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1223 [1223]

K. Henry. 8. The Martyrdome of Thomas Benet. A Table of thē which abiured.

the latter day we may with hym enioy the blesse & ioye prouided and prepared for the electe children of God.

MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Tho. Benet.

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This Benet was burned in a Ierkyne of neates leather, 

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I.e. a jerkin of the highest quality leather.

at whose burning, such was the deuilishe rage of the blynd people, that well was hee or she that could catch a sticke or furse to cast into the fire.

HEtherto we haue runne 

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Bishop Stokesley's persecution

This is largely an account of evangelicals, who were forced to abjuretheir beliefs and do pennance during a crackdown on heresy conducted jointly by Bishop John Stokesley and Thomas More, during his tenure as Lord Chancellor.There are two two notable insertions into this material. The first is an account ofWilliam Tracy, whose outspokenly evangelical will led to his posthumous convict-ion of heresy and the exhumation of his body. Foxe reprinted his copy of Tracy's will from the version in Hall's Chronicle (See Edward Hall, The union of the two noble and illustre famelies of Lancastre and York [London, 1548], STC 12721, fo. 211r-v) Foxe's account of Tracy, including a translation of his will into Latin, first appeared in the Rerum (pp. 125-6). The second is an account of Richard Bayfield's apprehension which Foxe found in the London court books.

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In fact, most of the material in this section was taken from London court books from the episcopates of Cuthbert Tunstall and John Stokesley. The fact that this was not joined to the main narrative of Bayfield's martyrdom (the material on Bayfield's background comes from a knowledgeable informant, probably based in London. However, the articles charged against Bayfield, his answers to them, the sentence of degradation imposed on him and the letter to the mayor and sheriffs of London, are taken from a now lost court book of Bishop John Stokesley.) is an indication that Foxe's search through the diocese of London archives was being made while this section of the first edition was being printed. Another indication of this is the list of names of the people who were forced to do penance in London - a list of names that includes the people described in this section - which appeared in the first edition. The list, without any of the details which appear in this section, indicate that Foxe only had time to scan this material in 1563. Most of these London court books are, now lost, but much of the detail in this section can be confirmed in other sources. (Pages from one register, relating to a visitation of the diocese in 1527 survive in Foxe's papers as part of BL, Harley MS 421; the visitation was by Geoffrey Wharton, the vicar-general of Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall of London and he uncovered a network of heretics in Colchester and its environs, particularly the villages of Boxted, Witham and Steeple Bumpstead. Much of this visitation was recorded in a register whosepages - apparently torn out by Foxe or his associates - form a significant portionof BL, Harley MS 421. Some pages of this register that now longer survive, were transcribed by John Strype, when he had custody of Foxe's papers and printed inhis Ecclesiaiastical Memorials.). One item also comes from the register of Bishop Tunstall (Guildhall MS 9531/10, fos. 136v-137r) and another comes from petition sent to Anne Boleyn (Anne Boleyn was marchioness of Pembroke from 1 September 1532 until her recognition as queen in March 1533. The accurate citation of Anne's title of marchioness helps to confirm that Foxe was drawing his information from a petition). Interestingly, Foxe only obtained this petition between 1576 and 1583. Some of Foxe's narratives are confirmed by contemporary chronicles (Thomas More, The Apology, ed. J. B. Trapp, CWTM 9 [New Haven, CT, 1979], p. 121 and 'Two London Chronicles', ed. C. L. Kingsford in Camden Society Miscellany XII, third series, 18 [London, 1910], p. 5).

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Foxe's unwillingness to describe the abjurations of Henrician evangelicals(and, earlier in his work, the Lollards) contrasts starkly with his desire to conceal such submissions in the case of the Marian martyrs. This an indication of the extent to which an earlier tolerance of recantations had eroded among Protestants, and alsoof Foxe's conviction that those born before the full onset of the Reformation had bothlesser spiritual knowledge and lesser obligations to God.

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Thomas S. Freeman

ouer (good reader) the names, the Actes & doynges of them, which haue susteined death and þe torment of burnyng for Christes cause, throughe the rigorous proclamation aboue specified 
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See 1570, pp. 1959-60; 1576, pp. 991-2 and 1583, pp. 1019-20.

, set out (as is sayd) in the name of kyng Henry, MarginaliaThe kinges proclamation, Vid. supra pag. . but in dede procured by the Byshops 
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Notice that Foxe shifts the blame for persecution from Henry VIII to his bishops.

