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551 [495]

Raph Hilton, Ihon Ridley, Frances Drylād, and Raph noble, as witnesses to be sworn vpon tharticles aforsaid, & to speake the truth before the face of the said Iames Baynam in the presence of master Ihon Nailor vicar of Barking, master Ihon Rode bacheler of deuinity, William Smith, Richard Griuel, T. Wimple, and Richard Gill.

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The xxvi. of April in the yeare aforesayd, before master Ihon Foxford vicar general of the bishop of Lōdon in the presence of me Mathew Grefton regester and master Nycolas Wylsō and William Philley professors of deuinitye, Ihon Oliuer, William Midleton, and Hugh Aprice doctors of the law, master Richard Gresham shiriffe of London and a great company of others, Iames Bainham was brought forth by the lieftenant of the towr, in whose presēce the vicar generall rehersed the merites of the cause of inquisition of heresy against him, and proceded to the redinge of the abiuration. And when as the iudge red this article cōtained in thabiuration viz. Item that I haue said that I wil not determin whether any souls departed be yet in heauen or no, but I beleue that they be there, as it pleaseth god to haue them, that is to say in the faith of Abraham. And I wott not whether any soules of the apostles or any other be in heauen or noo. Whervnto Iames answered that I did abiure, and if that had not bene I wold not abiured at all. After al the articles wer red contained in thabiuration, and certen talke had, as touching the sacrament of baptisme, the said Iames Baynam spake these words, if a Turk, a Iew, or Sarasin doo trust in God and kepe his law, he is a good christiā man, then the official shewed vnto him the letters which he sente vnto his brother, wrytten with his owne hand, and asked him what he thought as touching this clause viz, yet could they not se & know him for God, when in dede he was both God and man, yea he was iii. persons in one, the father, the sonne, and the holy ghost, whervnto Bainam said that it was naught and did it by ignorance, & did not ouer see his letters, then M. Nycolas Wylson amōgst other talk as touching the sacrament of the altar, declared vnto him that the church dyd beleue the very body of Christ to be in the sacrament of the altare. Bainam answered, þe bread is not Iesus Christe, for Christes bodye is not chewed with teth, therfore it is but breade, being further demaunded whether in the sacrament of thalter, is the very body of Christ god & man in flesh and bloud, after diuers doutful answers, Bainam answered thus, he is there very God & man in forme of bread, this done, thofficial declared vnto him the depositiōs of the witnesses whiche were come in againste him, & obiected vnto him that a litle before Easter he had abiured al heresies as well perticu-lerly as generally, then the said vicar generall after he had taken deliberation & aduise wyth the learned men his assistances, he did procede to the reding of the definitiue sentence, against him, & did so read it and publish it in wryting wherby amonges other things besides his abiuration, he pronounced and condempned him as a relapsed hereticke dampnably fallen into sondry heresies, & so to be left vnto the seculare power, þt is to say to one of the shriues beyng there present. After the pronouncing of which sentence M. Nicolas Wilson councelled & admonished the said Iames þt he wold conforme him self vnto the church, to whō he answered thus, he trusteth þt he is the very childe of God which ye blind asses do not perceiue. And laste of al departinge from his iudgement, he spake these woordes, M. Wilson, you nor my Lorde chancelor shall not proue by scripture, þt there is any purgatory. The sentence of condempnation was geuen against him, the which here to repeat word for word is not necessary. For so much as the tenor therof is all one, with that passed before in the story of Baifeld, alias Somersom. Here also shuld ensue the letter of the bishop of London directed vnto the mayor and shriues of the same city, for þe receiuing of hym into their power & the putting of him to death The tenor wherof is also of like effect of that before wrytten in the storye of Baifelde. after thys sentens geuen, Iames Bainam was deliuered into the hands of syr Richard Gresham shriue then being present, who caused hym by hys offycers to be caried vnto Newgate, & the sayd Iames Baynam was burned in Smithfeld the last day of April, in the yeare aforesayd at iii. a clock at after noone.

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MarginaliaThe cruell handling of BainamThis M. Baynam during his imprisonmēt was very cruelly handled, for almooste by the space of a fortnyght he lay in the Bishops cole house in the stockes, wyth yrons vpō his legs. Then he was caryed to my lord chancelors, & there chayned to a post ii. nights. Thē he was caried to Fulham, wher he was cruelly handled by the space of a seuennighte. Then to the towre, wher he lay a fortnight scourged wyth whips to make him reuoke his opinyons. Frō thence he was caried to Barkynge, and there condempned and so to Newgate to be burned.

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The history of iii. men 
Commentary  *  Close
Dovercourt rood

In the Rerum, Foxe briefly notes that three 'iuvenes', Robert King, Nicholas Marsh and John 'Debnammus' were hung in 1532 for destroying an 'idolum' at Dovercourt Essex. Foxe also mentioned that a 'Robertus Gayrnerus' was burned for the same offence (Rerum, p. 126). Foxe's source for this was undoubtedly John Bale who had written that Robert King, Nicholas Marsh and John 'Debynsham' were executed for 'destroying the fowle ydoll of Dovercourt' (John Bale, The epistle exhortatorye of an English Christiane [Antwerp, 1544?], STC 1291.5, fo. 13r). Bale didn't mention Robert Gardner, though, and Foxe must have learned of him from Bale or another exile.

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But while Foxe's early information about Gardner was garbled - Gardner was clearly not burned - it seems to have provided an important lead for future research into what happened at Dovercourt. The account of the destruction of the Dovercourt rood comes - as Foxe states - from a letter Robert Gardner wrote a Londoner, describing the incident. Foxe cites Gardner as his source for other acts of iconoclasm in Essex and Sussex in 1532 (It is clear from Foxe's note that his source for the following incidents was Robert Gardner. But it is not apparent whether these details came from the original letter Gardner sent to Chapman or from subsequent communications between Foxe and Gardner). It seems clear that Foxe's recovering this evidence is the product of directed research and not serendipity.

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hanged for the burning of the roode of Douercourt. Collected out of the Epistle of Robert Gardner, which was one of the doers of the same.

MarginaliaEx epistola Roberti Gardneri ad Chapm. scripta.IN the same yere of our lord 1532. Ther was an Idoll, named the roode of Douercourte, wherevnto there was much & great resort of people, for at that time there was a great rumor blowen abrode amonges the ignoraunte sort, that the power of the Idol of Douercourt was so great, that no man had power to shutt the churche dore where he stode, whyche was a

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