Thematic Divisions in Book 12
1. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife2. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent3. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury4. The 'Bloody Commission'5. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester6. Five Burnt at Smithfield7. Stephen Gratwick and others8. Edmund Allen and other martyrs9. Edmund Allen10. Alice Benden and other martyrs11. Examinations of Matthew Plaise12. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs13. Ambrose14. Richard Lush15. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper16. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs17. John Thurston18. George Eagles19. Richard Crashfield20. Fryer and George Eagles' sister21. Joyce Lewes22. Rafe Allerton and others23. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston24. John Kurde25. John Noyes26. Cicelye Ormes27. Persecution at Lichfield28. Persecution at Chichester29. Thomas Spurdance30. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson31. John Rough and Margaret Mearing32. Cuthbert Simson33. William Nicholl34. Seaman, Carman and Hudson35. Three at Colchester36. A Royal Proclamation37. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs38. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs39. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw40. Scourging of John Milles41. Richard Yeoman42. John Alcocke43. Thomas Benbridge44. Four at St Edmondsbury45. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver46. Three at Bury47. A Poor Woman of Exeter48. The Final Five Martyrs49. John Hunt and Richard White50. John Fetty51. Nicholas Burton52. John Fronton53. Another Martyrdom in Spain54. Baker and Burgate55. Burges and Hoker56. The Scourged: Introduction57. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax58. Thomas Greene59. Bartlett Greene and Cotton60. Steven Cotton's Letter61. James Harris62. Robert Williams63. Bonner's Beating of Boys64. A Beggar of Salisbury65. Providences: Introduction66. The Miraculously Preserved67. William Living68. Edward Grew69. William Browne70. Elizabeth Young71. Elizabeth Lawson72. Christenmas and Wattes73. John Glover74. Dabney75. Alexander Wimshurst76. Bosom's wife77. Lady Knevet78. John Davis79. Mistress Roberts80. Anne Lacy81. Crosman's wife82. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk83. Congregation of London84. Englishmen at Calais85. Edward Benet86. Jeffrey Hurst87. William Wood88. Simon Grinaeus89. The Duchess of Suffolk90. Thomas Horton 91. Thomas Sprat92. John Cornet93. Thomas Bryce94. Gertrude Crockhey95. William Mauldon96. Robert Horneby97. Mistress Sandes98. Thomas Rose99. Troubles of Sandes100. Complaint against the Ipswich Gospellers101. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth102. The Unprosperous Queen Mary103. Punishments of Persecutors104. Foreign Examples105. A Letter to Henry II of France106. The Death of Henry II and others107. Justice Nine-Holes108. John Whiteman109. Admonition to the Reader110. Hales' Oration111. The Westminster Conference112. Appendix notes113. Ridley's Treatise114. Back to the Appendix notes115. Thomas Hitton116. John Melvyn's Letter117. Alcocke's Epistles118. Cautions to the Reader119. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material120. Priest's Wife of Exeter121. Snel122. Laremouth123. William Hunter's Letter124. Doctor Story125. The French Massacre
 
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Alban Langdale

Fellow of St Johns College, Cambridge (1534); BD (1544); DD (1554) (Venn). Parson of Buxted, Sussex. Chaplain to Lord Montague.

John Kingston stated that he had requested Anthony Clarke, and Alban Langdale and Anthony Brown to expose unlawful writings and books. 1563, p. 1564, 1570, p. 2156, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly numbered 1971].

Alban Langdale accused and examined several prisoners in Chichester. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

Woodman's third examination took place before Alban Langdale and Master James Gage at Montague's house, beside St Mary Overy's, Southwark, on 12 May 1557. 1570, p. 2182-88, 1576, p. 1884-89, 1583, pp. 1992-97.

Woodman's fifth examination took place before Winchester, Nicholas Harpsfield, Langdale, a fat-headed priest, and many others at St Mary Overy's church on 15 June 1557. 1563, pp. 1599-1601, 1570, pp. 2190-92, 1576, pp. 1890-92, 1583, pp. 1999-2000.

[NB: Alban Langdale was one of the Cambridge doctors appointed by the university to participate in the Oxford disputations of 1554. Foxe had in his possession the letter from the vice-chancellor and senate of Cambridge, dated 10 April 1554, authorising the seven theologians to participate in the disputation (Harley 416, fol. 39r), as well as a letter from Cambridge University to Hugh Weston dated 10 April 1554 informing him that the seven were being sent (Harley 422, fol. 101r); both letters specifically described Langdale as one of the seven theologians. But he was not active in the debates and because Foxe's informants do not mention him, he is never mentioned anywhere in Foxe's entire account of the Oxford debates.]

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Anne Tree [or Try]

(d. 1556)

Martyr. Of East Grinstead.

Anne Tree was burned at Grinstead in Sussex on 18 July 1556. 1563, p. 1545, 1570, p. 2134, 1576, p. 1855, 1583, p. 1949.

[In BL, Harley 421 fos.109r-110v she is referred to as Anne Tree, but Foxe refers to her as Try in Acts and Monuments.]

