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Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the TextCommentary on the Woodcuts
Names and Places on this Page
Unavailable for this Edition
1170 [111]


Commentary  *  Close
The Martyrdom of Rawlins White

This account is a striking example of the importance of individual informants to the Acts and Monuments. All that the Rerum contains on White is a note stating that he was burned in Cardiff on 27 March 1555 (Rerum, p. 428). This note was reprinted in the 1563 edition. Then, in the 1570 edition, Foxe produced the detailed and vivid account of White, sent to him by a 'Master Dane'. There were no changes to this account in the 1576 and 1583 editions.

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THe next moneth of Marche, the. v. daye of the same moneth, MarginaliaMarche. 5. a godly man, one named Rowland Whyte, was burned at Cardyffe in Wales.

The hystorye of Thomas Tomkyns, fyrst hauyng hys hande burned, after burned hymselfe by Byshoppe Bonner, for the constant testimony of Christes true profession. 
Commentary  *  Close
Thomas Tomkins

Tomkins may be said to have had greatness, as well as a lit candle, thrust upon him. He is virtually unique among the Marian martyrs in being more famous for what happened before his execution than for the execution itself. Descriptions of the burning of his hand circulated rapidly and widely among the protestants in exile. John Bale referred to it in a tract denouncing Bonner, written in 1554, although not published until Elizabeth's reign (Bale, A declaration of Edmonde Bonner's articles [London, 1561, STC 1289, fo. 108v), and Anna Hooper had heard about in Frankfurt by November 1554 (OL, I, p. 113).

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It is thus hardly surprising that the incident was written up in the Rerum (pp. 425-26) with only the briefest mention being made of Tomkins' actual execution. The account in the Rerum is based on an account, or accounts, almost certainly sent to Grindal.How accurate their information was is uncertain; in any case, the account, emphasizing Bonner's 'prodigious cruelty' and Tomkins' heroism along with a detailed comparison of Tomkins to the Roman hero Caius Mucius Scaevola, is long on rhetoric and short on verifiable detail.

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Nevertheless, this account was reprinted in the first edition of the Acts and Monuments. Foxe was able to add to this documents taken from Bonner's register: official accounts of Tomkins' examinations, the articles charged against him with the martyr's replies and two confessions of faith Tomkins made. In the course of printing the 1563 edition, Foxe also obtained a description, based on oral sources, of Bonner setting Tomkins to work on his estate at Fulham and of the bishop having Tomkins' beard forcibly shaved off, which was printed in an appendix to this edition.

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In the second edition, Foxe completely rewote the account of Tomkins' hand being burned which had been printed in the Rerum and in 1563. The new account was much more detailed. Foxe moved the account ofTomkins' forced labour for Bonner from the appendix. He also added another account of a compulsory beard-shaving and testimony of Tomkins' good character, all of which was obtained from fellow residents of Shoreditch.

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The account of Tomkins was unchanged in the second and third editions of the Acts and Monuments.

MarginaliaMarch. 15.LYke as the former moneth of February, as it hath bene told before was notable, by the martirdome of fyue most worthye Preachers and true Byshops: so no lesse memorable was the next moneth of Marche, by the death & murther of eyghte moste constant wytnesses of the Christian doctrine. Amonge whom Thomas Tomkins, citizen of London and Weauer by his occupation, hath the first place. Now those former persons that hytherto haue bene spoken of, were all condemned by Stephan Gardiner, byshop of Winchester which then was hygh Chauncellour: but he beyng now weary, as it seemeth, of the payne and trouble, put of al the rest to Edmund Bōner MarginaliaBoner. byshoppe of London, to be condemned by hym, as hereafter God wyllyng ye shal heare. And touching Wynchester, we haue spoken somewhat before in the histories aboue. Now

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concernyng Boner, because wee shall often make mencion of hym hereafter, the occasion of this place woulde require, that we shoulde wryte somwhat of hym likewise, who was almost nothing els (in one word to speake al his qualities) but a belly. And as for hys prodigious crueltye, in shedding of bloude, to whych thing onelye he seemed to haue bene brought foorth of nature, here myght we haue a great field to walke in: but because we wryte an hystory, and not inuectiues, we wyll leaue hym to hys Iudge, especially seyng the very Martirs them selues, whom he hath condemned, haue sufficiently performed thys part, as here after we shall heare. Now resuming our history of Tomkyns, let vs procede in the matter which we haue begonne. Thys Weauer therfore whō I speake of, MarginaliaTomkyns with his felowes the fyrste that came before Boner in q. Maries tyme.being brought forth vnto Boner, among al the other Martirs, which after folowed in great nomber, had this thing as a peculiar desteny, that he was the fyrst of them al whych should try the violence & rage of this byshop of London. Who also begynnynge hys persecution, gaue foorth in thys man a notable example or declaration of hys cruelty to be considered. For Tomkyns, although he was vnlearned, yet was he better learned then that he coulde bee ouercome by hym, and more louyng the truthe, and better styckyng to it, then that he woulde geue place to anye false disallowed errours. Therefore

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The sharpe burnyng of Thomas Tomkyns hand, by cruel Boner hym selfe, who not long after burnt also hys body.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
This illustration, which is one of those in the first edition that were too wide for the page format, spilling in the margin, is of interest in showing how Foxe's rewriting could undermine the accuracy of his illustrators in translating his words into visual form. The woodcut that accompanies this example of 'bloody' Bonner's remorseless cruelty both adds implied readings to Foxe's text and also ignores one detail, probably owing to additions Foxe was able to make to his text after the cutting of the woodblock. The setting is the hall of the bishop's palace at Fulham, whose character is conveyed by the fine chairs, swag of curtain and covered table. Bonner is labelled, though his fat features became recognisable in the course of the book. In 1570 and later editions, the passage preceding this act of trial by fire (ostensibly to win over the accused through fear of fire) included exchanges between Bonner and Tomkins that resulted in the bishop having Tomkins' beard shaved. The fact that he is depicted here with a beard is presumably due to the fact that Foxe discovered this anecdote too late to be incorporated in the text, and added it to an appendix in the 1563 edition. The actual burning carefully represents the text, showing the bishop holding the candle in his left hand while he pinions Tomkins fingers in the flame with his right. The attitude of the four clergy seems to suggest that it was not only Harpsfield (standing next Bonner) who had reservations about this action, when Tomkins' burnt hand spurted into his face. That was another detail which could not have been represented in 1563 since it was only included in the 1570 edition. At the other end of the table an arresting hand is raised, two heads confer together and the servant turns away. The change of heading to this illustration from 'The sharpe burnyng of Thomas Tomkyns hand, by cruel Boner hym selfe who not long after burnt also hys body' (1563) to 'The burning of Thomas Tomkins hand by Bishop Boner ' (1570) surely reflects some editorial decision rather than any change of heart on Foxe's part. Bonner died between the two editions, on 5 September 1569.

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