also Thomas S. Freeman, 'Notes on a Source for John Foxe's Account of the Marian Persecution in Kent and Sussex', Historical Research 67 (1994), pp. 203-211.]

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Thomas Sedgwick

(fl. 1550 - 1565)

Vice-master of Trinity (1554 - 1555), Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity (1554 - 1556), Regius Professor of Divinity (1557 - 1559), DD (1554). Deprived of his livings (1559) and listed as a recusant in 1561. (DNB; Venn)

Sedgwick was appointed one of the official disputants in the Oxford disputations of 1554 (1563, pp. 936-38; 1570, pp. 1591-93; 1576, pp. 1358-59; 1583, pp. 1428-30).

Thomas Sedgwick acted as one of the queen's commissioners who examined certain scholars at Cambridge University on 8 January 1557. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2142, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1956.

He was present for the judgement against Bucer and Phagius on 17 January 1557. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2147, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1956.

When the commission found no witnesses to support Bucer and Phagius, they called aside DrsYoung, Sedgwick, Bullock, Taylor, Maptide, Hunter, Parker, Redman, as well as Brown, Gogman, Rud, Johnson, Mitch, Raven and Carre. They were all commanded to give witness against Bucer and Phagius. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2147, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1956.

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John Hullier appeared before Shaxton, Young, Segewick, Scot, Mitch and others on Palm Sunday eve at Great St Mary's. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

 
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Thomas Thirlby

(1506? - 1570) (DNB)

Bishop of Westminster (1540 - 1550). Bishop of Norwich (1550 - 1554). Bishop of Ely (1554 - 1559). [Fasti; DNB]

Thomas Thirlby was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Thomas Thirlby was present at Gardiner's sermon, 30 September 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

He was one of the examiners of John Rogers on 22 January 1555. 1563, pp. 1023-26; 1570, pp. 1657-59; 1576, pp. 1414-15; 1583, pp. 1484-86.

He was one of the commissioners who condemned John Bradford, Laurence Saunders and Rowland Taylor to death (1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24).

He was sent as an ambassador to the pope on 19 February 1555. Foxe speculates that this embassy concerned the restoration of monastic lands. 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1559.

A letter regarding Green's treason was sent to Bonner by the privy council on 11 November 1555 but not delivered until 17 November. It was signed by Winchester, Penbroke, Thomas Ely, William Haward, John Bourne, Thomas Wharton. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

Thirlby and Bonner came to Cranmer with a new commission on 14 February 1556. 1563, pp. 1489-92; 1570, pp. 2058-59, 1576, pp. 1775-76, 1583, pp. 1881-82.

Thirlby examined and condemned John Hullier. 1563, p. 1515, 1570, p. 2086, 1576, p. 1800, 1583, p. 1906.

John Hullier was examined and sent to Cambridge Castle by Thirlby. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

Thirlby was imprisoned in the Tower after the death of Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1993, 1583, p. 2101.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Babraham
Babrame, Brabrame
NGR: TL 515 505

A parish in the hundred of Chilford, county of Cambridge. 4.5 miles north-west from Linton. The living is a discharged vicarage in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Ely.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Cambridge (Grantbridge)

[Cambrige; Grantbrige; Grantebryge]

OS grid ref: TL 465 585

County town of Cambridgeshire and university town

 
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Ely
Ely
NGR: TL 540 800

A city in the Isle of Ely, county of Cambridge. 16 miles north-north-east from Cambridge. The city is exclusively of the liberty of the College, which is extra-parochial, and comprises the parishes of St. Mary and Holy Trinity, in the peculiar jurisdiction and patronage of the Dean and Chapter, within the Diocese of Ely, of which it is the seat

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Lewes
Lewes, Lewys
NGR: TQ 416 095

A borough, chiefly in the hundred and rape of Lewes, county of Sussex, of which it is the chief town. 7 miles north-east by east from Brighton. The borough comprises four parishes; St. Michael' s, which is a discharged rectory; St. Anne's and All Saints, which are the same; and St. John's under the Castle, which is a rectory. All are in the Archdeaconry of Lewes and Diocese of Chichester. The precinct of the castle is extra-parochial

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

[Back to Top]
 
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Maidstone
Maidstone, Maydstone
NGR: TQ 760 555

A borough and parish, having separate jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Maidstone, lathe of Aylesford, county of Kent, of which it is the county town. 8 miles south from Rochester. The living is a perpetual curacy in the peculiar jurisdiction and patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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2028 [2004]

Queene Mary. Richard Lushe Martyr. John Hullier burned at Cambridge.