 
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Anthony Clarke

BTh Oxford (1537). Ex-monk and canon of Chichester.

Anthony Clarke accused and examined several prisoners in Chichester. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

 
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Christian Grove

(d. 1557)

Martyr. Of the archdeaconry of Lewes.

Christian Grove was accused and examined by Christopherson, Richard Briesly, Robert Tailor, Thomas Paccard, Anthony Clarke, and Alban Langdale. She was condemned and martyred at Chichester. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

 
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Dennis Burgis

(d. 1557)

Martyr. Of unknown occupation. Of Buxted.

Burgis was accused and examined by Christopherson, Richard Briesly, Robert Tailor, Thomas Paccard, Anthony Clarke, and Alban Langdale. He was condemned and martyred at Chichester. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

He was burned at Lewes, 22 June 1557. 1563, p. 1602, 1570, p. 2195, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2003.

 
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James Morice

(d. 1557)

Martyr. Of Heathfield.

James Morice was accused and examined by Christopherson, Richard Briesly, Robert Tailor, Thomas Paccard, Anthony Clarke, and Alban Langdale. He was condemned and martyred at Chichester. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

 
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John Ashdon

(d. 1557)

Martyr. Of unknown occupation. Of Cattesfield, Sussex.

John Ashdon was accused and examined by Christopherson, Richard Briesly, Robert Tailor, Thomas Paccard, Anthony Clarke, and Alban Langdale. He was condemned and martyred at Chichester in 1557. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

[Possibly related to Mrs. Ashdon.]

 
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John Christopherson

(d. 1558)

Master of Trinity College, Cambridge (1553 ? 1558); bishop of Chichester (1557 - 1558). Master of Trinity College (1553 - 1558). Dean of Norwich (1554 - 1557). Chaplain and confessor to Queen Mary. (DNB)

Christopherson was sent to Cambridge University by Stephen Gardiner with articles ordering that every scholar wear the proper vestments, pronounce Greek in the traditional pronounciation and declare the whole style of the king and queen in their sermons (1563, p. 1007; 1570, pp. 1646-47; 1576, p 1405; and 1583, p. 1475).

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John Christopherson condemned Robert Pygot and William Wolsey on 9 October 1555. 1570, p. 1893, 1576, p. 1621, 1583, p. 1715.

Philpot's eleventh examination, on St Andrew's day, was before Durham, Chichester, Bath, Bonner, the prolocutor, Christopherson, Chadsey, Morgan of Oxford, Hussey of the Arches, Weston, John Harpsfield, Cosin, and Johnson. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

In an attempt to reinstate catholicism at the University of Cambridge, a commission under the direction of Cardinal Pole ordered the condemning and burning of the bones and books of Phagius and Martin Bucer. Members of the commission were Cuthbert Scott, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

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John Christopherson was chosen by Pole to be a persecutor of the University of Cambridge. 1563, p. 1537, 1570, p. 2142, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1956.

Christopherson attempted to sprinkle scholars of Trinity College with holy water at the gatehouse to the college, but they refused it. Nicholas Carre wrote a letter to John Cheke about Martin Bucer, which was then passed on to Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1957.

Scot, Watson and Christopherson discussed and agreed to the exhumation of Bucer and Phagius. . 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1957.

Christopherson did not attend King's College on 14 January 1557 with the other commissioners. 1563, p. 1541, 1570, p. 2146, 1576, p. 1866, 1583, p. 1960.

He was taken sick during Watson's Candlemas sermon and began babbling. 1563, p. 1541, 1570, p. 2146, 1576, p. 1866, 1583, p. 1960.

Some present at Watson's sermon said that Christopherson had become sick because he had been accused of false accounting at the college and that he had witnessed his brother-in-law's lease being cancelled on the manor of the college because the covenants seemed unreasonable. 1563, p. 1541, 1570, p. 2146, 1576, p. 1866, 1583, p. 1960.

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Richard Woodman's first examination before Christopherson, Story, Cooke and others took place on 14 April 1557. 1563, pp. 1573-79, 1570, p. 2174-78, 1576, pp. 1877-81, 1583, pp. 1986-89.

Woodman's second examination before Christopherson and two of his chaplains, as well as Story, took place on 27 April 1557. 1563, pp. 1582-87, 1570, pp. 2178-82, 1576, pp. 1881-84, 1583, pp. 2089-92.

The sixth and last examination of Woodman took place before Chichester, Roper, Nicholas Harpsfield, the fat priest, Winchester and others. 1563, 1599-1601, 1570, p. 2192-94, 1576, p. 1892-93, 1583, pp. 2000-02.

He accused and examined several prisoners in Chichester. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

He died after Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992.

 
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John Foreman

(d. 1556)

Martyr. Of unknown occupation and origin.

John Foreman was burned at Grinstead in Sussex on 18 July 1556. 1563, p. 1545, 1570, p. 2134, 1576, p. 1855, 1583, p. 1949.

 
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John Hart

(d. 1556)

Shoemaker. Martyr. Of Mayfield, Sussex.

