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1637 [1599]

Queene Mary. Disputation of Doct. Cranmer Archbishop of Cant. in Oxforde.

Marginalia1554. Aprill.The body of Christ is worthy highest honour:

Ergo, he sheweth forth þe body of Christ here in earth.

MarginaliaThe body of Christ is shewed forth to vs here in earth diuers wayes: as in reading of the Scriptures, some times in hearing sermons, & also in Sacramentes, and yet neither the scriptures, nor Sermons, nor Sacramentes are to be worshipped.Cran. That is shewed forth here on earth which may be seene, which may be touched, & which may be eaten: but these thinges be not true of the body.

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Cole. Why should not these thinges be true of the body of Christ?

Cran. The Maior out of Chrysostome is true, meaning of the sacrament. For in the sacrament the true body of Christ, and not the figuratiue body is set forth.

Weston. Shew me somewhat in earth worthy greatest honour.

Cran. I can not, but in the sacrament onely.

West. Ergo the sacrament is worthy greatest honor.

Cran, So it is.

Iudges. Let it be written.

Cran. I pray you let my auuswer be wrytten lykewise: I affirme that the body of Christ is shewed forth vnto vs. It is our fayth that seeth Christ.

Weston. Ostendo tibi. i. I shewe it to thee, sayth Chrysostome, not to thy fayth.

Cran. He speaketh sacramentally.

West. Ergo Chrysostome lyeth. For hee speakyng of shewing, saith: Ego Chrysostomus ostendo. i. I Chrysostome do shew. But he can shew nothing sacramētally.

Ched. By force of argument we are brought to this point, that the body of Christ is proued to be on earth, not onely Sacramētally, but in very deede also, by this reason, that it is worthy highest honor. The reason is indissoluble.

Cran. I neuer heard a more vayne argument, and it is most vayne: also it hath mine aunswer vnto it.

Ched. Wyl you affirme that it is absurd which Chrysostome sayth, that the body of Christ is touched?

MarginaliaThis argument of Chadsey is not formall.I touch the body of Christ in the sacrament, as Thomas touched Christ.

Thomas touched Christ, and sayd Dominus meus, Deus meus, my Lord, my God:

Ergo, that which he touched, was the Lord God.


Commentary  *  Close

Foxe took one of Chedsey's arguments and rewrote it as a formal syllogism (see textual variant 51). Throughout the 1570 edition, Foxe almost compulsively rewrote theological arguments as syllogisms.

☞ This Argument as I receaued it out of the Notaries booke, is not formall: but rather he should conclude in the 3. figure thus:

As Thomas touched the body of Christ, so we touch
it in the Sacrament.
ti-Thomas touched the body of Christ corporally:
Ergo, we touch the body of Christ corporally in the

Cran. I deny your argument. MarginaliaGod cā not be touched.He touched not God, but him whych was God. Neither is it sound doctrine to affirme that God is touched.

Ched. Thys is because of the vnion: so that God is sayd to bee touched, 

Commentary  *  Close

Foxe changed Chedsey's phrase 'that God is said to be touched, it happened through the union' (1563, p. 947), to 'this is because of the union, so that God is sayd to be touched' (1570, p. 1599; 1576, p. 1364; 1583, p. 1435).

when Christ whych is both God and man is touched.

Tertullian De carnis resurrectione sayth: MarginaliaTertull. De resurrectione carnis.Videamus de propria Christiani hominis forma, quanta huic substantiæ friuolæ & sordidæ apud deum prærogatiua sit. Etsi sufficeret illi quòd nulla omnino anima salutem posset adipisci nisi dum est in carne, crediderit: adeò caro salutis cardo est, de qua cū anima deo alligatur, ipsa est quæ efficit vt anima alligari possit: sed & caro abluitur, vt anima emaculetur: caro inungitur, vt anima consecretur: signatur, vt anima muniatur: caro manus impositione adumbratur, vt anima spiritu illuminetur: MarginaliaQuod symbolorum est, rei attribuitur.caro corpore & sanguine Christi vescitur, vt anima de deo saginetur. That is to say in English.

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Let vs consider as cōcerning the proper forme of the Christian man, what great prerogatiue this vayne and foule substāce of ours hath with God. Although it were sufficient to it that no soule could euer get saluation vnlesse it beleue while it is in the flesh: so much the flesh auayleth to saluation, by the which flesh it commeth, that where as the soule is linked vnto God, it is the said flesh that causeth the soule so to be linked: yet the flesh moreouer is washed, that the soule may bee clensed: the flesh is anoynted, that the soule may consecrated: the flesh is signed, that the soule may be defended: the flesh is shadowed by the imposition of handes, that the soule may bee illuminated wyth the spirite: the flesh doth eate the body and bloud of Christ, that the soule may be fed of God. Whereupon I gather this argument.

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MarginaliaArgument.The flesh eateth the body of Christ.

Ergo the body of Christ is eaten wyth the mouth.

Item, Phoceus  

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'Phocius' (1563, pp. 947-48) or 'Phoceus' (1570, pp. 1599-1600; 1576, pp. 1364-65; 1583, pp. 1435-36) is Photius (c.820 - 891), a Byzantine theologian and patriarch of Constantinople.

