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1559 [1559]

K. Edward. 6. The story, actes, and doing of Steuen Gardiner Byshop of VVinchester.

Marginalia1550.ted he the forme of a right table to be vsed in his dioces, and in the church of Paules, brake downe the wall standing then by the high altars syde.

¶ The story of Steuen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester briefly collected, 
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Stephen Gardiner's letters

Stephen Gardiner's troubles with the Council sprang from the same root as Bonner's - an unwillingness to accept the changes of direction in religion which Cranmer was trying to introduce. Edward Vaughn was Captain of Portsmouth, and in the spring of 1547 it came to the bishop's attention that there had been an outbreak of iconoclasm in the town, and that this 'containeth an enterprise to subvert religion'. Gardiner subsequently preached in the town. There are accounts of this episode in Jordan, Edward VI: the Young King (London, 1968), p.155; James Muller, Stephen Gardiner and the Tudor Reaction (London, 1926), p.150; and Glyn Redworth, In Defence of the Church Catholic (Oxfrod, 1990), pp.255-6. In 1547 Gardiner was regarded as the principal champion of conservative values, and was also incarcerated in the Fleet for his opposition to the Injunctions. His delaying and evasive tactics during the autumn of 1547 were masterly, but ineffective. Having been forced into a show of conformity, he was released on the 20th February 1548, and retuned to his diocese (Redworth, In Defence of the Church Catholic, pp.255-69). This whole exchange was drastically reduced after the 1563 edition

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David Loades
University of Sheffield

the residue whereof concernyng hys Actes and doynges may further appeare in the booke of Actes and Monumentes in the former edition, page. 728.

MarginaliaThe storye of Steuen Gardiner.
ALthough the first imprisonment of Steuen Gardiner Bishop of Wynchester, in order of tyme was before the depriuatiō of Bishop Boner: yet for somuch as he was not deposed frō his Bishopricke til þe next or second yeare after, which was. 1551. I haue therfore driuen of the hystorie of the sayd Byshop of Winchester to this present place: intendyng neuertheles here not to extende and prosecute the explication of that busie matter with all circumstaunces and particularities therof, so amplye at full as I might, partly for that beyng done before in my forme volume of Actes and Monumētes, may here suffice and content the reader beyng disposed there to search and further to read touchyng the same: partly also consideryng how this present volume is growen all ready very large and great, I thought not to pester the same with any more superfluitie, then needes must, and therefore leauyng out his idle letters, his long processe of Articles & examinations, his tedious talke with þe multitude of depositions brought in against him, & other his Actes & interlocutories superfluous, MarginaliaFor the ful tractiō of Steuen Gardiners storye, read in the booke of Actes and Monumentes of the former edition, pag. 728.I minde here (þe Lord willing) briefly & summarely to excerpe onely the principall effectes, as to the story may seme most appertenent, referryng the residue to be searched (if any reader so lyst to do) to the booke of Monumentes aforesayd, begynnyng in the page. 728.

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Briefly therfore as touchyng the Actes, doynges, deseruynges and misdemeanours of this stoute Prelate, and Bishop of Winchester: first we wil set before the reader the copie of a certeine writte or euidēce against the sayd Bishop, wherein as in a brief summe generally is described the whole order and maner of his misordered demeanour copied out of þe publicke recordes in maner as foloweth.

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¶ The copie of a writte or euidence touching the order and maner of the misdemeanour of Winchester, with declaration of the faultes wherewith he was iustly charged.