John Hart was burned with three others at Mayfield in Sussex on 24 September 1556. 1563, p. 1546, 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1953.

 
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John Hopton

(d. 1558)

Bishop of Norwich (1554 - 1558) [DNB]

John Hopton was created bishop of Norwich (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

On 12 May 1555 the privy council ordered that Thomas Ross be delivered to Hopton to be made to recant or to be tried for heresy (1583, p. 1577).

Hopton was one of the commissioners who condemned John Bradford, Laurence Saunders and Rowland Taylor to death. 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24.

On 12 May 1555 the privy council ordered that Thomas Ross be delivered to Hopton, either to be forced to recant, or to be tried for heresy. 1583, p. 1577.

James Abbes was caught and appeared before Dr Hopton. He recanted but when the bishop gave him 40 or 20 pence [Foxe is not sure] he recanted. He was burned in Bury on 2 August 1555. 1563, p. 1244, 1570, pp. 1864-65, 1576, p. 1594, 1583, p. 1683.

Robert Samuel was cruelly treated by Dr Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and/or Dr Dunnings, the chancellor [Foxe is not sure]. 1563, p. 1270, 1570, p. 1898, 1576, p. 1609, 1583, p. 1703.

William Allen was examined and condemned by the bishop of Norwich. 1570, p. 1883, 1576, p. 1613, 1583, p. 1707.

Roger Coo was examined by the bishop of Norwich, 12 August, 1555. 1563, pp. 1272-73, 1570, pp. 1883-84, 1576, p. 1613, 1583, p. 1707.

Thomas Cobbe was examined by Dunning but condemned by the bishop of Norwich with Roger Coo, William Allen, James Abbes, and Robert Samuel. He was burned at Thetford in September 1556. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1884, 1576, pp. 1613-14 , 1583, p. 1708.

Thomas Spicer, John Denny and Edmund Poole were condemned by John Hopton and Dunning and handed over to Sir John Silliard, high sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk. 1570, p. 2093, 1576, p. 1793, 1583, p. 1912.

Roger Bernard was examined and condemned by Hopton. Adam Foster was sent to the Eye prison and then to Norwich to be examined and then condemned by Hopton. 1563, pp. 1527-28, 1570, pp. 2098-99, 1576, pp. 1810-11, 1583, p. 1917.

The second, third and fourth examinations of John Fortune were conducted by Hopton. 1570, pp. 2100-01, 1576, p. 1812, 1583, pp. 1918-19.

Peter and Anne Moone were presented before Hopton (bishop of Norwich) and Dunning (chancellor) during their visitation of Ipswich in 1556. Three articles were presented against Peter Moone and his answers given. 1570, p. 2126, 1576, p. 1847, 1583, p. 1942.

Simon Miller was imprisoned in the bishop's house. He was condemned by Hopton and his chancellor, Michael Dunning. 1563, pp. 1602-03, 1570, p. 2197, 1576, p. 1896, 1583, p. 2005.

The second examination of Thomas Spurdance was by Hopton. 1570, pp. 2221-22, 1576, pp. 1917-18, 1583, pp. 2024-25.

John Fortune's second and third examinations were conducted by the bishop of Norwich, who condemned him. 1563, pp. 1636-38.

James Ashley was examined by Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and Dr Spenser, his chancellor, as well as Sir Edward Waldegrave. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

Thomas Carman was examined and condemned by Hopton.1563, p. 1657, 1570, p. 2233, 1576, p. 1928, 1583, p. 2036.

John Cooke was examined by Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and Dr Spenser, his chancellor, as well as Sir Edward Waldegrave. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

Berry sent Thomas Hudson before Hopton. 1563, p. 1657, 1570, p. 2233, 1576, p. 1928, 1583, p. 2036.

Alexander Lane was examined by Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and Dr Spenser, his chancellor, as well as Sir Edward Waldegrave. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

Robert Miles was examined by Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and Dr Spenser, his chancellor, as well as Sir Edward Waldegrave. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

Thomas Rose's second examination was before Hopton, W. Woodhouse, Dr Barret and others1570, p. 1978, 1576, pp. 1978-79, 1583, p. 2084.

Thomas Rose's last appearance was before Woodhouse and Hopton. 1570, p. 1979, 1576, pp. 1980-81, 1583, pp. 2085-86.

After being questioned by Sir John Tyrrel, William Seaman was sent before Bishop Hopton who then condemned him. 1563, p. 1655, 1570, p. 2232, 1576, p. 1927, 1583, p. 2035.

John Noyes was condemned by the bishop of Norwich before Dunning, Sir W. Woodhouse, Sir Thomas Woodhouse, George Heyden, Master Spense, W. Farrar (alderman), Master Thurston, Winesden and others. 1570, p. 2217, 1576, p. 1913, 1583, p. 2021.

John Hopton died after Queen Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2102.

[1563, p. 1707, correctly states that Hopton died before Queen Mary. He died in August 1558.]

 
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John Milles

(d. 1557)

Martyr. Of Hellingley.

