Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 45. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 46. John Aleworth 47. Martyrdom of James Abbes 48. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 49. Richard Hooke 50. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 51. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 52. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 53. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 54. Martyrdom of William Haile 55. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 56. William Andrew 57. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 58. Samuel's Letters 59. William Allen 60. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 61. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 62. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 63. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 64. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 65. Cornelius Bungey 66. John and William Glover 67. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 68. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 69. Ridley's Letters 70. Life of Hugh Latimer 71. Latimer's Letters 72. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed73. More Letters of Ridley 74. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 75. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 76. William Wiseman 77. James Gore 78. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 79. Philpot's Letters 80. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 81. Letters of Thomas Wittle 82. Life of Bartlett Green 83. Letters of Bartlett Green 84. Thomas Browne 85. John Tudson 86. John Went 87. Isobel Foster 88. Joan Lashford 89. Five Canterbury Martyrs 90. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 91. Letters of Cranmer 92. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 93. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 94. William Tyms, et al 95. Letters of Tyms 96. The Norfolk Supplication 97. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 98. John Hullier 99. Hullier's Letters 100. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 101. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 102. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 103. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 104. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 105. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 106. Gregory Crow 107. William Slech 108. Avington Read, et al 109. Wood and Miles 110. Adherall and Clement 111. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 112. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow113. Persecution in Lichfield 114. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 115. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 116. Examinations of John Fortune117. John Careless 118. Letters of John Careless 119. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 120. Agnes Wardall 121. Peter Moone and his wife 122. Guernsey Martyrdoms 123. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 124. Martyrdom of Thomas More125. Examination of John Jackson126. Examination of John Newman 127. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 128. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 129. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 130. John Horne and a woman 131. William Dangerfield 132. Northampton Shoemaker 133. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 134. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1751 [1712]

Quene Mary. The Martyrdome of Tho. Tomkins. The story of W. Hunter, Martyr.

MarginaliaAn. 1555. March.mably are vsed in the Latin church, and otherwyse not to be allowed.

Finally, beyng many tymes and oft called openly before my sayd Ordinary, and talked wythall touchyng all my sayd confessions and declarations, both by the sayd myne Ordinary and dyuers other learned men, aswell his chaplens as other, and counselled by all them to embrace the truth, and to recant myne errour in the premisses, which they tolde me was playne heresy and manifest error: do testify and declare hereby, MarginaliaTomkins constantly standeth to the truth of the Gospell.that I do & wyl continually stand to my said confessiō, declaratiō, and beliefe, in all the premisses and euery parte therof, and in no wyse recant or go from any part of the same. In witnes wherof I haue subscribed, and passed thys wrytyng the. xxvj. day of Septemb. the yeare aforesayd.

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By me Thomas Tomkins aforesayd.

The names of them that sat vpon Thomas Tomkins at this Session, were these: Edmūd Boner, Iohn Fecknam Deane of Paules, Iohn Harpsfield Archd. of Londō, Iohn Morwen Maister of Arte, Tho. Morton Parson of Fulham, Tristrā Swadell, Tho. More, Tho. Beckinsaw, Iames Clyne Clerkes.

¶ The last appearaunce of Tho. Tomkins before Boner and the Commissioners. 
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In many cases the accounts Foxe prints of a martyr's examination are drawn from the martyr's account or from accounts by his or her supporters. Foxe could apparently find no such accounts for Tomkins, since this account, in its brevity, is clearly an official record which is now lost.

MarginaliaThe last appearaunce and condemnatiō of T. Tomkins, Martyr.The same day and place, at. ij. of the clocke in the after none, he was (the last tyme) brought forth before the byshops of London, Bath, and Saint Dauids, with others: where he was earnestly exhorted by the sayd Byshop of Bath, to reuoke and leaue of hys opinions. Vnto whom he aunswered: My Lord, I was borne and brought vp in ignoraunce vntill nowe of late yeares. And now I know the truth, wherein I will continue vnto the death.

