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165 [165]

Actes and Monumentes of the Church. Britayne conquered.

Although the miserable Britaines thus were bereued of their land, by the cruel subtillitye of the Saxons, yet were they not so driuen out or expulsed, but that a certain kingdome remained among thē, in some part of þe land, namely about Cornwall, & the partes of Cābria, which is deuided in. ij. partes, Southwales called Demetia, & Northwales called Venedocia. The saide Britaines moreouer through þe valiant actes of their kings, somtimes raigned also in other countries, displasing the Saxōs, & recouering again their own: somtimes more, somtimes lesse, til the time of Carecius (when as þe Britains being deposed by Godmundus, whose helpe they thēselues sent for out of Irelād, against Carecius theyr wicked king) vtterly lost their land and kingdome: being thence driuen vtterly into Wales & Cornwale, the yeare of our Lord. 570. What the order of these kinges was, what were there actes, their names, & tymes whē they raigned: in this brief table vnder written is expressed. Wherin first is to be premonished that Constātinus secundus had three childrē, to wit, Constans, which was made a Moonke in Winchester, and after made a king; the second was Aurelius Ambrosius: the third was Vterpendragon. This being premised, we wyll now enter the descriptiō of our table, begīning with Vortigernus.

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¶ A table declaring the kynges of Britayne, which raygned together with the Saxsons, after their comming into thys land. 
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The introductory text to this table was furnished from Matthew Paris' Flores Historiarum (H. R. Luard, ed. Matthew Paris. Flores Historiarum 3 vols [London: Rolls Series, 1890], 1, p. 280-1). The table of regnal succession could also have derived from that source, from Henry of Huntingdon's Chronicle (T. Arnold, ed. Henry of Huntingdon. Henrici Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum, the History of the English, by Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, from B. C. 55 to A. D. 1154 [London: Rolls Series, 1879], book 8, ch. 10) or from Fabian's Chronicle. On the death of Hengist, Foxe mentions Geoffrey of Monmouth. Elsewhere in book 2, Foxe was inclined to cite this source indirectly (especially through Bale's Catalogus or the English Votaries). Here, however, it seems plausible that Foxe consulted the source directly, despite its controversial nature, perhaps believing that on matters related to King Arthur, it might have retained credibility. He also used the 'Historia Cariana' a manuscript formerly belonging to William Carye - see A. G. Watson, 'Christopher and William Carye, Collectors of Monastic Manuscripts, and John Carye', The Library, 5th series 20 (1965), pp. 135-42. This now-lost manuscript may well be the source for the Gildas reference which he also cites since it does not appear elsewhere. On the reign of King Arthur, Foxe turned to Fabian's Chronicle (R. Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559], book 5, ch. 104), picking up from that source his own skepticism about King Arthur's time in France. For the long Latin citation on 'the causes of the destruction of the Britains declared', Foxe declares that he has taken the source 'here out of an olde author, and partly out of Gildas, as I haye found it'. How should we construe this Delphic reference? The citation is to be found, almost word for word, in Geoffrey of Monmouth (ch. 195). So perhaps we should accept that here, as elsewhere in this table, Foxe made direct use of that source. In which case, we must explain his reluctance to admit his direct source as resulting from the doubts raised over its legitimacy by Polydore Vergil. An alternative hypothesis, however, is that Foxe was referring to the now-lost manuscript which had been in the possession of William of Carye, referred to elsewhere as the 'Historia Cariana', and from which Foxe seems to have derived other material that he believed came from Gildas. The hypothesis rests, however, no more than that at this stage.

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MarginaliaKyngs of Britayne whiche here raigned in the tyme of the SaxōsVortigernus.
Vortigernus agayne.
Aurelius Ambrosius.
Constantinus. 3.