1. ad Corinth. Capit. 11. vppon these wordes, Reus erit corporis & sanguinis. &c.

MarginaliaPhoceus. 1. Cor. cap. 11.">Ὁ ἔνοχος τοῦ σὼματος καὶ τοῦ αἳματος, τοῦτο δηλοῖ, ὅτι καθάπερ παρέδωκε μὲν αὐτὸν ὁ Ἴουδας, παρώνησαν εἰς αὔτον οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι, οὕτως ἀτιμάζουσι ἀκαθάρτοις δεξόμενοι, ὡς Ἰουδαῖοι κρατοῦντες αὔτον τότε καὶ καταράτω προσφέροντες στόματι· διὰ δὲ τὸ εἰπεῖν πολλάκις τοῦ σώματος καὶ τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ κυρίου, δηλοῖ ὅτι οὐκ ἄνθρωπος ψιλὸς ὁ θυόμενος, ἄλλα αὔτος ὁ κύριος ὁ ποιητὴς πάντων, ὡς δῆθεν διὰ τοῦτων ἐκφοβων αὐτοὺς. MarginaliaPhoceus alleaged by Chadsey. id est.

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Quod ait, reus corporis & sanguinis, istud declarat ф sicuti Iudas ipsum quidem tradidit, Iudæi contumeliose in ipsum insaniebant: sic ipsum in honorant qui sanctissimum ipsius corpus impuris manibus suscipiunt, tanquam Iudæi ipsi tenent, & execrabili ore recipiunt. Quòd crebo mentionem facit corporis & sanguinis Domini, manifestat quòd non sit simplex homo qui sacrificatur, sed ipse Dominus omnium factor, tanquam per hæc quidē ipsos perterrefaciens. That is.

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Where as he sayth: Is giltie of the body and bloud: this hee declareth, that lyke as Iudas betrayed hym, and the Iewes were fierce and spytefull agaynst hym: so do they dishonour hym which receyue hys holy body with theyr impure handes, and as þe Iewes dyd hold hym then, do now receyue him with vnpure mouthes. And where as he often maketh mention of the body and bloud of the Lord, he declareth that it is not simply man that is sacrificed, but euen the Lord him self, beyng þe maker of all things, hereby (as it were) makyng them afrayed.

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Ergo, (as it is hereby gathered) the body of Christ is touched with the handes.

Cran. You vouch two authors agaynst me vppon sundry thynges. First I must aūswere Tertullian, and then the other.

Ched. They tende both to one meanyng.

MarginaliaAunswere to Tertullianus.Cran. Vnto Tertullian I aunswere (because our disputation is wandryng and vncerteyne) that hee calleth that the flesh which is þe Sacramēt. 

Commentary  *  Close

Foxe also reworded a statement Cranmer made: 'unto Tertulliane I aunswere (for as much as the disputation is uncertain, what he calleth fleshe and what he calleth the Sacrament)' (1563, p. 947). This became: 'unto Tertullaine I aunswer (because our disputation is wandryng and uncertayne) that he calleth the flesh which is the Sacrament' (1570, p. 1599; 1576, p. 1365; 1583, p. 1435). This transforms an observation that Tertullian's Eucharistic formulas were ambiguous into an affirmation by Cranmer that Tertullian called the sacrament the flesh.

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For although God worke all thynges in vs inuisibly beyond mans reach: yet they are so manifest, that they may be seene, and perceyued of euery sense. Therfore he setteth forth Baptisme, vnctiō, and last of all the Supper of the Lord vnto vs, which he gaue to signifie hys operation in vs. The flesh lyueth by the bread, but the soule is inwardly fed by Christ.

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West. Sticke to those wordes of Tertullian: MarginaliaD. Weston vrgeth hym with the wordes of Tertullian.Corpus vescitur vt anima saginetur. i. The body eateth that þe soule may be fed.

Ched. The flesh eateth the body of Christ, that the soule may be fed therwith.

West. Here you see two kyndes of foode: of the soule and of the body.

Ched. He sayth, that not onely the soule but the flesh is also fed.

Cran. The soule is fed with the body of Christ, the body with the Sacrament.

Ched. Is the soule fed with the body of Christ and not with the Sacrament?

Cran. Read that which foloweth, and you shall perceiue that by thynges externall, an operation internall is vnderstand. MarginaliaInwardly we eate the body: outwardly the Sacrament.Inwardly we eate Christes body: and outwardly we eate the Sacrament. So one thyng is done outwardly, an other inwardly. Lyke as in Baptisme the external element wherby the body is washed, is one: so the internall thyng wherby þe soule is clensed is an other.

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Ched. The soule is fed by that which the body eateth.

But the soule is fed by the flesh of Christ:

Ergo, the body eateth the flesh of Christ.

Cran. We eate not one thing outwardly and inwardly. Inwardly we eate Christes body: outwardly we eate the Sacrament.

Ched. I will repeate the Argument.

* Marginalia* The fourme of thys argument which he repeateth, stode better before: for the fourme of thys cōnexion aunswereth to none of the 3. figures of Sillogismes. The flesh eateth Christes body, that the soule may be fed therewith.

The soule is not fed with the Sacrament, but with

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