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Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the GlossesCommentary on the Text
Names and Places on this Page
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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close

Foxe seems keen here to compensate for and justify Latimer's relatively quiet performance. He seeks to construct a venerable Latimer whose past achievements preaching before kings place him beyond the criticism of 'rusticall diuines' ('M. Latimer found more audience with kinges & Princes, then with rusticall diuines'), an impression emphasised by the glosses dealing with his moderate and perceptive admonishment of Weston (e.g. 'The iudgement of M. Latimer of D. Weston', 'Pride of D. Weston priuily touched'). (The sense of participation in an unfolding historical-providential drama conveyed in these glosses is added to by the reference to Weston's early death: 'But God saw it good that Westō neuer came to his age'.)

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This protective impulse is expressed in other ways. The large amount of comment from the glosses ('By that reason the new & old testamēt should not differ, but should be contrary one frō the other, which cannot be true in naturall or morall precepts', 'Edere in some places is taken for credere: but that in all places it is so taken it followeth not', 'This place of the Hebrewes alluded to the old Sacrifice of the Iewes, who in the feast of propitiation the 10. day, vsed to cary the flesh of the sacrifice out of the tents to be burned on an Altar with out, because none of thē which serued in the Tabernacle should eate thereof: only the bloud was caryed by the high Priest into the holy place') objecting to the arguments of the interlocutors was perhaps provoked by Latimer's somewhat nondisputacious bearing at this stage. The typological contrast between the moderate martyr and his railing opponents is drawn once more: compare the presentation of Weston and Latimer in the glosses 'Weston scorneth the name of Minister' and 'M. Latimer modestly maketh himselfe vnable to dispute': 'scorneth' against 'modestly'. Foxe seems somewhat more willing to vent spleen in this section, especially towards the end ('Shameles railyng and blasphemous lyes of D. Weston sitting in Cathedra pestilentiæ' (1570), 'A shamefull railing and blasphemous lyes' (1563), 'Who be these, or where be they M. Oblocutor, that will be like the Apostles? that will haue no churches? that be runnagates out of Germany? that gette thē tankards? that make monethly faithes? that worship not Chrst in al hys Sacramētes? Speake truth man, and shame the deuil. If ye know any such, bring them forth: if ye know none, what aleth you thus to take on where ye haue no cause?' (1570), 'Vrge hoc quoth Weston, with his berepot', 'Blasphemous lyes of D. Westō sitting in Cathedra pestilentiæ' and 'D. Westons Apes haue tayles' (1583); again this was perhaps due to a desire to reinforce the resistance offered by Latimer and also genuine anger at the treatment of an old man. Weston seems to be a particular focus for Foxe's ire. The 1570 gloss 'There you misse I wis' contains an insult that Foxe later dropped: this would suggest that he was careful to consider the likely effect of the tone of his critical remarks.

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The gloss concerned with Luther ('In that booke the deuill doth not dissuade him so much from saying Masse, as to bring him to desperation for saying Masse, such temptatiōs many times happen to good men') shows Foxe's energetic affection for him. The gloss 'Obedience to Princes hath his limitation' offers a stark formulation of the limits of princely power: it is perhaps surprising that Foxe did not make explicit that only the commands of God come before those of princes. There are some corrections of grammar and logic (see 'Weston opposed in his grammer', 'D. Treshams argument without forme or mode, concluding affirmatiuely in the 2. figure', 'Facere, for sacrificare, with D. Weston'). One gloss which departs from Latimer's point emphasises the singularity of Christ's sacrifice ('If Christ offered himselfe at the Supper, and the next day vpon the Crosse, then was Christ twise offered'). There seems to be a subtle point in the gloss 'Cartwright returning to his olde error agayne', which admits of two readings depending on one's confessional allegiance; there is a similar ambiguity at the gloss 'How the body of Christ is shewed vs vpon the earth', a gloss turning Weston's formulation against him. For mistakes following the usual trend of 1583 not matching earlier editions, see the glosses 'August. in Psal. 31. Chrisost De incomprehensibili Dei natura' (1583) and 'August. in Psal. 38. Chrysost. De incomprehensibili Dei natura' (1576).

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Marginalia1THe first is, that in the sacrament of the Altar, by the vertue of Goddes word pronounced by the Priest, there is really present, the naturall body of Christ, conceyued of the virgin Mary, vnder the kindes or appearances of bread and wine: and in lyke maner his bloude.

Marginalia2THe second is, that after consecration, there remaineth no substaunce of bread and wine, nor none other substaunce, but the substaunce of god and man.

Marginalia3THe thyrde is, that in the Maße there is the liuely sacrifice of the Churche, whiche is propitiable, as well for the synnes of the quicke, as of the dead.

COncerning the first conclusion, me thinketh that it is set forth with certayne new founde termes, that be obscure, and doe not sounde accordyng to the speache of the scripture. Howbeit, howe so euer I vnderstande it, this dooe I aunswere plainly, though not withoute peryll.

I aunswere (I saye) that to the right celebration of the Lordes supper, there is no other presence of Christ required, thē a spiritual presence: and this presence is sufficient for a christian mā: as a presence, by which both we abide in Christ, and Christ abydeth in vs, to the obtaynynge of eternall lyfe, if we perseuer. And this same presence may be called moste fitly, a reall presence, that is a presēce not fained, but a true & a faythfull presence. Whiche thyng I here rehearse, lest some Sycophant or Scorner, shuld suppose me, with the Anabaptistes, to make nothyng els of the Sacrament, but a naked, and a bare signe. As for that, whiche is fayned of many, concernyng that theyr corporall presence: I for my part take it but for a Papisticall inuention, and therefore thinke it vtterly to be reiected.