MarginaliaAnno 1557. Iune.of Christ (whhose bloud the lawe both may and also ought to reuenge:) especially at Salisbury, 

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See 1563, pp. 1702-03; 1570, pp. 2254-56; 1576, pp. 1947-48 and 1583, pp. 2054-55.

and also at Canterbury,  
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See 1563, pp. 1672-73; 1570, pp. 2253-54; 1576, pp. 1905-06 and 1583, pp. 2013-14.

and Garnesey.  
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See 1563, 1541-45; 1570, pp. 2127-34; 1576, p. 1849-55 and 1583, pp. 1943-47.

But concerning these matters though mans law do wincke, or rather sleep at them, yet they shall be sure Gods law wil find such murderers out at length. I pray God the doers may repent betime.

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¶ One Ambrose dyed in Maydstone prison. 
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Ambrose

This brief note is that all that Foxe ever printed on Ambrose; it appeared without change in all four editions.

MarginaliaAmbrose dyed in prison, Confessor.AFter these x. aboue named burnt at Lewes, aboute the same time and moneth, one Ambrose dyed in Maydstone prison, who els should haue bene burned in the like cause and quarell, as the other were.

The condemnation and Martyrdome of Richard Lush. 
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Richard Lush

Richard Lush is not mentioned in the 1563 edition; this account first appeared in the 1570 edition and remained unchanged in subsequent editions. It was based on a copy of a section of the diocesan registers of Bath and Wells which remains in Foxe's papers (BL, Harley MS 421, fos. 111r-114r).

MarginaliaThe condemnation of Richard Lushe.IN the Registers of Gilbert Bishop of Bathe & Welles, I finde a certificate made to K. Philip and Q. Mary of one Richard Lush, there condemned & geuen to the secular power to be burned for the cause of heresy, whose affirmations in the sayde certificate be expressed in tenour and effect, as foloweth.

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MarginaliaHis articles.FIrst, for denying the verity of the body & bloud of christ in the Sacrament of the Aultar.

2 Item, for denying auricular confessiō to be made to the Priest.

3 Item, for affirming onely to be three sacramēts, to wit, of baptisme, of the supper, and of matrimony.

4 Item, for refusing to call the Lordes Supper by the name of the Sacrament of the aulter.

5 Item, for denying Purgatory, and that prayer & almes profite not the dead.

6 Item, that Images are not to be suffered in the church and that all that kneele to Images at the Church, be Idolators.

7 Item, that they which were burnt of late for religiō, died Gods seruants and good Martyrs. 

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In the extract from the registers in Foxe's papers, this article goes on to declare that one Roger Hues, of Somerset, had been burned in Mary's reign. Foxe never mentions Hues.

8 Item, for condemning the single life of Priestes, and other votaries.

9. Item, for denying the vniuersall and catholicke church (meaning belike the Church of Rome.)

MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Richard Lushe in the Dioces of Bathe & Welles.For these assertions, as there are expressed, he was cōdemned, and committed to the Sheriffes, and also a certificat directed by the Bishop aforesayd, to the king and Q. Whereby we haue apparantly to vnderstand, that the said Richard Lush, thus condemned by Bishop Borne, was there burnt and executed, vnlesse peraduenture in þe mean season he dyed or was made away in the prison: wherof I haue no certeinty to expresse.

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A note of Iohn Hullier Minister and Martyr burned at Cambridge. 
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John Hullier's Execution

This account first appeared in the 1570 edition and it appeared while the edition was being printed, as can be seen in its being printed in the edition about a hundred pages after Hullier's letters were printed. It is based entirely on an eye-witness account (or the accounts of multiple eyewitness) of Hullier's execution.

