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677 [621]

againe of the same: and made the readinge of the Byble to be a trappe or snare to entangle many good men, and to brynge them to ruyneand destruction. The copie of whiche letter here ensueth.

EDmundus permissione diuina London. Episcopus, dilecto nobis in Christo Archidiacono nostro London. Eiusue officiali salutem, gratiam & benedictionem. literas siue breue regium potentissimi & illustrissimi in Christo principis & domini nostri Henrici Octaui dei gratia Angliæ & Francie Regis, fidei defensoris domini Hibernie, & sub Christo in terra supremi capitis ecclesiæ Anglicanæ, noueritis nos cum ea qua decuit reuerentia nuper recepisse exequendum, verborū sequentiū sub tenore. Henricus Octauus &c. vt supra in breui regio proximo prescripto. Vobis igitur ex parte dicti illustrissimi domini nostri Regis coniunctim & diuisim comittimus ac firmiter iniungendo mandamus quod immediate post receptionem presentium in omnibus & singulis ecclesijs collegiatis & parochijs capellisq; ac alijs quibuscunq; infra dictū Archidiaconatū London. & iurisdictionem eiusdem decretum illud de quo in preinserto breui regio fit mentio publicari & solemniter denunciari, quodque immediate post publicationem & pronunciationem dicti decreti per vos sic facti illud super ostium cuiuslibet ecclesiæ & capellæ predictæ poni & affigi faciatis iuxta formam & tenorem breuis huiusmodi, vobis etiam vt supra mandantes quatenus nos vel vicarium nostrum in spiritualibus generalem de omni eo quod in premissis & circa executionem earundē feceritis citra festum ascentionis domini proximi iam futurum debite certificare curetis literis vestris patentibus harum seriem in se continentibus auctentice sigillatis datum in palacio nostro Lōdon. sub sigillo officialis communis nostri Episcopalis London. quo vtimur in hac parte ex. die Maij. Anno domini. 1541. Ex nostræ translationis, Anno secundo.

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Iohn Porter. 
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A much fuller account of Porter is given in 1570 and subsequent editions. The sources for this brief account of a notorious case are not clear, but all the information given here could be sourced from John Bale's discussion of the case in Yet a course at the romyshe foxe. A dysclosynge or openynge of the Manne of synne (STC 1309: Antwerp, 1543), fo. 41r-v.

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Marginalia1542THis yeare followyng beyng the yeare of our Lorde 1542. one Iohn Porter a Tayler a lustye yong man, was by Boner Byshop of London, cast into Newgate for readinge the Byble in Paules churche, where as he was myserably famished to death in the yeare aforesayde.

Thomas Bernard and Iames Morton. 
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A particularly egregious example of Foxe's chronological confusion. This misplacing of this case is obvious - English texts of the Lord's Prayer and of the Bible were entirely legal in the latter part of Henry VIII's reign. To compound the confusion, in 1570 and subsequent editions, Thomas Barnard, husbandman, and James Mordon, labourer, are described (and, in 1576 and 1583, depicted) as being burned in one fire at Amersham, 'two or thre yeres' after the burning of William Tilsworth (aka Tylseley) in 1506 (1570, p. 117 recte 917). Yet a few pages later, they are described (1570 pp. 949-54) as Lollards arrested in 1521, with some details given of their offences and networks, and it is said that both were burned in the same year as relapsed heretics (1570, p. 964). In any event, they did not survive to be burned in the 1540s.

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ABout the same tyme Iohn Longland byshop of Lyncolne, burned two vpon one daye, the one named Thomas Bernard, and the other Iames Morton. The one for teaching the Lordes prayer in Englyshe, and the other for kepyng the Epistle of S. Iames translated into Englyfhe.