John Milles was accused and examined by Christopherson, Richard Briesly, Robert Tailor, Thomas Paccard, Anthony Clarke, and Alban Langdale. He was condemned and martyred at Chichester. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

 
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John Oswald

(d. 1556)

Husbandman. Martyr. Of Woodmancott, Sussex.

John Oswald was examined and condemned by Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 1522., 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

He refused to say anything when questioned, saying that he would only speak when he could see his accusers face-to-face. 1563, p. 1522., 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

He was burned at Lewes about 6 June 1556. 1563, p. 1522., 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

Henry Adlington received a letter from John Careless which mentioned the martyrdom of Oswald. 1570, pp. 2110-12, 1576, pp. 1833-34, 1583, pp. 1928-29.

 
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John Warner

(d. 1557)

Of unknown occupation. Of Warne.

John Warner was accused and examined by Christopherson, Richard Briesly, Robert Tailor, Thomas Paccard, Anthony Clarke, and Alban Langdale. He was condemned and martyred at Chichester. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

 
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Lewes

A Welshman. Guard.

One day in July [year not filled in in text], a Welshman called Lewes (described as one of the guard) entered the shop where Wilmot was apprentice. Lewes was asked what the news at court was, to which he responded that Crome had appeared before the council and was to appear at Paul's Cross. 1563, p. 1682, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1951, 1583, p. 2058.

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Wilmot told Lewes that he was sorry to hear the news of Dr Crome. 1563, p. 1682, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1951, 1583, p. 2058.

Lewes told Wilmot that there had been troubles since the Bible was translated into English, that Crome was a heretic and then falsely accused Cromwell of biblical translation. 1563, p. 1682, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

Foxe recounts Wilmot's conversation with Lewes. 1563, p. 1683, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

Wilmot told Lewes that Crome preached nothing but the truth. 1563, p. 1683, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

A young servant of Daubney spoke to Lewes about what he had heard about the charges against Thomas Fairfax and Richard Wilmot. 1563, p. 1685, 1570, p. 2260, 1576, p. 1953, 1583, p. 2060.

 
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Margery Morice

(d. 1557)

Martyr. Of Heathfield.

Margery Morice was accused and examined by Christopherson, Richard Briesly (chancellor), Robert Tailor (deputy), Thomas Paccard (civilian), Anthony Clarke, and Alban Langdale (BD). She was condemned and martyred at Chichester. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2024.

 
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Michael Dunning

Chancellor of Norwich (1554 - 1558?) [Fasti; DCL, 1555; Venn]

Michael Dunning is described by Foxe as one who was occupied with dispatching the godly during Mary's reign. 1563, p. 1383, 1570, p. 1952, 1576, p. 1679, 1583, p. 1786.

Robert Samuel was cruelly treated by Dr Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and/or Dr Dunnings, the chancellor [Foxe is not sure]. 1563, p. 1270, 1570, p. 1898, 1576, p. 1609, 1583, p. 1703.

Thomas Cobbe was examined by Dunning but condemned by the bishop of Norwich with Roger Coo, William Allen, James Abbes, and Robert Samuel. He was burned at Thetford in September 1556. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1884, 1576, pp. 1613-14 , 1583, p. 1708.

Dunning made a visitation to Ipswich in 1556. He examined Peter and Anne Moone. 1570, p. 2126, 1576, p. 1847, 1583, p. 1942.

He interrupted the examination of Peter Moone and his wife to tell Hopton that several prisoners (whom he described as 'heretics and Anabaptists') had been brought from Boxford, Lavenham, and the cloth country.1570, p. 2126, 1576, p. 1847, 1583, p. 1942.

As they went to leave after their examination, Dunning told Peter Moone and his wife that they had to see him, for he was sure that they were heretics. 1570, p. 2126, 1576, p. 1847, 1583, p. 1942.

Edmund Poole was examined by Dunning, chancellor of Norwich, and Mings, the registrar of the town of Beccles.1563, p. 1521, 1570, p. 2092, 1576, p. 1793, 1583, p. 1912.

Hopton and Dunning left Ipswich without reexamining Anne and Peter Moone. 1570, p. 2126, 1576, p. 1847, 1583, p. 1942.

After Thomas Spicer was examined and condemned by Dunning he was handed over to Sir John Silliard. 1563, p. 1521, 1570, p. 2093, 1576, p. 1793, 1583, p. 1912.

John Denny was examined by Dunning, chancellor of Norwich, and Mings, the registrar of the town of Beccles.1563, p. 1521, 1570, p. 2092, 1576, p. 1793, 1583, p. 1912.

A papist brought Simon Miller before Dunning, who spoke with him and then committed him to ward. 1563, p. 1602, 1570, p. 2197, 1576, p. 1896, 1583, p. 2005.

During his examination, Miller's confession was discovered hidden in his shoe. Miller reaffirmed his confession before Dunning. 1563, p. 1602, 1570, p. 2197, 1576, p. 1896, 1583, p. 2005.

Crashfield was first examined by Dunning. 1563, p. 1616, 1570, p. 2204, 1576, p. 1902, 1583, p. 2010.