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MarginaliaReferre this to the story of Iohn Hullier Martyr. pag 1800. The story of Iohn Hullier with more matter inlarged.COncerning the story of Iohn Hullier, Martyr, partly mentioned before pag. 1864. for the more ful declaratiō of the death and martirdome of that good man, because the story is but rawly and imperfectly touched before for the more perfetting thereof, I thought thereunto to adde that which since hath come to my hand, as foloweth.

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MarginaliaIohn Hullier first Scholer at Eaton.First Iohn Hullier was brought vp at Eaton colledge and after, according to the foūdation of that house, for that he was ripe for the vniuersitye, he was elected scholer in þe kinges colledge where also not tarying full the 3. yeares of probation, before he was felow of the Colledge, he after a litle season was MarginaliaIohn Hullier Conduict in the Kinges Colledge.one of the x. Conductes in the kinges colledge, which was an. 1539. Then at length in processe of time, he came to be Curate of Brabrame 3. miles from Cābridge, and so went afterward to Linne: where he hauing diuers conflictes with the papistes, 

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How and why Hullier was initially arrested is a subject on which Foxe is silent, either through ignorance or circumspection. But Hullier had appeared before the sessions in August 1555 (Narratives of the Days of the Reformation, ed. J. G. Nichols, Camden Society, original series 77 [1860], p. 206). We do not know the outcome of this hearing but apparently Hullier was remanded into the custody of the bishop of Ely.

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was from thence caried to Ely, MarginaliaHullier brought from Linne to the Bishop of Ely. to D. Thurlby then bishop there: who after diuers examinations, sent him to Cambridge Castle, where he remayned but a while.

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MarginaliaHullier prisoned in the Tolboth.From thence he was conueyed to the town prison cōmonly called the Tolboth, lying there almost a quarter of a yere, while at lēgth he was cited to appeare at great S. Maries on Palmsonday euē, before diuers Doctors, both Diuines & Lawyers, amongest whō was chiefest Doctor Shaxton, also Doct. Young, D. Sedgewike, Doct. Scot, Mitch, and others. Where after examination had, for that he would not recant, he was first condemned, the sentence being read by D. Fuller.

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MarginaliaHullier disgraded.Then consequētly he was disgraded after their popish maner with scraping crowne and handes. When they had disgraded him, he sayd cherefully: this is the ioyfullest day that euer I saw, and I thank ye all, that ye haue deliuered

and lightened me of all this paltry.

In the meane time whilest it was doyng, one standing by, asked Hullier what book he had in his hand. Who aunswered a testamēt. Wherat this man in a rage tooke it and threw it violently frō him. Thē was he geuen ouer to the secular powers, MarginaliaBrasey Mayor of Cambridge.Brasey being Maior, who carying him to prison, agayne, took from him all his bookes, writinges, & papers.

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On Maundy Thursday comming to the stake, he exhorted the people to pray for him, & after holding his peace and praying to himselfe, one spake to him saying, the Lord strenthē thee. Wherat a Sergeant named MarginaliaBrisley Sergeant, persecutor.Brisley, stayed & bad him hold his toung or els he should repent it.

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Neuerthelesse Hullier answered and sayd (either thus or very like the effect was all one) frende I truste that as God hath hitherto begon, so also he will strengthen me, & finish his work vpō me. MarginaliaHulliars stedfast trust in God.I am bidden to a Maundy, whether I trust to goe, & there to be shortly. God hath layd the foundation, and I by his ayd will end it.

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MarginaliaHullier preparing himselfe to rhe stake.Then goyng to a stoole (prepared for hym to sit on) to haue his hosen plucked of, he desired the people to pray for him agayne, and also to beare witnesse that he dyed in the right faith, and that he would seale it with his bloud certifying them that he dyed in a iust cause, and for the testimony of the verity and truth, & that there was no other rocke but Iesus Christ to builde vpon, vnder whose banner he fought, and whose souldiour he was: and yet speaking, he turned himselfe about towards the East, and exhorted the people there likewise.

