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Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the TextCommentary on the Woodcuts
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1117 [148]

Actes and Monumentes of the Churche

pray for me: for I am the vnmetest man for thys high office that euer was appointed to it: but my gracious god & deare father is able to make me strong enough. That same night he was put into the common gayle among the other prisoners, where he slept litle, but spet the night in praier, & instructing others. The next day whiche was the 8. of February he was led to the place of execution in the parke without the city, he going in an olde goune, and a shert barefoted, and oft tymes fell flat on the ground, and prayed, 

Commentary  *  Close

There is a considerable similarity to Hugh Latimer's costume at his execution. This suggests that Saunders's garb was part of a deliberate strategy of self-presentation, probably designed to evoke Christ's passion.

when he was come nigh to the place, the officer apointed to se the execution done, sayd to Saunders, that he was one of them which had marred the Quenes realme with false doctrine and heresy: wherfore thou hast deserued death (quoth he) but yet if thou wilt reuoke thy heresies, the Queene hath pardoned thee, if not, yonder fire is prepared for

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thee. To whome Saunders answered, it is not I, nor my fellow preachers of gods trueth, that haue hurte the Queenes realme, but it is your selfe and suche as you are, which haue alwayes resisted gods holye worde: it is you whiche haue and do marre the Quenes realme. I do holde no heresies, but the doctrine of god, the blessed gospell of Christe that holde I, that beeleue I, that haue I taughte, and that will I neuer reuoke: with that this tormentour cried, away with him and awaye from hym wente Saunders wyth a merye courage towardes the fyre: he fell to the grounde, and prayed, he rose vp againe, and toke the stake, to whiche he shoulde be chayned in hys armes, and kissed it, saying: Welcome the crosse of Christe, welcome euerlastyng lyfe: and beyng fastened to the stake, and fyre put to hym, full swetely he slept in the lorde.

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The burnyng of Laurence Saunders.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
Lawrence Saunders, burned in a park outside the city of Coventry, is depicted being chained to the stake which he had embraced and kissed as the cross of Christ. There are armed guards all round (their pikes punctuate the background), ready to restrain supportive onlookers like the man on the left. But the stony-faced man below Saunders on the right, given the ugly features of friars and persecutors in other illustrations, shows that not all present were of this cast. The victim's agony was increased (as John Hooper's was to be) by the green wood of the still unlit fire. Foxe could not resist the comparison with St Lawrence, who featured among the 'old martyrs of Christ's church', whose sufferings were portrayed in the large print of the ten first persecutions of the primitive church, first included in 1570. As in other cases the woodcut gives the martyr's last words even though showing him before the fire was kindled. In 1563, the banderole is blank, perhaps (as in the similar case of the seven Smithfield martyrs 1563, p. 1451) indicating doubts or lack of information on the blockmakers' part. This deficiency was made good in the copy now in Ohio State University Library, in which an early hand has inserted 'O lord resieve my soule'. The words added to the scroll in 1570, were 'Welcome life', in italic, thereafter recut in 1576, and 1583, respectively in roman and italic. The missing edge of the scroll is a tell-tale clue to these alterations.

And thus haue ye the full history of Laurence Saunders, whom I may wel compare to s. Laurence, MarginaliaA comparison betvvene Laurence Saunders and S. Laurence. or any other of the old martyrs of Christs church: both for the feruēt zeale of the truth and gospell of Christ, and the most constant pacience in his suffryng: as also for the cruell tormentes that he in his pacient body didde susteyne in the flame of fyre: for so his cruell enemies handled hym, that they burned hym with greene woode, and other smothteryng rather then burnyng fewel, which put hym to much more pain, but that the grace and most plentiful consolaiton

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of Christ, which neuer forsaketh his seruantes, and gaue strength to Saint Laurence, gaue also patience to this Laurence, about all that his torments could worke against: Which well appeared by his quiet standing, and sweete slepyng in in the fier, as is aboue declared.

ANd to the intent to geue to the reder to vnderstād the better, what the grace of Christ worketh in his seruantes: and agayne, how feable and weake man is of himselfe, without thys grace geuen from aboue, though he seme otherwise neuer so stoute in hymselfe: here therefore

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