Crashfield was again examined by Dunning and Brydges, at which time he was asked to speak with Dr Pore. 1563, p. 1617, 1570, p. 2205, 1576, p. 1903, 1583, p. 2011.

Crashfield was condemned by Dunning. 1563, p. 1617, 1570, p. 2206, 1576, p. 1903, 1583, p. 2011.

On 23 July 1557 Cicely Ormes was called before Dunning and Brydges, at which time she was condemned. 1563, p. 1618, 1570, p. 2219, 1576, p. 1915, 1583, p. 2023.

Ormes wrote to Dunning about her recantation. 1563, p. 1618, 1570, p. 2219, 1576, p. 1915, 1583, p. 2023.

Noyes was condemned by the bishop of Norwich before Dunning, Sir W. Woodhouse, Sir Thomas Woodhouse, George Heyden, Master Spense, W. Farrar (alderman), Master Thurston, Winesden and others. 1570, p. 2217, 1576, p. 1913, 1583, p. 2021.

Thomas Spurdance was examined before Michael Dunning, chancellor of Norwich. 1563, pp. 1634-36, 1570, pp. 2220-21, 1576, pp. 1916-17, 1583, p. 2024.

Michael Dunning died in Lincolnshire while sitting in a chair. . 1570, p. 2298, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2101.

 
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Nicholas Holden

(d. 1557)

Martyr. Of unknown occupation. Of Withyham.

Nicholas Holden was accused and examined by Christopherson, Richard Briesly, Robert Tailor, Thomas Paccard, Anthony Clarke, and Alban Langdale. He was condemned and martyred at Chichester. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

 
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Richard Briesly

Chancellor of Chichester (1555) (Fasti)

Richard Briesly accused and examined several prisoners in Chichester. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

 
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Robert Tailor

Described by Foxe as the deputy chancellor of Chichester {but not found in Fasti).

Robert Tailor accused and examined several prisoners in Chichester. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

 
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Thomas Athoth

(d. 1557)

Minister. Martyr. Of Chichester diocese. Former Augustinian friar. [Fines]

Thomas Athoth was accused and examined by Christopherson, Richard Briesly, Robert Tailor, Thomas Paccard, Anthony Clarke, and Alban Langdale. He was condemned and martyred at Chichester. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

 
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Thomas Avington

(d. 1556)

Turner. Martyr. Of Ardingley, Sussex. [Fines references: Laurence, p. 69; Bryce, p. 167.]

One of the signatories to the articles of the freewillers in King's Bench, 30 January 1555.

In January 1555 John Trew and Thomas Avington began to emerge as the leading freewillers in the King's Bench. On 1 January 1555 Bradford wrote to freewiller prisoners in the King's Bench (Letters of the Martyrs, pp. 682 [recte 650]-652]. According to Henry Bull, they took offence at this letter and so Bradford wrote a letter to Trew and Avington to try to conciliate them (ibid., pp. 475-76).

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Around the time of his condemnation on 30 January 1555, Bradford wrote another letter to Trew and Avington, attempting a reconciliation between himself and them (ECL Ms. 262, fo.101r; Letters of the Martyrs, p. 475).

Avington signed John Trew's confession on 30 January 1555 (Bodley MS. 53, fo.125r; printed in Richard Laurence, ed., Authentic Documents Relative to the Predestinarian Controversy [Oxford, 1819], p. 69 and C. J. Clement, Religious Radicalism in England, 1535-65 [Carlisle, 1997], p. 370).

Thomas Avington was examined and condemned by Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 1522., 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

He was burned at Lewes about 6 June 1556. 1563, p. 1522, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

[See Thomas S. Freeman, 'Dissenters from a Dissenting Church: The Challenge of the Freewillers, 1550-1558' in The Beginnings of English Protestantism, ed. P. Marshall and A. Ryrie (Cambridge, 2002), pp. 129-156.]

 
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Thomas Dougate

(d. 1557)

Martyr. Of East Grinstead, Sussex.

Thomas Dougate was accused and examined by Christopherson, Richard Briesly, Robert Tailor, Thomas Paccard, Anthony Clarke, and Alban Langdale. He was condemned and martyred at Chichester. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

 
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Thomas Harland

(d. 1556)

Carpenter. Martyr. Of Woodmancott.

Thomas Harland refused to attend church because the service was in Latin and he did not understand it. 1563, p. 1522, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

He was examined and condemned by Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 1522, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

He was burned at Lewes about 6 June 1556. 1563, p. 1522, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1807, 1583, p. 1914.

Henry Adlington received a letter from John Careless which referred to the martyrdom of Harland. 1570, pp. 2110-12, 1576, pp. 1833-34, 1583, pp. 1928-29.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Paccard

Civil Lawyer. Of Chichester.

Thomas Paccard accused and examined several prisoners in Chichester. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Ravensdale

(d. 1557)

Martyr. Of unknown occuptation. Of Rye.