. Which proclamation was so straytly looked vppon and executed so to the vttermost in euery poynt, by the sayd Popishe Prelates, that no good man, habens spiramentum, (wherof Esdras speaketh) Marginalia4. Esdr. 7.could peepe out with hys head neuer so litle, but hee was caught by the backe, and brought either to the fier, as were these aboue mentioned: or els compelled to abiure. Whereof there was a great multitude, as wel men as women: whose names if they were sought out through all Registers in Englād, no doubt, it would make to long a discourse. Neuerthelesse omittyng the rest, it shall content vs at this present, briefly as in a shorte Table, to insinuate the names, with the speciall Articles, of such as in the dioces of London, vnder Byshop Stokesley were molested and vexed, and at last compelled to abiure, as here vnder may appeare.

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Persons abiured,with their Articles.

MarginaliaMen abiured.Greffray
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These articles are taken from Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall's register (Guildhall MS 9531/10, fos. 136v-137r).

HIs articles were these: For hauing and
dispersyng certeyne bookes of Luther.
Item, for translatyng certeyne Chapters of
hys booke De bonis operibus. For holdyng,
that fayth without woorkes, is sufficient to
bryng vs to heauen. That Christen men
ought to worship God only & no Saincts.
That Christen men should not offer to I-
mages in Churches, ne set any lyght before
them. That pardons graunted by Pope or
Byshop do not profite man.

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Sygar Ni-
tioner of

His Articles were lyke: and moreouer
for hauyng in hys house certeyne bookes of
Luther and other prohibited, and not pre-
senting them to the Ordinarye.
The handlyng of this man was too too
cruell, if the report be true, that he should be
hanged vp by thoses partes, which nature
wel suffreth not to be named 
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Thomas More, defending himself from charges of torturing accused heretics, admitted that Nicholson had been detained in his house for four or five days. More also admitted that there were reports that Nicholson was whipped and otherwise tortured while he detained him. More indignantly denied these reports and declared that Nicholson was physically unharmed during the entire time thathe was More's involuntary guest (Thomas More, The Apology, ed. J. B. Trapp,CWTM 9 [New Haven, CT, 1979], p. 121). Foxe is probably refering here to wilder versions of these stories, although he must have known of More's denialof these stories. As a result, Foxe is being disingenous here by repeating the charges, but not endorsing them and not naming More.

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Persons abiured,with their Articles.

Iohn Ray-
mund, a
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John Raimund (or more correctly, Hans von Ruremond) was aFlemish printer who had already been convicted in 1525 for printing hereticalworks in 1525. Ae appears to have moved permanently to London and wasstill active there in 1535 under the alias of John Holibusch (see Fines).


For causyng fyftene hundreth of Tyndals
new Testamētes to be printed at Antwerpe,
and for bryngyng fyue hundreth into En-

Paule Lu-
ther Gray
Frier, and
vvarden of
the house at

Hys Articles: For preaching and saying
that it is pytye, þt there be so many Images
suffred in so many places, where as vndis-
cret and vnlearned people bee: for they
make theyr prayer and oblations so intire-
ly and hartely before the Image, þt they be-
leue it to be the very self Sainct in heauen.
Item, that if he knewe hys father and mo-
ther were in heauen, he would count them
as good as Saint Peter or Paule, but for
the payne they suffred for Christes sake.
Item, that there is no nede to go on pilgri-
mage. Item, that if a man were at the
poynt of drownyng or any other daunger,
he should call onely vppon God, and no
Sainct: for Sainctes in heauē can not helpe
vs, neither knowe no more what men
doe here in this worlde, then a man in
the North coūtrey knoweth what is done
in the South countrey.

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Roger Whaplod was the son-in-law of Richard Hunne and like Hunne, he was markedly anti-clerical in his sympathies. A few years after the incident described below, he was in even more serious trouble with the authorities, as one of the ringleaders of a riot that occurred at St. Paul's cathedral in 1531. Whaplod was one of five men arrested and he was imprisoned for an unknown length of time. In 1538, his wife appealed to Thomas Cromwell for her husband's release. Whether or not the appeal was successful is unknown and Whaplod's subsequent fate is unclear. He was dead by August 1560 (W. R. Cooper, 'RichardHunne', Reformation 1 [1996], pp. 234-5). Roger's son Dunstan would supply Foxe with records of the Hunne affair.

