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1560 [1560]

K. Edward. 6. A letter of Winchester defending Images to M. Vaughan.

MarginaliaAn. 1550.and Iniunctions, as for the which hee iustly deserued much more seuere punishement. Albeit the kyng with his Vncle the Lord Protectour, more gently procedyng with him, were contented onely to make him taste the Fleete. In the which house, as his durance was not long, so his entreatyng & orderyng was very easie. Out of the which Fleete diuers and sondry letters he wrote to the Lord Protector and other of the Counsell, certaine also to the Archbyshop of Canterbury, and some to M. Ridley Bishop of Lōdon. MarginaliaFor the letters of Winchester Read in the Boke of Actes and Monumentes of the former edition. pag. 732.The particulars were to long here to rehearse, consideryng how this booke is so ouercharged, as ye see, already: and especially seyng the same be notified in our former edition sufficiently, as is aforesayd. Wherfore omittyng the rehearsall of the sayd letters, and referryng the reader to the booke aforesayd, I will onely repete one letter of the sayd Bishop with the aunsweres of the Lord Protectour vnto the same: the contentes wherof be these as foloweth.

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¶ A Letter of Winchester to M. Vaughan. 
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Gardiner's letter to Edward Vaughan was printed by Foxe from a lost original, and reprinted by James Muller (Letters of Stephen Gardiner (Cambridge, 1933), pp.272-6). The letter to Somerset of 28 February [1547] is similarly printed by Muller, citing Foxe as his source (pp.264-7). The same is true of his letter of 21 May, although Muller notes (p.276) that 'a sixteenth century copy of the last twelve lines is in BL, Add.MS 28,571, f.21'. Muller identifies no MS source for the letter of 6 June (pp.286-295), again quoting Foxe as his source. The letters of 10 June and 'after 12 June' concerning the homilies, are similarly reprinted by Muller from Foxe (pp.296-7, 297-8). When Gardiner wrote again to Somerset from the Fleet in October 1547, Foxe edited the version which he had in front of him. About 40% of the original survives in BL Harley MS 417, fols 84-9 (one of Foxe's manuscripts) and most of the rest in a sixteenth century copy (BL Cotton MS Vespasian D.XVIII, ff.138-45). Foxe edited a good deal out of the original, but is the only source for the last paragraph, which does not appear in the other versions. The letter which follows, whish is not dated, but which Muller ascribes to the 27 October, is again known only from Foxe's version (pp.402-10). Muller's order of printing thereafter differs from Foxe's. That appearing on pages 746-7 is dated by Muller to the 20 November, and appears on pp.419-23, while that appearing on p.748, and tentatively dated 'shortly after 4th November' appears on p.410. In each case, Foxe is used as the source, although in respect of the letter appearing on pp.748-9, it is noted that the first twelve lines can also be found in BL Add.MS 28,571, f.14. The 'certaine additions' and the 'summe and conclusyon' appear to be Foxe's own composition. The letter to Nicholas Ridley, criticising a sermon which he had preached at court, which appear here on pp.751-4, is placed by Muller in its correct chronological place (February 1547), and appears on pp.255-63. Foxe is once again the only source. The originals of Somerset's side of the correspondence do not appear to have survived at all, and no scholar has so far collected the Protector's letters. John Strype in his Ecclesiastical Memorials (London, 1809 edition), 2, p.785, prints a version of Gardiner's letter to the Protector concerning the Book of Homilies, taken from BL Cotton MSS Vespasian D. XVIII, f.139, with the comment 'I remit the reader for the rest of this letter to Winchester's ninth letter in Foxe's Acts, the former part of the letter which is now exposed to view having been by him ommitted'. Partial drafts of the same letter are to be found in Harleian MS 417, ff.8 and 9, and these appear to have been Foxe's source.

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The 'copie of a writte or evidence' which appears in the 1570 edition (p.1521) may be an edited version of a Council letter, or it may be Foxe's own work.

MarginaliaA letter of Steuen Gardiner to Captaine Vaughan.MAister Vaughan, after my ryght harty commendations: In my last letters to my Lorde Protector, signifying according to the general commaundement by letters geuen to all Iustices of peace the state of thys Shiere, I declared (as I supposed true) the Shiere to be in good order, quiet, and conformitie, for I had not then heard of any alteratiō in thys Shiere, which the said letters of commaundement did forbyd. MarginaliaImages plucked downe at Portesmouth.Now of late within these two daies I haue heard of a great and detestable (if it be true that is told me) innouation in the towne of Portesmouth, where the images of Christ and his saynts haue bene most cōtemptuously pulled downe, and spitefully handled. Herein I thought good both to wryte to you and the Maior the Kinges Maiesties chiefe Ministers, as well to know the truth, as to consult wyth you for the reformation of it, to the intent I maye be seene to discharge my duty, and discharge it in dede both to God and the kynges Maiestye, vnder whom I am here appointed to haue cure and care, to relieue such as be by anye wayes fallen, and preserue the rest that stand, from like daunger.

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Ye are a Gentleman wyth whom I haue had acquaintaunce, and whom I know to bee wise, and esteeme to haue more knowledge, wisdome, and discretion, then to allow any such enormities, and therefore do the more wyllingly consult with you herein, with request friendly to know of you the very truth in the matter, who bee the doers, and the circumstance of it, & whether ye thinke the matter so farre gone with þe multitude, and whether the reproufe and disprouing of the deede, might wythout a further daunger be enterprised in the Pulpit or not, minding if it may so be, to send one thither for that purpose vpon Sonday next comming. I would vse preaching as it should not be occasion of any further folly where a follye is begon,and to a multitude perswaded in that opinion of destruction of Images, I would neuer preach. For (as scripture willeth vs) we should cast no precious stones before Hogges. Such as be infected wyth that opinion, they be Hogges & MarginaliaThen were the old fathers and Byshop in the primatiue Church with Epiphanius and Carolus Magnus, and all the Councell of Franckford, hogges and dogges.worse the Hogges, if there be any grosser beastes then Hogs be, and haue bene euer so taken, and in England they are called Lollards, who denying images, thought therwithall the craftes of paynting and grauing to bee generally superfluous and nought, and agaynst Gods lawes.

