Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 45. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 46. John Aleworth 47. Martyrdom of James Abbes 48. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 49. Richard Hooke 50. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 51. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 52. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 53. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 54. Martyrdom of William Haile 55. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 56. William Andrew 57. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 58. Samuel's Letters 59. William Allen 60. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 61. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 62. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 63. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 64. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 65. Cornelius Bungey 66. John and William Glover 67. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 68. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 69. Ridley's Letters 70. Life of Hugh Latimer 71. Latimer's Letters 72. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed73. More Letters of Ridley 74. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 75. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 76. William Wiseman 77. James Gore 78. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 79. Philpot's Letters 80. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 81. Letters of Thomas Wittle 82. Life of Bartlett Green 83. Letters of Bartlett Green 84. Thomas Browne 85. John Tudson 86. John Went 87. Isobel Foster 88. Joan Lashford 89. Five Canterbury Martyrs 90. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 91. Letters of Cranmer 92. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 93. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 94. William Tyms, et al 95. Letters of Tyms 96. The Norfolk Supplication 97. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 98. John Hullier 99. Hullier's Letters 100. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 101. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 102. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 103. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 104. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 105. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 106. Gregory Crow 107. William Slech 108. Avington Read, et al 109. Wood and Miles 110. Adherall and Clement 111. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 112. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow113. Persecution in Lichfield 114. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 115. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 116. Examinations of John Fortune117. John Careless 118. Letters of John Careless 119. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 120. Agnes Wardall 121. Peter Moone and his wife 122. Guernsey Martyrdoms 123. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 124. Martyrdom of Thomas More125. Examination of John Jackson126. Examination of John Newman 127. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 128. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 129. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 130. John Horne and a woman 131. William Dangerfield 132. Northampton Shoemaker 133. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 134. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the GlossesCommentary on the Text
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1793 [1754]

Quene Mary. The story and examinations of Iohn Ardeley and Iohn Symson, Martyrs.

MarginaliaAn. 1555. May.the Lord strengthen you, me and all his elect. My riches and pouertye is as it was wont to be, and I haue learned to reioyce in pouertye, as well as in riches: for that count I now to be verye riches. Thus fare ye well in Christ. Salute all my brethren in my name. I haue cōferred with some of my aduersaries, learned men, and I fynde that they be but Sophistes and shadowes.

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¶ A note concerning M. Cardmaker.

MarginaliaA note concerning the talke betwene M. Cardmaker and Beard a Promoter.MAister Cardmaker being cōdemned and in Newgate, one Beard a Promoter came to hym two or three dayes before he was burned, and sayd vnto hym: Syr, I am sent vnto you by the Counsayle, to knowe whether ye wyll recant or no?

Cardmaker. From which Counsaile are ye come? I thynke ye are not come, nor yet sent from the Quenes Counsaile, but rather from the Commissioners, vnto whō (as I suppose) ye belong. And where as ye would know, whether I wyll recant or no, thus I pray you report of me, to those whom ye sayd, sent you. I know you are a Taylor by your occupation, and haue endeuored your selfe to be a cunning workeman, and thereby to get your liuing: so I haue bene a Preacher these xx. yeares, and euer since that God by his mercy hath opened myne eyes to see hys eternall truth, I haue by hys grace, endeuoured my selfe to call vpon hym, to geue me the true vnderstanding of hys holy word, and I thanke hym for hys great mercy, I hope I haue dyscharged my conscience in the setting forth of the same, to that litle talent that I haue receiued.

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Beard. Yea Syr, but what say you to the blessed Sacrament of the aultar?

Card. I say, and marke it well, that Christ the nyght before hys bytter passion, ordayned the holy and blessed Communion, and hath geuen commaundement, that hys death should be preached before the receiuing therof, in the remembraūce that hys body was broken, and hys precious bloud shed for the forgeuenes of our sinnes, to as many as faithfully beleue & trust in hym.

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MarginaliaThe sentence and iudgement of Maister Cardmaker touching the Sacrament.And furthermore, to conclude the matter briefly with him, he asked of hym, whether the sacrament, he spake of, had a beginning or no? Whereunto when he had graunted and affirmed the same so to be, then M. Cardmaker agayne thus inferred thereupon: If the sacrament (sayd he) as you confesse, haue a begynning and an ending, then it can not be God: for God hath no beginning nor ending, & so willing him well to note the same, he departed from hym.

