Described by Foxe as one of Queen Mary's servants. Probably a constable. Of Southwark.
John Lithal was brought for examination by John Avales. 1570, p. 2266, 1576, p. 1957, 1583, p. 2063.
Dabney was brought for examination before Bonner by John Avales. 1563, p. 1696, 1570, p. 2275, 1576, p. 1964, 1583, p. 2071.
Unable to find Dabney, Avales demanded 15 crowns from his wife and eventually left them alone. 1563, p. 1697, 1570, p. 2276, 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 2072.
Avales searched for a congregation in London and came close to spotting them. 1570, p. 2278, 1576, p. 1967, 1583, p. 2074.
He talked with two men in Pudding Lane but was unable to locate the underground congregation in the area. 1570, p. 2278, 1576, p. 1967, 1583, p. 2074.
Richard Waterson was apprehended by Roin Caly, John Hill and John Avales and sent before Bonner. 1563, p. 1730 [incorrectly numbered 1703], 1583, p. 2144.
MarginaliaAnno 1558.day was fortnight?
And I sayd, in no place.
Then the Constable of S. Brides, beinge there, made sute for me.
And Darbishyre demaunded of him if hee woulde be bounde for me.
MarginaliaThe Constable of S. Brides surety for Iulian Liuing.He answeared, yea. And so he was bounde for my appearance betwixt that and Christmasse.
Then Darbishire sayd: you be Constable, and should geue her good counsell.
So do I quoth he. For I bid her goe to Masse, and to say as you say. For by the Masse, if you say the Crowe is white, I will say so too.
And thus much concerning the examination of William Liuing and his wife, whom although thou seest heere deliuered through the request of women, hys sureties, yet it was no doubt, but that MarginaliaLiuing and his wyfe deliuered by the death of Q. Mary.the deadly sicknesse of Queene Marie abated and brideled then the crueltie of those Papists, which otherwise would neuer haue let them goe.[Back to Top]
MarginaliaIoh. Lithall brought to examinatiō by Iohn Auales.AT the taking of William Liuing, it happened that certaine of his Bookes were in the custodie of one Iohn Lithall, whyche knowen, the Constable of the Warde of Southwarke, with other of the Queenes seruauntes, were sent to his house, who breaking open his doores and chests, tooke away not onely the bookes of the sayde William Liuing, but also all his owne bookes, wrytings, and billes of debtes, which he neuer had againe. All this while Lithall was not at home.[Back to Top]
John Avales was an extremely zealous heresy hunter in London during the final years of Mary's reign. For other descriptions of his activities see 1563, p. 1696; 1570, p. 2275; 1576, p. 1964; 1583, p. 2071 and 1570, p. 2278; 1576, p. 1967 and 1583, p. 2074.
And so Iohn Auales came running to him, wyth other that were with him, saying: ha syrra: you are a prety traitorly fellow in deede: we haue had somewhat to do to get you. To whom he answeared, that he was a truer man to the Queenes maiestie then he. For you (sayd he) are commaunded by God to kepe holy the Sabboth day, and you seeke to shed your neighbours bloud on the Saboth day. Remember that you must answere therfore to God. But he said, come on you villaine, you must goe before þe counsell. MarginaliaLithall brought before D. Darbyshire Chauncellour.So was Lithal brought into Paules Churchyard to the bishops Chauncellour, by Iohn Auales, saying, that he had there caught the Captaine of these fellowes, and so caused him to be called to examination before D. Darbishire, who entred with him talke in this wise.[Back to Top]
MarginaliaTalke betweene Lithall and the Chauncellour.Chaunc. What countrey man are you?
Lithall. I am an Englishman, borne in Staffordshire.
Chaunc. Where were you brought vp?
Lith. In this our countrey of England.
Chaunc. In what Vniuersitie?
Lith. In no Vniuersitie, but in a free schoole.
Chaunc. We haue had certaine bookes from your house & wrytings, wherein is both treason and heresie.
Lith. Syr, there is neither treason nor heresie in them.
Chaunc. Thē he asked for certain other men that I knew.
Lith. If you haue ought to lay to my charge, I will aunswer it: but I wil haue no other mans bloud vpō my hed.
Chaunc. Why come you not to the Churche? Of what Churche be you, that you come not to your owne Parish Church?
Lithall. I am of the Church of Christ, the fountaine of all goodnesse.
Chanc. Haue you no ministers of your church but Christ.
Lith. We haue others.
Chanc. Where be they?
Lith. In the whole world disparsed, preaching and professing the Gospell and faith onely in our Sauior Iesus, as he commaunded them.
Chauncellour. You boast muche euery one of you of your faith and beliefe: Lette me heare therefore the effecte howe you beleeue.
MarginaliaIustification by fayth onely.Lith. I beleue to be iustified freely by Christe Iesu, according to the saying of S. Paule to the Ephesians, without either deedes or workes, or any thing that may be inuented by man.