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MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Thomas Tomkins in Smithfield. An. 1555. March. 16.¶ The burnyng of the blessed Martyr Thomas Tomkyns.

woodcut [View a larger version]

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One of the frequently recycled single column woodcuts, this is unusual in being combined here with a large woodcut of the same martyr. This cut (Type 1) was reused three times in the last two books of 1583, pp. 2022, 2034, 2053. See also 1570, p. 2124, 2246; and 1576, p. 1940.

Then Boner caused all his articles and confession to bee agayne openly read, and so in his accustomed maner perswaded with him to recant. To whom he finally sayd: My Lorde, I can not see but that you would haue me to forsake the truth, and to fall into errour and heresy. The Byshop seing hee would not recant, did procede in his lawe, MarginaliaSentence read agaynst Tomkins.and so gaue sentence of condemnation vpon hym. Then hee deliuered hym to the Shrieffe of London, who caryed hym straight vnto Newgate, where he remayned most ioyous and constant, vntill the. MarginaliaMarch. 16.xvj. day of March 

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This date is 15 March in 1563 and was corrected to 16 March in 1570.

next after: on which day, he was by the sayd Shrieffe conueyed into

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Smithfield, and there sealed vp his faith in the flaming fyre, to the glory of Gods holy name, and confirmation of the weake.

A notable history of W. Hunter, a young man of xix. yeares, pursued to death by Iustice Browne for the Gospels sake, worthy of all young men, and parentes to be read. 
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The Martyrdom of William Hunter

William Hunter's case should have disturbed the authorities. He was one of the first of the lay people of humble background to be executed and, unlike some of the other early martyrs with similar backgrounds (e.g., Thomas Tomkins and John Warne), he had no previous history of religious dissidence. The narrative Foxe presents of his arrest and judicial ordeals presents a vivid picture of overzealous local authorities feeding the fires of persecution.

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Foxe's narrative is an excellent example of the importance of oral sources to his martyrology. The entire account of Hunter in the Rerum consists of praise of Hunter's parents for subordinating their natural love for their son to ther duty to God and their support for his refusal to submit (Rerum, pp. 427-8). This material was reprinted in the 1563 edition, with no significant change or addition. But in the second edition, Foxe added the detailed and vivid narrative of William Hunter's arrest, interrogations and martyrdom, which was clearly supplied by Hunter's brother Robert. The reader should keep this source in mind when reading the account: its strengths are its mastery of local detail and its access to the feelings of the martyr and those around him (e.g., his description of William Hunter's dreams). But partisanship may colour some of the 'facts' of the narrative: for example, did the sun shine brightly on Hunter after he prayed for the Son of God to shine upon him?

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
William Hunter

Several notes focus upon the unnaturalness of popery: Foxe exploits the request to Hunter's father to return his son to what he suspects, with justice, will be his death; the glosses concerned with this episode use metaphors of 'fruit', and comment on the naturalnes of the relations between Hunter and his father. In the gloss 'The fruite of the Popes doctrine to set the father agaynst the sonne', Foxe sets the generative metaphors of fruit and paternity against each other to emphasise the subversion of the natural order by papal doctrine and offers a contrast in a later gloss, 'The working of nature betwene the father & the sonne'. Another gloss emphasises the comforting of Hunter by the son of the sheriff ('The Shriffes sonne geueth comfortable wordes to W. Hunter'), which suggests that a son was set against his father. Two glosses make use of phrases established in Book X as anti-catholic commonplaces: the charge that papists cannot 'abide' scripture ('The Catholickes cannot abide the Bible') and the use of the phrase 'pelting chafe' to indicate the fury of a persecutor ('M. Browne in a pelting chafe'). Some glosses near to the account of Hunter's death ('His father and mother come to cōfort him'; 'His father & mother exhort him to be constant'; 'Maister Higbed maruelleth at the constancy of Williams mother') emphasise constancy and several relate the prophetic dream Hunter had shortly before his death and the occasions of 'verification' of it ('A notable thing concerning W. Hunters dreame'; 'W. Hunters dreame verefied'; 'Williams dreame verified'). The cruel treatment of Hunter is also stressed ('Boner commaundeth W. Hunter to the stockes. W. Hunter 2. dayes & 2. nightes in the stockes, with a crust of bread, & a cuppe of water'; 'W. Hnnter layd in the conuict prison with as many yrons as he could beare'). An erroneous date in the 1563 edition is corrected in later editions.