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The story of Iohn Ardeley and Iohn Symson, of the parish of Wygborow the great, in Essex.


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The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson

The usual narrative pointers are given in the glosses in this section, along with glosses giving summaries of the contents of articles alleged against the martyrs and their answers. As it often does, 1563 uses numbers in the margin to mark out the articles and the answers to them; this is in line with its generally (though not universally) less ambitious attitude to annotation in comparison with later editions. Two notes continue Foxe's campaign to portray Bonner as the slave to his passions: 'Q. Mary stirreth Boner to shedde innocent bloud' and 'A note of the sodaine fear of Boner'. The first of these is an interestingly unreserved comment on the role of the Queen in the persecutions: she is portrayed as the principal agent in the stirring up of Bonner, even though the letter was also from her husband.

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MarginaliaThe story of Ioh. Simson, and Iohn Ardeley, Martyrs. 
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The Martyrdoms of Ardley and Simpson

There is some evidence that John Simpson was a more important figure among the Marian protestants then even Foxe realized. He had been one of the organizers of the Bocking conventicle, a major meeting of evangelicals from Kent, Essex and Suffolk during Edward VI's reign (see Freeman [2002], pp. 130-31). There are also a number of manuscript copies of a letter which Simpson wrote to followers in Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex and Kent (BL, Lansdowne 389, fos. 144v-145v and 243r-v as well as ECL 260, fos. 47r-48v, 55r-v and 252v-253v). Interestingly, two other martyrs, John Denley and John Newman, were apprehended journeying from Kent to visit Simpson and Ardley in Essex.

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In the Rerum, however, Foxe confused John Simpson with another Marian martyr, Cuthbert Simpson (Rerum, p. 462). The Rerum also states that Simpson and Ardley were both burned on 11 June 1555 (the correct date is 10 June 1555) at Rochford and Rayleigh respectively (Rerum, p. 462). The Rerum (p. 462) also contains a story of a false rumour of a riot causing a panic at the condemnation of Ardley and Simpson which would be reprinted in every edition of the Acts and Monuments.

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Foxe added a great deal of material in his 1563 edition; in fact, all of the information Foxe printed on Ardley and Simpson appears in his first edition. In 1563, Foxe added the letter from Philip and Mary to Bonner, which was copied from Bonner's register. He also added the articles charged against the two martyrs, their answers and an account of their condemnation, all taken from a now lost official record. probably a court book. And in the appendix of the 1563 edition, Foxe added a short account of the defiance of Ardley and Simpson at their condemnation. This came from an eyewitness while the first edition was being printed.

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In the second edition, Foxe did not add any material but he rearranged it. First he placed the overall narrative of Ardley and Simpson in its proper chronological place. Then Foxe conflated the articles and answers of the two martyrs, and he moved the story of the defiance of the two martyrs at their condemnation from the appendix. This version of the account of Ardley and Simpson was printed unchanged in the third and fourth editions of the Acts and Monuments.

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WIth M. Cardmaker and Iohn Warne, vpon the same day and in the same company, and for the same cause was also condemned Iohn Ardeley and Iohn Symson, which was vpon. 25. day of May. But before we come to the story of them, first here is to be noted the copie of the King & Queenes letter, directed from the Court the same day, and sent by a Post early in the morning to the bishop in tenor and forme as followeth.

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¶ To the right reuerēd father in God our right trusty and welbeloued, the Byshop of London. 
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Foxe copied this letter from Bonner's register; see GL, 9531/12, fol. 363r.

MarginaliaThe King and Queenes letter to Byshop Boner.RIght reuerend father in God, right trusty and welbeloued, we greete you well. And where of late we addressed our letters to the Iustices of peace within euery of the Counteis of this our Realme, wherby amongest other instructions geuen them for the good order and quyet gouernement of the Countrey about thē, they are willed to haue a speciall regard vnto such disordred persons, as forgetting their dutyes towardes God and vs, do leane to any erroneous and hereticall opinions, refusyng to shew thēselues conformable to the Ca-

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tholicke religiō of Christes church: wherin if they cā not by good admonitiōs & fayre meanes reforme them, they are willed to deliuer them to the Ordinary, to be by hym charitably trauayled withall, and remoued (if it may be) from their noughty opinions, or els if they continue obstinate, to be ordred accordyng to the lawes prouided in that behalfe: vnderstandyng now, to our no litle maruaile, that diuers of the said disordred persons, beyng by the Iustices of the peace for their contempt and obstinanacie, brought to the Ordinaryes 