A mery true and pleasaunt story touching a certaine tumulte raysed amongst the deuines of Oxford, assembled in our Lady church fearyng a fyer 
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Fire in Oxford

Foxe based his initial version of the panic - due to a false alarm of fire - at the penance of John Mallory, on his memory. (Foxe states in the Rerum that he witnessed the incident). There is, however, independent corroboration of Foxe's account, in a poem by John White, written in honour of John Claymund, who played a conspicuous - and according to White, heroic - role in the affair. (See John White, Diacosio-Martyrion {Louvain, 1553], STC 25388, fos 82r-83r). White also supplies a detail that Foxe omits, the date of the incident: the third Sunday of Advent, 1536. Foxe's first account of the panic appeared in the Rerum (pp. 139-44). This section was translated word-for-word in 1563. In 1570, Foxe added new details (the name of the person doing penance and the name of the person who started calling 'fire') which must have come, directly or indirectly, from others present at the incident. In the second edition, Foxe also deleted passages - originally in the Rerum - that explained to non-English readers how the English dealt with fires and that they roofed their churches with lead (this interesting passage, comparing methods of dealing with fire alarms in England and Germany first appears in the Rerum (p. 140) and was directly translated from that into the 1563 edition. It was dropped thereafter as Foxe no longer expected a large non-English audience for his martyrology). The version of the incident printed in 1570 was unchanged in subsequent editions. Foxe's purpose in printing this anecdote is not obvious. The story involves neither a martyrdom nor an important episode in the history of the Reformation. Foxe probably included the story precisely because it was not a martyrdom. As he descibes it, it is a 'merry and pleasant Interlude'which breaks up a grim narrative of persecutions following the Act of Six Articles. At the same time, it allowed Foxe to expostulate on the horror of burning people to death for heresy.

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Thomas S. Freeman.


HEtherto gentle Reader we haue remēbred a great nomber of lamentable and bloudy tragedies of suche as haue been slayne through extreme crueltie. Nowe I will here set before thee againe a mery and comycall spectacle, whereat thou mayst now lawgh and refreshe thy selfe, whiche for somuche as it dyd necessarely accorde with our present en-terpryse, I haue not thought good to passe it ouer with sylence, for God hathe oftentymes by dyuerse manifest meanes deluded the crafte and subtiltie of the byshoppes and their vaine hypocrisie. As for example in Ioane of Mentz which being a womā & secretly dissimuling her kynd, ruled the byshopryke of Rome 

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Foxe is alluding to the story of Pope Joan, a woman who allegedly disguised herself as a priest and became pope. See 1570, p. 182; 1576, p. 138 and 1583, p. 137 for Foxe's version of the story.

, but by being deliuered for chylde before her tyme euen in the myddest of open procession, she defyled that Sea, that the note or blot thereof wyl neuer be wyped out agayne. Besydes that, howe great reproche and derysion euen of chyldren, was in that pompous and rydiculous Ambassade of Thomas Wulsey and Laurence the Cardinall 
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I.e., Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio, legate to England. Foxe is referring to his account on 1563 pp. 417-18; 1570, pp. 1120-21; 1576, pp. 959-60 and 1583, pp. 986-7.

(whereof we haue spoken before?) And nowe againe the deuine wisdome deludid the cruell folyes of the byshoppes. For about this tyme it happened þt one shuld be brought to our Ladye churche in Oxenforde, there to recant and to beare a faggott, durynge a Sermon tyme, it was vpon a sondaye 
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St Mary's was the University church at Oxford. In 1563, Foxe's wording for this passage is significant: 'upon a Sunday as I remember'. This is an indication that Foxe was present at the event.

as I remember, and a great nomber of the chiefe doctors and deuines of þe vniuersitie assembled. Briefly there was great nomber of all sortes of studentes, fewe were absent, besyde a great nomber of cytezins and towne dwellers. In the toppe of the churche there was no place voyde of people whiche were gathered together to loke on. There stode the poore man that was accused, & the preacher went vp into þe pulpyt and began his Sermone, the argument wherof was vpon the Sacrament. He hadde also a cake or hoste tyed in a stryng, for the greater confirmation and credit of his wordes. When as he was nowe in the myddest of his Sermō 
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I.e., the wafer. This derisive phrase was added in the 1570 edition.

and the people were altogether sylent, sodenly

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