Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Mary's False Pregnancy32. Censorship Proclamation 33. Our Lady' Psalter 34. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain35. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 36. Bradford's Letters 37. William Minge 38. James Trevisam 39. The Martyrdom of John Bland 40. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 41. Sheterden's Letters 42. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 43. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 44. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 45. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 46. John Aleworth 47. Martyrdom of James Abbes 48. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 49. Richard Hooke 50. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 51. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 52. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 53. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 54. Martyrdom of William Haile 55. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 56. William Andrew 57. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 58. Samuel's Letters 59. William Allen 60. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 61. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 62. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 63. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 64. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 65. Cornelius Bungey 66. John and William Glover 67. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 68. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 69. Ridley's Letters 70. Life of Hugh Latimer 71. Latimer's Letters 72. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed73. More Letters of Ridley 74. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 75. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 76. William Wiseman 77. James Gore 78. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 79. Philpot's Letters 80. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 81. Letters of Thomas Wittle 82. Life of Bartlett Green 83. Letters of Bartlett Green 84. Thomas Browne 85. John Tudson 86. John Went 87. Isobel Foster 88. Joan Lashford 89. Five Canterbury Martyrs 90. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 91. Letters of Cranmer 92. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 93. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 94. William Tyms, et al 95. Letters of Tyms 96. The Norfolk Supplication 97. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 98. John Hullier 99. Hullier's Letters 100. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 101. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 102. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 103. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 104. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 105. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 106. Gregory Crow 107. William Slech 108. Avington Read, et al 109. Wood and Miles 110. Adherall and Clement 111. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 112. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow113. Persecution in Lichfield 114. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 115. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 116. Examinations of John Fortune117. John Careless 118. Letters of John Careless 119. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 120. Agnes Wardall 121. Peter Moone and his wife 122. Guernsey Martyrdoms 123. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 124. Martyrdom of Thomas More125. Examination of John Jackson126. Examination of John Newman 127. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 128. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 129. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 130. John Horne and a woman 131. William Dangerfield 132. Northampton Shoemaker 133. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 134. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1806 [1767]

Queene Mary. The death and Martyrdome of Thomas Haukes.

Marginalia1555. Iune.talke with them, he would familiarely admonish them. A litle before his death certaine there were of his familiare acquaintaunce and frendes, who frequenting his cōpany more familiarly, which seemed not a litle to be cōfirmed both by þe example of his cōstancie, and by his talke: yet notwithstandyng the same agayne beyng feared with the sharpnes of the punishmēt, which hee was goyng to, MarginaliaAgreed betwene Thomas Haukes and his frendes, to geue them a token in the fire, whether the payne of the burning were so greeuous as it semeth, or no.priuely desired that in the myddest of the flame he would shew them some token if hee could, wherby they might be more certain whether the payne of such burnyng were so great, that a man might not therin kepe his minde quyet and pacient. 

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Once again Foxe is concerned to emphasize the stoicism of the protestant martyrs. On the polemical importance of the stoicism of the martyrs see Collinson (1983) and Freeman (1997).

Which thyng he promised them to do, and so secretly betwene them it was agreed, that if the rage of the payne were tole-

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rable and might be suffered, then he should lift vp his handes aboue his head toward heauen before he gaue vp the ghost.

Not long after, when the houre was come, MarginaliaTho. Haukes caryed to the place of execution.Tho. Haukes was lead away to the place appointed for the slaughter, by the Lord Rich and his assistance, who being now come vnto the stake, there mildly and paciently addressed him selfe to the fire, hauing a strayt chaine cast about his middle, with no smal multitude of people on euery side compassing him about. Vnto whom after he had spoken many things, MarginaliaTho. Haukes standing at the stake reasoneth with the Lord Rich.but especially vnto the Lorde Rich, reasoning with him of the innocēt bloud of the Saintes, at lēgth after his feruent prayers fyrst made, & poured out vnto God, þe fier was set vnto him.

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MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Thomas Haukes, at Coxhall in Essex. An. 1555. Iune. 10.¶ The Martyrdome of Thomas Haukes in Essex, at a towne called Coxhall. An. 1555. Iune. 10.

woodcut [View a larger version]

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The young, 'comely' and well-informed Essex gentleman, Thomas Haukes, called an exemplary 'bright starre' by the martyrologist, having been examined and condemned in London, was committed to Lord Rich and returned to Essex for execution at Coggeshall. There friends and acquaintance came to his burning, shown in this crowded scene hemmed in by armed guards. They asked for a signal to show that the spirit could remain constant in the fire, and Haukes is depicted giving this, lifting his hands over his head and clapping them as he gave his last. His last words, given in italic letters in 1563, were renewed in roman with slight differences in each of the succeeding three editions. The slopes and trees and village church in the background quite deftly suggest the country location. The style of the central portion of the woodcut, with its straight lines of stacked wood and flames that snake around the martyr, bear some similarity to the small group of single-column cuts that appear to have been borrowed from another (unidentified) source (see Introduction).