Thomas Ravensdale was accused and examined by Christopherson, Richard Briesly (chancellor), Robert Tailor (deputy), Thomas Paccard (civilian), Anthony Clarke, and Alban Langdale (BD). He was condemned and martyred at Chichester. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Spurdance

(d. 1558)

Martyr. Servant to Henry VIII, Edward VI and Queen Mary. Of Crowfield in Coddenham, Suffolk. (Fines)

Thomas Spurdance was examined before Michael Dunning, chancellor of Norwich. 1563, pp. 1634-36, 1570, pp. 2220-21, 1576, pp. 1916-17, 1583, p. 2024.

His second examination was by Hopton. 1570, pp. 2221-22, 1576, pp. 1917-18, 1583, pp. 2024-25.

Thomas Spurdance was seized by two of his fellow servants, John Haman (alias Barker) and George Looson (both of Coddenham), who carried him to Master Gosnall (or Gonald, of Coddenham, Suffolk). 1570, p. 2222, 1576, p. 1918, 1583, p. 2025.

Spurdance was said by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler not to have taken the sacrament. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

He fled Cornfield for fear of persecution but was taken by Lauson and Barker of Toddenham. 1563, p. 1677.

He was burned at Bury St Edmunds in 1558. 1563, p. 1677, 1583, p. 2025.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Ardingly
Erdinglie
NGR: TQ 345 295

A parish in the hundred of Buttinghall, rape of Lewes, county of Sussex. 4.25 miles north-east by north from Cuckfield. The living is a rectory in the Archdeaconry of Lewes, diocese of Chichester

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Berne
Berne
NGR:

Unidentified

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Buxted
Buxsted, Buxsteede, Buxted
NGR: TQ 495 233

A parish in the hundred of Loxfield-Dorset, rape of Pevensey, county of Sussex. 1.75 miles north-north-east from Uckfield. The living is a rectory, with the perpetual curacy of Uckfield annexed, in the exempt Deanery of south Mailing, within the peculiar jurisdiction and patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Chichester
Chichester
NGR: SU 862 053

A city having exclusive jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Box and Stockbridge, rape of Chichester, county of Sussex. 62 miles south-west by south from London. Chichester is the seat of the diocese, and comprises the parishes of All Saints, St. Andrew, St. Martin, St. Olave, St. Pancras, St. Peter the Great, St. Peter the Less, St. Bartholomew without and the Cathedral Precinct. The livings, with the exception of All Saints, are all in the peculiar jurisdiction of the Dean and Chapter. The living of All Saints is a discharged rectory, as are St. Andrew, St. Martin, St. Olave, St. Peter the Less, St. Bartholomew and St. Pancras. St. Peter the Great is a discharged vicarage

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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East Grinstead
Estgrensted, Estgrenstede, Estgrinsted, Estgrymsted, Estgrymisted, Estgrynsted
NGR: TQ 395 382

A borough and parish in the hundred of East Grinstead, rape of Pevensey, county of Sussex. 19.75 miles north from Lewes, 29.5miles south by east from London. The living is a vicarage in the Archdeaconry of Lewes, Diocese of Chichester

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Heathfield
Hethfield
NGR: TQ 585 210

A parish in the hundred of Hawkesborough, rape of Hastings, county of Sussex. 8.5 miles north by east from Hailsham. The living is a vicarage in the Archdeaconry of Lewes, Diocese of Chichester

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Hellingly
Hellinglegh
NGR: TQ 582 122

A parish in the hundred of Dill, rape of Pevensey, county of Sussex. 2.25 miles north by west from Hailsham. The living is a vicarage in the Archdeaconry of Lewes, Diocese of Chichester

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Ketherfield
Ketherfield, Retherfield
NGR:

Ketherfield, in 1583 edition, p 2024 and in 1576 edition, p 1916;
Retherfield, in 1570 edition, p 2220 and in 1563 edition, p 1646.

Unidentified

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Lewes
Lewes, Lewys
NGR: TQ 416 095

A borough, chiefly in the hundred and rape of Lewes, county of Sussex, of which it is the chief town. 7 miles north-east by east from Brighton. The borough comprises four parishes; St. Michael' s, which is a discharged rectory; St. Anne's and All Saints, which are the same; and St. John's under the Castle, which is a rectory. All are in the Archdeaconry of Lewes and Diocese of Chichester. The precinct of the castle is extra-parochial

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Rye
Rie, Rye, [Ryd]
NGR: TQ 920 206

A Cinq Port, borough and parish, having separate jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Gostrow, rape of Hastings, county of Sussex. 76 miles south-east by east from Chichester, 63 miles south-east by east from London. The living is a discharged vicarage in the Archdeaconry of Lewes, Diocese of Chichester.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Withyam
Withiam
NGR: TQ 495 356

A parish in the hundred of Hurstfield, rape of Pevensey, county of Sussex. 7.5 miles east-south-east from East Grinstead. The living is a rectory in the Archdeaconry of Lewes, Diocese of Chichester

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Woodmancote
NGR: TQ 235 145

A parish in the hundred of Tipnook, rape of Bramber, county of Sussex. 5 miles north-east by east from Steyning. The living is a rectory in the Archdeaconry of Lewes and Diocese of Chichester.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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2048 [2024]

Quene Mary. The examination and answer of Tho. Spurdance Martyr.