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Now it chaunced on a bancke to stande three Archpapistes MarginaliaThree notorious Papistes in Trinitye Colledge.George Boyes, Henry Barley, & Gray, all three of Trinity Colledge. This Boyes was one of the Proctors of the Vniuersity that yeare.  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, Appendix: ref page 379, middle

Maunday Thursday is the Thursday before Easter, and fell on April 2nd, in 1556, which is the true year, and not 1557. Another circumstance points out 1556 as the true year, viz. that George Boyes was elected proctor in 1555, and would therefore be proctor April 2nd, 1556.

To whome Mayster Graye spake, saying: heare ye not maister Proctor, what blasphemy this felow vttereth? surely it is euil done to suffer him.

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At whose words, this MarginaliaBoyes Proctour of Cambridge.Boyes spake with a loud voice: M. Maior, what meane ye? if ye suffer him thus to talke at liberty, I tell ye the Counsell shall heare of it, and we take you not to be the Queenes frend. He is a pernitious person, and may do more harme then ye wote of. Wherat simple Hullier as meeke as a Lambe, taking the matter very patiently, made no answere, but made him ready vttering his prayer. Which done, he went meekely himselfe to the stake, and with chaines being bound, was beset with reed & wood, stāding in a pitchbarrell, MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Iohn Hullier.& the fire beiug fet to, not marking the winde, it blew the flame to his backe. Thē he feeling it, began earnestly to call vpon God. Neuertheles his frendes perceiuing the fire to be ill kindled, caused the Sergeantes to turne it and fire it in that place where the winde might blow it to his face.

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That done, there was MarginaliaBookes burned with Hullier.a cōpany of bookes which were cast into the fire, and by chaunce a Communion booke fell betwene his handes, who receyuing it ioyfully, opened it, & read so long as the force of the flame & smoke caused him that he could see no more: and then he fell agayne to prayer holding his handes vp to heauen, & the booke betwixte his armes next his hart, thanking God for sending him it: and at that time the day being a very fayre day & a whote, yet the wind was somewhat vp, and it caused the fier to be the fiercer, and when al the people thought he bad bene dead, he sodenly vttered these wordes: MarginaliaThe last wordes of Iohn Hullier at his death.Lord Iesu receaue my spirit, dying very meekely

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The place where he was burned is called Iesus grene, not farre from Iesus Colledge. Seager 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, Addenda: ref page 380, line 4

This is probably Segar Nicholson, mentioned iv. 586, v. 27. He ministered to the wants of Thomas Mountain at Cambridge. (See ... Mr. Nichols's "Narratives," pp. 203, 209.)

gaue him certeine gunpouder, but little to þe purpose: for he was dead before it took fire. All the people praied for him, and many a teare was shed for him. Which the Papistes seing, cried, MarginaliaPapists of Cambridge forbid the people to pray for Hullier.he was not to be prayed for, & being but a dāned man, it could profit him nothing: neuertheles they cōtinued praying. Wher at the Papistes fell in such a rage that they manaced them with terrible threatninges to ward. His flesh beyng cōsumed, his bones stood vpright euē as if they had bene aliue. Of the people some took as they could get of him, as pieces of bones. One had his hart, the which was distributed so farre as it would go: one tooke the scalpe and looked for the toung, but it was consumed except the very roote.

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One roūded him in the eare and desired him to be constaunt to the end, at which he spake nothing, but shewed a ioyful countenaunce, and so continued both constaunt and ioyfull to the end.

A Note of Thomas Rede. 
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Thomas Read

This anecdote first appeared in the 1570 edition. It was sent to Foxe by Roger Hall (see Thomas S. Freeman, 'Notes on a Source for John Foxe's Account of the Marian Persecution in Kent and Sussex' Historical Research 67 [1994], pp. 203-11.

MarginaliaReferre this to Thomas Rede, Martyr. pag. 1807.THo. Rede who was burned at Lewes, as it appeareth aboue pag. 1807. before he was in prison, determined wt himselfe to go to church. The night following, he sawe in a vision, a company of talle young men in white, very pleasant to behold: to whō he would haue ioyned himself,

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but
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