MarginaliaThe writte or euidence geuen out agaynst Steuen Gardiner Byshop of Winchester.WHere as the kynges Maiestie by the aduise of the Lord Protectour and the rest of his highnes priuye Counsell thinkyng requisite for sundry vrgent considerations to haue a generall visitation throughout the whole Realme, did about x. monethes past addresse forth Cōmissions, and by the aduise of sondry Bishops and other the best learned men of the Realme, appointed certaine orders or Iniunctions to bee generally obserued, which being such as in some part touched þe reformationof many abuses, & in other partes cōcerned the good gouernaūce and quiet of the Realme, were (as reason would) of all men of all sortes obediently receiued and reuerently obserued and executed, sauing onely of the Byshop of Winchester, who aswell by conference with other, as by open Protestation and letters also, shewed such a willfull disobedience therin, as if it had not bene quickely espyed, might haue breed much vnquietnes and trouble, vpon the knowledge wherof he beyng sent for, MarginaliaWinchest. misusing him self before the Counsell.and his lewde procedynges layd to his charge, he in the presence of the whole Counsell so vsed him selfe (as well in denying to receiue the sayd orders and Iniunctions as otherwayes) as hee was thought worthy most sharpe punishement, and yet consideryng the place he had bene in, MarginaliaWinchest. committed to the Fleete.he was onely sequestred to the Fleete, where, after he had remained a certaine time, as much at his ease as if he had bene at hys owne house, vpon his promise of conformitie he was both set at libertie agayne and also licenced to repayre MarginaliaWinchester deliuered out of the Fleete and set at libertie.and remaine in his Dioces at his pleasure: where whē he was, MarginaliaWinchester forgetteth him selfe againe in hys Dioces.forgettyng his duety and what promise he had made, he began forthwith to set forth such matters as bred agayne more strife, variance, and contention in that one small Citie and Shyre, then was almost in the whole Realme after: besides that the Lord Protectors grace and the Counsell were enformed, that to withstand such as hee thought to haue bene sent from their grace and Lordshyps into those parties, he had caused all his seruauntes to bee secretly armed and harnesed: and moreouer when such preachers as beyng men of godly lyfe and learnyng were sent into that Dioces by his grace and Lordshyp to preach the worde of God, had appoynted to preach, the Byshop to disapointe and disgrace them and to hinder his maiesties procedinges, did occupie the Pulpit him selfe, not fearyng in hys Sermon to warne the people to beware of such new preachers, and to embrace none other doctrine thē that which hee had taught them (then the which wordes none could haue bene spoken more perillous and seditious:) MarginaliaWinchester sent for agayne by the Counsaile.whereupon beyng eftsoones sent for and theyr grace and Lordshyps obiectyng to him many particular matters wherewith they had iust cause to charge him, they did yet in the end vpon his second promise, leaue him at libertie, MarginaliaWinchester commaunded to keepe hys house.onely willyng him to remaine at his house at Lōdon, because they thought it most meete to sequester him from his Dioces for a time, and beyng commen to his house, MarginaliaWinchester again breaketh promise with the Counsaile.he began a freshe to ruffle and meddle in matters wherin he had neither Commission nor authoritie, part wherof touched the kynges Maiestie: wherof beyng yet once agayne admonished by his grace and their Lordshyps, he did not onely promise to conforme him selfe in all thinges like a good subiect, but also because he vnderstode that he was diuersly reported of, and many were also offended with him, MarginaliaWinchester promiseth to shewe hys conformitie openly in preachyng.hee offered to declare to the world his conformitie, and promised in an open Sermon so to open his minde in sondry articles agreed vpō, that such as had ben offēded should haue no more cause to be offended, but well satisfied in all thinges: declaryng further that as his owne conscience was well satisfied and liked well the kynges procedynges within this Realme, so would he vtter his cōscience abroad to the satisfaction & good quyet of others, and yet all this notwithstandyng, at the day appoynted he did not onely most arrogantly and disobediētly, and that in the presence of his Maiesty, their grace & Lordshyps, and of such an audience as the like wherof hath not lightely bene seene, MarginaliaWinchester in hys Sermō swarueth from hys own promise and the kinges commaundement.speake of certaine matters contrary to an expresse commaundement geuen to him on his maiesties behalfe both by mouth & by letters, but also in the rest of the Articles, wherunto he had agreed before, vsed such a maner of vtteraunce as was very lyke euen there presently to haue sturred a great tumulte, and in certaine great matters touchyng the policie of the Realme, handled him selfe so colourably as therin he shewed him selfe an open great offender and a very sedicious man: for as much as these his procedinges were of such sort, as beyng suffred to escape vnpunished might breed innumerable inconueniēces, and that the clemency shewed to him afore by their grace and Lordshyps, did worke in him no good effect but rather a pride and boldnes to demeane hym selfe more and more disobediently agaynst his Maiestie and hys graces procedynges: MarginaliaWinchester for hys seditious disobedience had to the was determined by their grace and Lordshyps that hee should bee committed to the Tower & be cōueyed thether by Syr Anthony Wingfield, and that at the tyme of his Cōmission Syr Rafe Sadler and William Hunnynges Clerke of the Counsaile should seale vp the doores of such places in his house as they shoulde thincke meete: all which was done accordyngly.

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By this euidence aboue mentioned, first here is of the reader to be noted, how lewdly and disobediently the sayd Ste. Gardiner misused him selfe in the kinges generall visitation, in denying to receaue such orders

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