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COncerning the seconde conclusion, I dare be bold to say that it hath no stay nor groūd in gods word, but is a thyng inuented & found out by man: and therefore to be had as fond and false: and I had almost sayd, as the mother and nourse of the other errours. It were good for my Lords and Maisters the Transubstauntiators, to take hede, least they conspire not with the Nestorians: for I doe not see how they can auoide it.

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THe thirde conclusion, (as I do vnderstaude it) semeth subtelly to sow seditiō agaynst the offering, which Christ hymselfe offered for vs, in his owne proper person, accordyng to that pithy place of Paul. Heb. 1. when he saieth, that Christ his owne selfe hath made purgation of our sinnes: and afterwards: that he might (saith he) be a mercifull and a faythfull Bishop, concernyng those thinges, which are to be done with God, for the takyng awaye of our synnes. So that the expiation or taking away of oure synnes, may be thought rather to depend in this: that Christe was an offeryng Byshop, thē that he was offered: were it not that he was offered of hymselfe. And therefore it is nedelesse, that he should be offered of any other. I wyll speake nothing of the wonderfull presumption of mā, to dare attempt this thyng, without a manifest vocation, specially in that it tendeth to the ouerthrowing and fruitlesse makyng (if not wholy, yet partly) of the crosse of Christ: for truely it is no base or mean thyng, to offer Christ. And therfore worthely a man may say to my Lords and maysters Offerers.  

Commentary  *  Close

An obvious mistake occurs in the 1570 edition. Latimer is quoted as saying, 'And therefore worthely a man may say to my Lords and maysters Offerers' (i.e., the priests offering up the host) (1563, p. 979). In the edition of 1570, 'offerers' was changed to 'officers' (1570, p. 1623; 1576, p. 1384; 1583, p. 1455). Not only does the change not make sense, but the Rerum, which reads 'oblatoribus' (p. 687), indicates clearly what is meant.

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By what autoritie dooe ye this? and who gaue you this autoritie? Where?

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When A man cannot saieth the Baptist take any thing, excepte it bee geuen hym from aboue: much lesse then may any man presume to vsurp any honor, tofore he be thereto called. Agayn, yf any man sinne, (saith saint Iohn) we haue (saith he) not a masser or offerer at home, which cā sacrifice for vs at masse: but we haue (saith he) an Aduocate Iesus Christ, whiche once offered hymself long agoe: of whiche offeryng, the efficacy & effect is perdurable for euer, so that it is nedeles to haue such offerers.

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What meaneth Paule, when he saith: they that serue at the altar are partakers of the altar? & so addeth: So the Lord hath ordeyned, that they þt preache the Gospell, shall lyue of the Gospell. Wheras he should rather haue said, The Lorde hath ordeyned, that they, that sacrifice at Masse, should liue of theyr sacrificing, that there myght be a liuyng assigned to our sacrificers, nowe, as was before Christes commyng, to the Iewishe Priestes. For now they haue nothyng to allege for theyr liuing, as they that be preachers haue. So that it appeareth, that the sacrifycing priesthoode is chaunged by gods ordinaunce, into a preaching priesthoode, and the sacrifycing priesthoode should ceasse vtterly, sauing, in asmuch as all Christen men are sacrifisyng priestes. The supper of the Lorde was instituted to prouoke vs to thankes geuyng, for the offeryng whiche the Lorde hymselfe dyd offer for vs, muche rather, then that our offerers should doe there as they do. Fede, sayth Peter, asmuche as ye maye, the flocke of Christ: naye rather, let vs sacrifyce asmuche as we may, for the flocke of Christe. If so be the matter be as nowe men take it, I can neuer wonder ynough, that Peter woulde or coulde forget this office of sacrificyng, whiche at this daye is in suche a price and estimation, that to feede is almost nothyng, with many. If thou ceasse from fedyng the flocke, howe shalle thou be taken? truely Catholicke inoughe: but yf thou ceasse from sacrificyng and massyng, howe wyll that be taken? at the least I warrant thee, thou shalt be called an Heretike. And whence I pray ye come these Papisticall iudgementes? Bxcept perchaunce they thinke, a man fedeth the flocke in sacrificyng for them: and then what nedeth there any learned Pastours? for no man is so folyshe, but soone maye he learne to sacrifice and masse it.

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Thus loe, I haue taken the more payne to wryte, because I refused to dispute, in consideration of my debilitie therunto: that all menne may know, how that I haue so done, not without a iuste cause. I beseche your Maistership to take it in good parte, as I haue doone it wyth great paynes, hauing not any man to help me, as I haue neuer before bene debarred to haue. O sir, you may chaunce to lyue, tyl you come to this age, and weakenesse, I am of. I haue spoken in my time before two kinges, more then one, twoo, or three howers together, withoute interruption: But nowe (that I may speak the truthe by your leaue) I coulde not be suffred to declare my minde before you: no, not by þe space of a quarter of an hower, without snacks, reiactes, reuilinges checkes, rebukes, tauntes, suche as I had not felte the lyke, in suche an audience, all my life long. Surely it cannot be but an heynous offence that I haue geuē: but what an one is it? Forsooth I had spoken of the. iiii. Marybones of the Masse. The which kynde of

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