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Roger Whaplod sent by one Tho. Northfolke
MarginaliaA bill read by the preacher at the Spittell.vnto Doct. Goderyge  
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Foxe's syntax makes this passage unclear. Whaplod sent Norfolk to Goderidge, not the other way round.

this Bill following to
bee read at hys Sermon in the Spittel 
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Roger Whaplod, who was Richard Hunne's son-in-law and he had successfully petitioned to have Hunne's property restored to his family and tohave compensation paid to them for his death. Whaplod, moreover,continued to twist the knife. The bill Goderidge read was hardly hertetical, but,by announcing that money used from Hunne's estate would be used to pay for repairs to the Fleet conduit, it was a reminder of Hunne's former standing as a leading andphilanthropic citizen. The request to pray for Hunne's soul was particularly provocative, since he had been convicted of heresy. The choice of the venue forthis announcement was also calculated and inflamatory: St Mary Spital had been the parish church of Charles Joseph, the gaoler who was believed to have murdered Hunne.

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If there by any well disposed person wil-
lyng to do any cost vpō the reparatiō of the
cundette in Fletstreete, let hym or thē resort
vnto the administrators of the goods & cat-
tel of one Rich. Hunne, late Marchaūt Tay-
lor of London, whiche dyed intestate, or els
to me, and they shall haue toward the same
vj. li. xiij. s. iiij. d. and a better penny, of the
goodes of the sayd Richard Hunne: vppon
whose soule and all Christen soules Iesu
haue mercy.
For the which Byll both Whaplod and
Northfolke were brought & troubled before
MarginaliaIt was the maner of this tyme to take money for readyng of billes at Sermons.the Byshop 
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Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall, not Bishop John Stokesley.

, & also Doct. Goderige, whiche
toke a groate for readyng the Byll, was su-
spended for a time, frō saying Masse, & also
was forced to reuoke the same at Paules
Crosse, readyng this Byll as foloweth.

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¶ The reuocation of Doctour William Goodrige, read at Paules Crosse.

MarginaliaEx Regist. Lond.
Doctour Goodrige reuoketh hys praying for the soule of Richard Hunne.
MAisters, so it is that where in my late sermō at S. Marie Spitell, the Tewsday in Easter weeke last past, I did pray specially for the soule of Richard Hunne, late of London marchaunt Taylor, an hereticke by the lawes of holy Churche iustly condempned, by reason whereof I greatly offended God and his Churche and the lawes of the same, for the which I haue submitted me to my Ordinary and done penaunce therfore: for asmuch as peraduenture the audiēce that was there offended by my sayd wordes, might take any occasion thereby to thinke that I did fauour the sayd hereticke or any other, I desire you at the instance of almighty God to forgeue me, and not so to thinke of me, for I did it vnaduisedly. Therfore here before God and you, I declare my selfe that I haue not fauored hym or any other hereticke, nor hereafter intend to do, but at all tymes shall defend the Catholicke fayth of holy Churche, accordyng to my profession, to the best of my power.

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Robert West,
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Foxe's source for the account of Robert West is almost certainly a now lost court- book of Bishop Cuthbert Tunstal of London. Robert West was also - according to a record not consulted by Foxe - charged with eating meat on Friday and having committed adultery (London Metropolitan Archive, DL/C/330, fo. 175v)

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Abiured for bookes and opinions con-
trarye to the proclamation.

Whyte of
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In 1536, a Nicholas White of Winchelsea was charged with opposing veneration of the Virgin Mary, pilgrimages, offerings to saints, prayers for the dead, and he was also charged with denying the existence of Purgatory (L&P XI, p. 569). On 19 January 1557, a Nicholas White (whose age and place of residence are not given by Foxe) was burned at Canterbury (1563, p. 1571; 1570, p. 2107; 1576,p. 1872; 1583, p. 1930). The two Nicholas Whites may be the same person or they may be relatives.

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Hys Articles: For speakyng agaynst the
Priestes saying of Mattens. For speakyng
agaynst praying for them that be dead: A-
gaynst praying to God for small trifles, as
for the cow caluyng, the henne hatching. &c.
For speakyng agaynst the relicke of S. Pe-
ters finger: Agaynst oblations to Images:
Agaynst vowing of Pilgremage: Agaynste
Priesthode: Agaynst holy bread and holy
water. &c.

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