Here is to be vnderstand that these Britayne kings aboue mentioned, dyd not so raigne here in this land, frō the tyme of Vortigerne, that they had the full possession and gouernement ouer all the whole realme: but onelye ouer parcels or partes, suche as by force of armes, they could eyther holde or wynne from the Saxons: whyche comming in daily and growyng vppon them, dyd so replenish the land with multitudes of them, that the Britaines at lengthe neither were able to holde that whiche they had, not ro recouer that which they lost: Leauing example to all ages and countries, what it is, MarginaliaExample what it is to let in straūge nationsfyrst to let in forren nations into their dominion, MarginaliaMariage with infidels what destruction it worketh.but especiallye what it is for princes to ioyne in mariage wyth infidels: as this Vortiger dyd with Hengistus daughter, whiche was the mother of all this mischief: geuyng to the Saxones not onely strengthe, but also occasion and courage to attempt that which they dyd. Neyther was thys vnconsidered before of the Britayne Lordes and nobilitye:who worthely beyng therwyth offended, iustly deposed their kyng, and inthroned Vortimerus hys sonne in his roome. By the which Vortimer beyng a puisant prince, the Saxons were thē repulsed & driuen againe into Germany, wher they stayed a while til þe death of Vortimer whom Rowen Hengistus daughter caused trayterously to be poysoned. Then Vortiger beyng agayne restored to his kyngdome, throughe the entreatie of Rowen hys wyfe, MarginaliaThe second returne of Engist into Britaine.sent into Germanye agayne for Engist, who eftsones makyng his returne, came in with a nauy of 300.shippes well apointed. The Nobles of Britanie hearing this, prepared themselues on the contrary syde in al forceable wise to put them of. MarginaliaThe dissembling wordes of the Saxons to deceiue the Brytaines.But Engist through Rowen hys daughter so labored the king: excusing himselfe, & saying þt he brought not þe multitude, to worke any violence either against him or against his countrey, but only thinking that Vortimer had yet bene alyue, whom he mynded to impugne for þe kyngs sake, & to take his part. And now for so much as he heareth of the death of Vortimer his enemye, he therfore committe both himselfe and his people to his disposition, to appoynte how fewe or how many of them he would to remayne within his land: the rest should returne. And if it so pleased the kyng, to appoint day and place, where they might meete and talke together of the matter, both he and his would stande to such order as the kyng with his counsail should appoint. With these fayre wordes the kyng and his nobles (well contented) did assigne to them both day and place, which was in the town of Ambry: wher he ment to talk wt thē, addyng this cōdition with al, that eche part should come without any maner of weapon. Engist shewyng himself wel agreed thereto, gaue priuy intelligence to hys syde, that eche man should cary with him secretly in his hose a long knife, with their watch word MarginaliaNeme your sexes the watchword also geuen vnto thē when they should draw their knyues: wherwith euerye Saxon should (and so dyd) kyl the Britayne, with whom he talked, as is aboue declared. MarginaliaAll the nobilitie of the Brytaines destroyed in one day.The Britayne Lordes beyng slayne, the Saxons tooke Vortigerne the kyng, and bound him: MarginaliaThe king raūsomedfor whose raūsom they required to be deliuered to thē the Citie of Lōdon, Yorke, Lincolne, Winchester, with other the most strōgest holdes within the land: MarginaliaThe Saxōs enter possession of the land.whiche beyng to them graunted, they begynne to make spoyle and hauocke of the Britayne nation, MarginaliaThe Christian Brytaines persecuted of the infidell Saxons.destroying the citizens, pluckyng downe churches, kyllyng vp the priestes, burning bookes of the holye scripture, leauyng nothing vndone that tiranny could worke, whiche was about the yeare of our Lord. 462. The kyng seing this miserable slaughter of the people fled into Wales.

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MarginaliaAurelius Ambrosius returned into Brytaine.This whyle Ambrosius, & Vterpendragon brethern to kyng Constans aboue mētioned, whō Vortigern wickedly caused to be kylled, wer in litle Britayn. To whom the Britaynes sent worde, desyring their aide in helpyng their countrey Aurelius vnderstandyng the wofull state of the realme, speedeth him ouer to satisfye their desire, & to rescue (what in hym was) their necessitie. MarginaliaAurelius crowned king of Brytayne.Who at his first commyng eftsones being crowned for their kyng, seketh out wycked Vortigerne, the cause of all this trouble & murderer of king Constans his brother. MarginaliaVortigern9 burned in his towerAnd finding him in Wales in a strong tower, wherin he had inmured himself, setteth hym and his castell on fire. That done he moued his power against the Saxones, with whom, and with Elle captayne of the South saxones (who then was newly come ouer) he had diuers conflictes.

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MarginaliaHorsus slayne.Our English olde Chronicles make record that Horsus the brother of Engist was slayne before in the tyme of Vortimer. MarginaliaEngist takē in the field.The same also do record, that thys Engist was taken prisoner in the field, fighting against Aurelius Ambrosius: who then consulting with his Nobles & Barons, what was to bee done with hym: the byshop of Glocester, called Eldadus, standing vp, gaue this counsail, saying: MarginaliaThe counsell of Eldadus byshop of Glocesterthat if al mē would deliuer him, yet he with his owne handes would cut him in pieces, alleaging the example of Samuel against Agag king of þe Ameleches, taken by king Saul in the field: whom the said Samuell caused to be cut in pieces. Euē so (saith he) do you to this Agag here: that as he hath made many a womā widow, and without children: so his mother shal bee made thys day of him likewyse. MarginaliaEngist beheaded.And so was Engist taken out of þe citie by Eldol consul or Mayor of Gloucester, and there was beheaded: if truth or credite is to be geuen to these our old Britayn stories: wherof I haue nothing certain

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