MarginaliaAnno 1557. Septem.then the sayde two Priestes were.

With the which wordes she beyng charged, and willed to submit her selfe as the other had done aboue rehersed to such penaunce as they should inioyne vnto her, refused so to do, and therfore was commaunded to close prison, the shiriffes beyng charged with her vnder payne of one hundred poundes, that none should haue any accesse vnto her. At length at the perswasion of her friendes, shee was compelled to doe as the other had done before. And thus much concernyng thyngs done at Lichfield.

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¶ The Persecution and crueltie exercised by the Papistes in the Diocesse of Chichester. 
Commentary  *  Close
Persecution in Chichester

This brief narrative first appeared in the 1563 edition. It is based on material sent to Foxe from the Chichester diocesan archives.

MarginaliaPersecution among the Godly men at Chichester.ANd now from Lichfield to come to Chichester, although we haue but little to report thereof, for lacke of certaine relation and recordes of that countrey, yet it seemeth no little trouble and persecution there also to haue raged, as in other countreys. 

Commentary  *  Close

Foxe is correct; the persecution started late in the diocese of Chichester, but in the final years of Mary's reign it raged with great intensity.

For what place was there almost in all the Realme, where the Popes ministers did not besturre them, murtheryng some or other, as in the Acts of this ecclesiastical history may sufficiently appeare. Wherfore as this plague of the popes tiranny was generall to all other people and countries of England, so likewyse in the Diocesse of Chichester, diuers and many there were condemned and martyred for the true testimony of righteousnesse within the compasse of Queene Maries raigne. In the number of whom were these. MarginaliaMartyrs.

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Iohn Foreman, of
Estgrimsted.
Iohn Warner of
Berne.
Christian Grouer 
Commentary  *  Close

This may well be the 'Grove's wife' mentioned in 1563, p. 1646; 1570, pp. 2139-40; 1576, p. 1861 and 1583, p. 1953.

of
the Archdeacon-
ry of Lewys.
Thomas Athoth
Priest. 
Commentary  *  Close

There is no other mention in Foxe of the martyrdom of Thomas Athoth but the sentence condemning him is BL, Harley MS 421, fos. 107r-108v. This is probably Foxe's source for proclaiming him a martyr but he may have died in prison, escaped or - less likely - been pardoned.


Thomas Auyngton
of Erdinglie.
Dennis Burgis of
Buxsted.
Thomas Rauens-
dale of Rie.
Iohn Milles 
Commentary  *  Close

The sentence condemning John Mills is BL, Harley MS 421, fos. 105r-106r.

 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, 430, fn 1

In the Harleian MSS. No. 421, art. 63, is John Mille's sentence by Gregory Day, bishop of Chichester. - ED.

of Hel-
linglegh.
Nich Holden of
Withiam.
Iohn Hart of Wi-
thiam.
Margery Morice of
Hethfield.
Anne Trie 
Commentary  *  Close

This is the 'Mother Tree' whose execution is mentioned by Foxe in 1563, p. 1546; 1570, pp. 2139-40; 1576, p. 1861 and 1583, p. 1953. The sentence against her is among Foxe's papers (BL, Harley MS 421, fos. 109r-110v).

 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, 430, fn 2

In the Harleian MSS. No. 421, art. 55, she is called Anne Tree. - ED.

of Est-
grenested.
Iohn Oseward of
Woodmancote.
Thomas Harland of
Woodmancote.
Iames Morice of
Hethfield.
Tho. Dougate of
Estgrenested.
Iohn Ashedon of
Ketherfield. 
Commentary  *  Close

There is no other mention of John Ashedon or his martyrdom in Foxe. Foxe does, however state that 'Ashdon's wife' was burned at Lewes on 27 June 1557 (1563, p. 1602; 1570, p. 2195; 1576, p. 1895 and 1583, p. 2003).

 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, Appendix: ref page 430, middle

For "Cattesfield" (a place near Hastings) the first edition reads "Rotherfield."


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Martyrs.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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The greatest doers against these godly and true faithfull Martyrs and sitters vpon their condemnation, were these: MarginaliaPersecutors.Christopherson the Bishop after Day, Rich. Brisley Doctour of Lawe, and Chauncellour of Chichester, Rob. Taylor Bacheler of Lawe his Deputy, Tho. Paccard Ciuilian, Anth. Clarke, Albane Langdale Bach. of Diuinite, &c.

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¶ The examination of Thomas Spurdance one of Queene Maries seruaunts, before the Chauncellour of Norwich. 
Commentary  *  Close
Thomas Spurdance

This account first appeared in the 1563 edition and it was re-printed without change in subsequent editions. It is based on Spurdance's own account of his examinations. On Spurdance's being driven from his home see 1563, pp. 1677-78. BL, Harley 421, fos. 177r-178v is the sentence against him.

MarginaliaThe examination of Thomas Spurdance.THe Bishops Chauncellour did aske me if I had bene with the priest, and confessed my sinnes vnto him. And I sayd no, I had confessed my sinnes to God, and God sayeth: In what hower so euer a sinner doth repent and be sory for his sinnes, and aske hym forgeuenes, willyng no more so to doe, he will no more recken his sinne vnto him, and that is sufficient for me.