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MarginaliaWilliam Hunter prētise, and Martyr. MarginaliaMarch. 26.THe 26. day of þe sayd moneth of March, the yeare aforesayd, folowed the Martyrdome of Williā Hunter, a right godly young man of the age of xix. yeares, and borne of lyke godly parentes: by whom he was not onely instructed in in true Religion and godlynes, but also confirmed by them vnto death, after a rare and straunge example, worthy to be noted and had in admiration of all parentes. Wherin may appeare a singular spectacle, not onely of a maruelous fortitude in the partie so young: but also in his parentes, to beholde nature in them striuing with Religion, and ouercome of the same. 
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The conquering of affection and love was an important part of the stoicism which was expected of the martyrs (see Collinson [1983]). Foxe describes martyrs such as John Rogers and Rawlins White refusing to allow the sight of their families to dissaude them from martyrdom. The Hunter family supplied Foxe with an opportunity to stress this domestic stoicism from another angle, that of the martyrs' families.

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Wherby Christian parentes may learne what is to be done not onely in their children, but also in them selues, if neede at any tyme do require, or godlynes should demaund the duetie of a Christian man agaynst naturall affection. Example wherof in the sequele of this hystorie we haue here present before our eyes. Which hystorie as it was faithfully drawen out by Robert Hunter his own brother (who beyng present with his brother William, and neuer left him till his death, sent the true reporte therof vnto vs) we haue here with lyke faithfulnes placed and recorded the same, as foloweth.

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MarginaliaWilliam Hunter prentise in Colman streete wyth Thomas Taylour.Williā Hunter being a prentise in London in the fyrst yeare of Queene Mary, was commaunded at the Easter next following, to receaue the communion at a Masse, by the Priest of the parish where hee dwelt, called Colman streete: which, because he refused to do, MarginaliaWilliam Hunter threatned for not receauing at a Masse.he was very much threatned that he should be therfore brought before the Byshop of Londō. Wherfore William Hunters Maister one Thomas Tailour, a Silke weauer, MarginaliaWilliam Hunter willed of hys Maister to depart.requyred William Hunter, to go and depart from him, lest that he shoulde come in daunger, because of hym, if hee continued in his house. For the which causes, William Hunter toke leaue of his said maister, & thence came to Burntwood where his father dwelt, MarginaliaWilliam Hunter commeth to hys father at Burntwood. with whom he remayned afterward, about the space of halfe a quarter of a yeare.

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After this it happened, within. v. or vj. weekes, that William going into the Chappell of Burntwood, and finding there a Bible lying on a Deske, dyd reade therein. In the meane time there came in one MarginaliaFather Atwell a Sumner or Promotor.father Atwell a Sumner, 

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A summoner for the bishop: that is, an official responsible for collecting small sums of money owed to the bishop and with ensuring attendance at ecclesiastical courts.

which hearing William read in the Bible, sayd to him, what medlest thou wyth the Bible? Knowest thou what thou readest, & canst thou expound the scriptures?

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To whom William aunswered and sayd: father Atwell, I take not vpon me to expound the scriptures, except I were dispensed 

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I.e., licensed.

withall, but I finding the Bible here when I came, read in it to my comfort. To whom Father Atwell sayd: it was neuer mery since the Bible came abroad in English.

To the which wordes William aunswered saying: MarginaliaTalke betwene Atwell & William Hunter concerning the Bible.Father Atwell, say not so for Gods sake, for it is Gods booke, out of the which euery one that hath grace may learne to know what things both please God, and also what displeaseth him. Then sayd father Atwell: could we not tell before this tyme, as well as now, how God was serued? William aunswered: no father Atwell, nothing so wel, as we may now, if that we might haue hys blessed word, amongest vs still as we haue had. It is true sayd father Atwell, if it be as you say.

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Well sayd William Hunter, it liketh me very well, and I pray God that we may haue the blessed Bible amongest vs continually. To the which wordes father

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