In the which when he continued long, and when hys speeche was taken away by violence of the flame, hys skynne also drawen together, and hys fingers consumed with the fier, so that now all men thought certainly he had bene gone, sodainly and contrary to all expectation, MarginaliaA token geuen in the fire, that burning is not so intolerable a payne as it is thought.the blessed seruaunt of God, being myndfull of his promise afore made, reached vp hys hands burning on a lyght fier (which was marueilous to behold) ouer his head to the liuing God, and wyth great reioysing, as seemed, strooke or clapped thē three times together. At the sight whereof there followed such applause and outcry of the people, and especially of them which vnderstoode the matter, that 

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Note the difference between this description in 1563 and in the subsequent editions. This is another example of Foxe toning down his rehetoric in the 1570 edition.

the lyke hath not commonly bene heard: And so þe blessed Martyr of Christ, straight way sincking downe into the fier, gaue vp hys spirite, An. 1555. Iun. 10. MarginaliaThe end and Martyrdome of Thomas Haukes at Coxal. And thus haue you plainlye and expressely described vnto you the whole story, as well of the lyfe, as of the death of Thomas Haukes, a most constant and faythful wytnes of Christes holy Gospel.

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¶ Letters. 
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The Letters of Thomas Haukes

The letters of Haukes to his congregation and to his wife first appeared in the 1563 edition. Foxe may have obtained them from Haukes's widow or family. The letter to Clement Throgmorten, first printed in 1570, almost certainly came from Throgmorton or his family.

¶ An Epistle to the Congregation by Thomas Haukes. 
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This letter first appears in the 1563 edition. It was not reprinted in the Letters of the Martyrs but it was reprinted in all subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments. ECL 260, fol. 57r is a copy of this letter.


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Letters of Hawkes

Hawkes' obsession with the avoidance of idolatry is made clear ('He exhorteth her to beware of Idolatry'; 'Idolatry punished of God'; 'Praying to God & not to creatures'). As is usual (and in contrast to the far more disputational section which precedes this one), the glosses accompanying the letters are informative rather than interpretative.

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MarginaliaA letter of Thomas Haukes to the congregation.GRace, mercy, and peace, from God the father, and frō our Lord Iesus Christ, be alway with you all (my deare brethren and sisterne in the Lord Iesus Christ) for euer: and his holy Spirite conduct and leade you all in all your doynges, that you may alwayes direct your

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deedes accordyng to his holy word, that when he shall appeare to reward euery mā accordyng to their workes: ye may as obedient children be found watchyng, ready to enter into his euerlasting kyngdome with your lāpes burnyng, 

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The imagery in this passage is from Matthew 25: 1-10.

and whē the Bridegrome shall shew him self, ye nede not to be ashamed of this lyfe that God hath lent you, which is but transitory, vayne, and lyke vnto a vapour, that for a season appeareth and vanisheth away: so soone passeth away all our terrestriall honour, glory, and felicity. For all flesh (sayth the Prophet) is grasse, and all his glory, as the floure of the fielde, which for a season sheweth her beauty, and as soone as the Lord bloweth vppon it, it withereth away, and departeth.  
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Isaiah 40: 6.

For in this transitory and daungerous wilderners, we are as Pilgrimes and straungers, folowing the footesteps of Moses,among MarginaliaThe manifold daungers which a true Christian hath to passe thorow in thys world.many vnspeakable daungers, beholdyng nothyng with our outward man, but all vayne vanities, and vexation of mynd: subiect to honger, cold, nakednes, bondes, sicknes, losse, labours, banishment, in daunger of that dreadfull dragon, and his sinnefull seede, to be deuoured, tempted, and tormēted, who ceaseth not behynd euery bush to lay a baite, when we walke awrye to haue his pleasure vpon vs, casting abroad his apples in all places, times, and seasons, to see if Adam will be allured and entised to leaue the lyuyng God and his most holy Cōmaundementes, wherby he is assured of euerlastyng lyfe, promising the world at will, to all that will fall downe in all ages, and for a messe of potage, 
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See Genesis 25: 29-34.

sell and set at nought the euerlastyng kyngdome of heauen. So fraile is flesh and bloud: and in especiall Israell is most ready to walke awry, when hee is filled with

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