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Then sayd the Chancellor: Thou deniest the Sacrament of penance.

I said, I deny not penance, but I deny that I shoulde shew my sinnes vnto the priest.

Then sayd the Chancellor, that is a deniyng of the sacrament of penance.

Write this Article.

Haue you receiued the blessed sacrament of the aulter (sayd he) at this tyme of Easter?

And I sayd, no.

And why haue ye not, sayth he?

I said, I dare not meddle with you in it, as you vse it.

Why? do not we vse it truly, sayd he.

I sayde, no, for the holy supper of the Lord serueth for the Christen congregation, and you are none of Christes members, & therfore I dare not meddle with you, least I be like vnto you.

Why, are wee none of Christes members sayde the Chancellor?

I sayd: because you teache lawes contrary to Gods lawe.

What lawes are those, sayd he?

I sayd, these 3. articles that you sweare the people vnto here, be false and vntrue, and you do euill to sweare the people vnto them.

Then sayd hee: Good people take no heede vnto hys words: for he is an heretike & teacheth you disobedience: and so he would no more speake of that matter.

Then sayd he, how beleuest thou in the blessed Sacrament of the aultar? doest thou not beleeue that after it is consecrated, it is the very same body that was borne of the virgin Mary?

I sayd: no, not the same body in substance: for þe same body hath a substance in flesh, bloud and bones, and was a bloudy sacrifice, and this is a dry sacrifice.

And I sayd, is the Masse a sacrifice?

Vnto which a D. answered that sate by him, it is a sacrifice both for the quicke and the dead.

Then sayd I, no, it is no sacrifice: for s. Paul saith, that Christ made one sacrifice once for all, and I doe beleeue in none other sacrifice, but only in that one sacrifice that our Lord Iesus Christ made once for all.

Then sayd the D. that sacrifice that Christ made, was a wet sacrifice, and the Masse is a dry sacrifice.

Then sayde I: that same drye sacrifice is a sacrifice of your own making, & it is your sacrifice, it is none of mine

MarginaliaSpurdance examined vpon the Sacrament of the Aultar.Then sayd the Chancellor, he is an heretike, he denieth the sacrament of the aulter.

Then sayd I: will ye know how I beleeue in the holy supper of our Lord?

And he sayd, yea.

Then sayd I: I beleue that if I come rightly & worthily as God hath commaunded me, to the holy supper of the Lorde, I receiue him by fayth, by beleeuyng in hym. But the bread beyng receiued, is not God, nor the bread þt is yonder in the pixe is not God. God dwelleth not in tēples made with hands, neither will be worshipped wyth the works of mens hands. And therfore you do very euill to cause the people to kneele down and worship the bread: for God did neuer bid you hold it vp aboue your heades, neither had the Apostles such vse.

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Then sayd the Chauncellour: he denyeth the presence in the sacrament. Write this Article also. He is a very heretike.

Then sayd I: the seruant is not greater then his maister. For your predecessors killed my maister Christ, the Prophets and Apostles, and holy vertuous men, & nowe you also kil the seruants of Christ, so that al the righteous bloud that hat hath bene shed, euen from righteous Abell, vntill this day, shall be required at your hands.

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Well, said the Chancellor, haue him away.

Another examination of Spurdance, before the Bishop in his house.
MarginaliaAn other examination of Thomas Spurdance before the Bishop.

THe B. sayd: sirrha, doest thou not beleue in the catholike fayth of holy Church?

And I sayd: I beleue Christes catholike church.

Yea sayd he, in Christes church, of the which the Pope is the head? Doest thou not beleeue that the Pope is supreme hed of the catholike church?

And I sayd, no. I beleue not that he should bee aboue the Apostles, if hee take them to be his predecessors. For when there came a thought among þe Apostles, who shuld be the greatest when their maister was gone, Christ aunswered them vnto their thoughtes: MarginaliaLuke. 22.The Kinges of the earth beare domination aboue other, but ye shall not so doe, for hee that will be greatest among you, shall become seruaunte vnto you all. How is it then (sayde I) that hee will climbe so high aboue his fellowes? And also wee were sworne by my Maister King Henries tyme, that wee should to the vttermost of our power, neuer consent to hym again. And therefore as he hath nothyng to doe here in Englande, so neyther in his owne countrey more, then a Bishop hath in his Dioces.

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Yea sayd the B. what of that? We were then in error & sinne, now we are in the right way agayne, and therefore thou must come home again with vs, and knowledge thy fault, and become a christian man, MarginaliaThe Popes Supremacye.and be sworne vnto the Pope as our supreme head. Wilt thou be sworne vnto the Pope? How sayst thou?

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Then I sayd, no I warrant you by the grace of God, not as long as I liue. For you caunot prooue by the scripture, that the Pope is head of the church, and may do therin what him list.

No, sayde he? yes I trowe: For as the Belweather whiche weareth the Bell, is head of the flocke of sheepe,

euen