Chaunc. Faith can not saue without woorkes.
Lith. That is contrary to the doctrine of the Apostles.
Chaunc. Iohn Auales, you and the Keeper haue this fellow to prisone.
Clunie, and Iohn Auales. Then Iohn Auales and Clunie the Keeper had me into Paules, and would haue had me
to haue seene the apostles masse.
Lithall. I knowe none the Apostles had, and therefore I will see none.
Clunie, and Iohn Auales. Come kneele downe before the roode, and say a Pater noster and an Aue in the woorship of the fiue woundes.
Lith. I am forbidden by Gods owne mouthe to kneele to any Idoll or Image: therefore I will not.
Then they pulled me with great extremitie, þe one hauing me by one arme, and the other by the other, but God gaue me at that present time more strēgth then both these, his name be praised for it. MarginaliaLithall denyeth to kneele before the Roode.
Then when they coulde not make me to kneele before the roode, neither to see their Masse, there gathered a great company about vs, and all against me. Some spit on me, and sayd: Fie on thee hereticke, and other said it was pitie I was not burned already.
Then they caried me to Lollardes Tower, and hanged me in a great paire of stockes, in the which I lay three daies and three nightes, till I was so lame that I coulde neither sturre nor mooue.
Then I offered the Keeper certaine money and gold that I had about me, to release me out of the stockes, and he sayde I would not be ruled by him, neither to see masse nor to kneele before the Roode, and therefore I should lye there still. But I sayde I would neuer doe the thyng that shoulde be againste my conscience, and thoughe you haue lamed my body, yet my conscience is whole, I praise God for it. So shortly after he lette me out of the stockes, more for the loue of my money (as it maye be thought) then for any other affection, and within four or fiue daies my wife gotte leaue of maister Chauncelloure to come to mee, to bring me suche things as were needefull for me, and there I lay fiue weekes and odde dayes. MarginaliaLithals neighbours make sute for him.In the which time diuers of my neighboures and friendes made sute to the Chauncellor for my deliuerance, the Bishop, as they sayd, at that time being at Fulham sicke. So my neighbors being there, aboute twentie of them, the Chauncellour sent for me out of the Lollardes Tower to his own house, and sayde as followeth.[Back to Top]
Chauncellour. Lithall, heere be of thy neighbours whych haue bene with me to intreat for thee, and they haue informed me that thou hast bene a very honest & a quiet neighbor amongest them, and I thincke it be Gods will that I should deliuer thee before my Lorde come home. For if he come and thou go home againe, I will be burned for thee, for I knowe his minde already in that matter.[Back to Top]
Lith. I geue you hearty thankes for your gentlenesse, and my neighbours for their good report.
Chauncellour. Lithall, if thy neighbours will be bounde for thy foorth comming whēsoeuer thou shalt be called for, and also thou wilt be an obedient subiect, I shalbe content to deliuer thee.
Neighbours. If it please your woorship, we will be bounde for him both in body and goodes.
Chauncellour. I will require no such bond of you, but that two of you will be bound in 20. pound a peece, that he shal come to aunswere when he shall be called.
Lithall. Where finde you, maister Chancelloure in all the Scripture, that the Churche of God did binde any manne for the profession of his faithe? whiche profession you haue heard of me, that all oure iustification, righteousnesse, and saluation, commeth ouely and freely by the merites of our Sauiour Iesus Christe, and all the inuentions & workes of men, be they neuer so glorious, be all together vaine, as the wise man sayeth.[Back to Top]
Chauncellour. Loe, where he is now, I put no such matter to you: for in that I beleeue as you doe: but yet S. Iames sayth that a man is iustified by woorkes.
Lithall. MarginaliaS. Iames expounded.Sainte Iames spake to those that boasted themselues of faithe, and shewed no woorkes of faith. But O maister Chauncellour, remember I praye you, howe all the promises and Prophesies of the holy Scripture, euen from the firste promise that God made to Adam, and so euen to the latter ende to the Reuelation of Sainte Iohn, doe testifie that in the name of Iesus, and onely by hys merites, all that beleeue shalbe saued from all their sinnes and offences. Esay sayeth: MarginaliaEsay. 65.I am founde of them that sought mee not, and am manifest to them that asked not after mee: but against Israel he sayeth: All daye long haue I stretched oute my hande to a people that beleeue not. And when the Iayler asked S. Paule what he shoulde doe to be saued, the Apostle sayde: MarginaliaActes. 16.Beleeue in the Lorde Iesus, and thou shalt be saued and all thy housholde.[Back to Top]
Againe, S. Iohn sayeth in the Reuelation, that there was none, neither in heauen, nor in earth, neither vnder þe earth, that was able to open the booke nor þe seales therof, but onely the Lambe Iesus our onely Sauiour. And S.