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An ordinary was any person exercising authority by virtue of holy orders, in this case the bishop in charge of the diocese to which the accused person belonged.

to be vsed as is aforesayd, are either refused to be receiued at their handes, or if they be receiued, are neither so trauailed with, as Christian charity requireth, nor yet proceded withall accordyng to the order of Iustice, but are suffred to continue in their errours, to the dishonour of almighty God, and daungerous exāple of others:  
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Philip and Mary were claiming that the bishops were failing to prosecute the heresy cases brought before them and were ordering their bishops to take a tougher line against them.

like as we finde this matter very straunge, so haue thought conuenient, both to signify this our knowledge, and therwith also to admonish you to haue in this behalfe such regarde henceforth to the office of a good Pastor and Byshop, MarginaliaQ Mary stirreth Boner to sheed innocent when any such offenders shalbe by the sayd officers or Iustices of peace brought vnto you, you to vse your good wisedom and discretion in procuryng to remoue them from theyr errours if it may be, or els in procedyng agaynst them (if they shall continue obstinate) accordyng to the order of the lawes: so as through your good furtheraunce, both Gods glory may be better aduaunced, and the common wealth more quietly gouerned. Yeuen vnder our signet, at our honour of Hampton Court, the. xxiiij. of May the first and second yeares of our raignes.

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This letter thus cōming from the Court to the Bishop, made hym the more earnest and hastye to the condemnation, as wel of others, as of these men, of whom now we haue presently to entreate, of Iohn Symson I meane, and Iohn Ardeley. MarginaliaIoh. Ardeley & Ioh. Symson both husbandmen in the towne of Wigbarow.Which both being of one coūtrey, and of one towne together, and of one trade, that is, being both husbandmen in the towne of Wygborow in Essex, and also almost both of one age, saue that Symson was of the age of xxxiiij. the other of. xxx. were brought vp together by the vnder Sheriffe of Essex to Boner bishop of London, vpon the accusation (as in that tyme it was called) of heresy.

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As touching the order and maner of their examinatiōs before the bishop, as the articles ministred against them, were much lyke: so their aunswers againe vnto the same were not much discrepant in maner & forme, as out of the Bishops owne Registers here followeth, expressed.

¶ Articles obiected agaynst Iohn Symson, and Iohn Ardley of the Parish of Wigborow the great in Essex, husbandmen, by Boner Byshop of London, at Fulham, 22. of May. 1555. 
Commentary  *  Close

The articles and answers of Ardley and Simpson were taken from an official record of Bonner's which is now lost, probably a court book. Note that in the second edition Foxe conflated the two sets of identical articles and nearly identical answers.

MarginaliaArticles ministred agaynst Ioh. Symson, and Ioh. Ardley.1. FIrst, that thou Ioh. Symson (or Ioh. Ardley) husbādman, of the age of 34. yeare, or thereabout, wast and art of the Parish of great Wigborow, within the Dioces of London, and thou hast not beleued, nor doest beleue that there is here in earth one catholicke and vniuersal whole Church which doth hold and beleue all the fayth and Religion of Christ and all the necessary Articles and Sacramentes of the same.

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2. Item, that thou hast not beleued, nor doest beleue, that thou art necessarily bounden vnder þe paine of damnation of thy soule, to geue full fayth and credence vnto the sayd Catholicke and vniuersall Church, and to the Religion of the same, in all necessary poyntes of the sayd fayth and Religion, without waueryng or doubtyng in the sayd fayth and Religion, or in any part therof.

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3. Itē, that thou hast not beleued, nor doest beleue, that that fayth and Religiō, which both MarginaliaThe Church of Rome, Italy, Spayne, and other forrayne countreyes in Europe.the Church of Rome, Italy, Spayne, England, Fraunce, Ireland, Scotland, and all other Churches in Europe, beyng true members & partes of the sayd Catholicke and vniuersall Church do beleue and teach, is both agreyng with the sayd Catholicke and vniuersall Church, and the fayth and Religion of Christ, and also is the very true fayth and Religion, which all Christē people ought to beleue, obserue, folow and kepe, but contrariwise thou hast beleued, and doest beleue, that that faith and Religion, which the sayd Church of Rome, and all the other Churches aforesayd haue heretofore beleued, and do now beleue, is false, erroneous and nought, and in no wise ought to be beleued, obserued,

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