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In Germany such as mayntained that opinion of destroying of images, were accompted the dregges cast out by Luther, after he had tunned all hys brewings in Christes religion, and so taken as Hogs meate. For the reproufe of whom, Luther wrote a booke specially: and I haue wyth myne eyes seene the images standing in all churches where Luther was had in estimation. For the destruction of Images containeth an enterprise to subuert religion and the state of the world with it, and especially the Nobilitie, who by images set forth and spread abroade to be read of all people, their linage, parentage, with remembrance of theyr state and acts: and the Pursiuant carieth not on hys brest the kinges names wirtten in such letters as a few can spell, but such as all can read, be they neuer so rude, being great knowen letters in Images of three Lions, and three floures Deluce, & other beastes holding those armes. And he that cannot reade the scripture written about the kings great Seale, yet he MarginaliaWinchesters : The Pursiuant carieth about S. George on horsebacke and the kinges picture: Ergo Images must stand in Churches.can reade saint George on horsbacke on the one syde, and the kyng sytting in hys Maiesty on the other syde, and readeth so much wrytten in those Images, as if he be an honest man, he wyll put of hys cap, and although, if the Seale were broken by chaunce he woulde and myght make a candell of it, yet he woulde not be noted to haue broken the Seale for that purpose, or to call it a peece of waxe onely, whylest it continueth whole. And if by reuiling of stockes and stones, in whych matter Images be grauen, the setting of the truth to be read in them of al men, shalbe contemned: how shall such writing continue in honor, as is comprised in cloutes and pitch, wherof & whereupon our bookes be made, such as few can skil of, and not the hundreth part of the realme? MarginaliaBookes serue only to be read and not to bee kneeled vnto and worshipped: for so are they no bookes but are made Idols, and are to be broken.And if we a few that can reade, because we can reade in one sorte of letters, so priuileged as they haue many reliefes, shall pull away the bookes of the rest, and would haue our letters onely in estimation, and blinde all them, shall not they haue iust cause to mistrust what is ment? And if the crosse be a truth, and it bee true that Christ suffered, why may we not haue a wryting thereof, such as all can reade, that is to say an image? If this opinion should procede, when the kinges Maiesty hereafter should shewe his person, hys lyuely image, the honor due by Gods lawe among such might continue, but as for the kinges Standards, hys banners, hys armes, should hardly continue in their due reuerence for feare of Lollards idolatrie, whych they gather vppon scripture beastly, not onely vntruly. The scripture reproueth false Images made of stockes and stones, and so it doth false men made of flesh and bones.

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When the Emperours mony was shewed to Christ, wherein was the Image of the Emperour, Christ contemned not that image calling it an idol, nor noted not þe mony to be agaynst Gods law, because it had an image in it, MarginaliaThe Emperours Image Christ saw in the coyn, but not in the temple: for so no doubt he would haue cast it though it were agaynst the precept of God: Thou shalt haue no grauen Image, but taught them good ciuilitie in calling it the Emperours Image: and bad them vse the money as it was ordered to be vsed in hys right vse.

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There is no scripture that reproueth truth, & al scripture reproueth falsehood. False wrytings, false bookes, false Images and false men, all be nought, to be cōtemned and despised: as for paper, inke, parchment, stones, woode, bones, A. B. of the Chauncery hand, and a. b.of the Secretary hand, a letter of Germany fashion, or of any other forme, be all of one estimation, & may be of mā enclining to the Deuill, vsed for falshode, or applying to Gods gratious callyng, vsed to set forth truth. MarginaliaIf euery Image representing a thyng of truth may stand in place of worship, then let Winchesters face stand in the Church also.It is a terrible matter to thinke, that thys false opinion conceaued agaynst Images shoulde trouble any mans heade: and such as I haue knowen vexed wyth that deuil (as I haue knowen some) bee neuerthelesse wondrously obstinate in it: and if they can fynde one that can spell Lattin to helpe forth theyr madnes, they be more obdurate then euer were the Iewes, and sclaunder whatsoeuer is sayd to them for theyr reliefe. Of thys sort I knowe them to be, and therefore if I wyste there were many of that sorte wyth you, I would not irritate them by preaching without fruit, but labour for reformation to my Lorde Protector. But if you thought there might be other wayes vsed fyrst to a good effect, I would followe your aduise and proceding with you and the Maior, with both your helpes to do that may lie in me, to the redresse of the matter: which I take to bee such an enterprise against Christes religion, as there cannot be a greater by man excogitate with the deuils instigation, and at this tyme much hurtfull to the common estate, as ye cā of your wisdome consider. Whō I hartely desire and pray, to send me aunswer by this bearer to these my letters, to the intent I may vse my selfe in sending of a preacher thither, or writing to my Lord Protector as the case shall requyre accordingly. And thus fare you hartelye well, from my house at Woluesay, the third of May. 1547.

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St. W.

¶ A letter of the Lord Protector aunswering to the letter aboue.

AFter harty commendations, receauing of late two letters from your Lordship, the one inclosed in a letter of Maister Vaughans to vs and directed to him, the other directed straight vnto vs, verye wittely and learnedly written, wherby we do perceaue how earnest you are that no innouatiōs should be had. The which minde of yours as we do highly esteeme and allow, proceding from one that would quietnes: so we woulde likewyse wysh, that you should take good hede, that to much feare

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