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207 [207]

King Alfrede. K. Edward. King Edward the elder. Actes and Monum. of the Church.

set vp agayne in the papacye, where he reigned nere the space of v. yeares. Of the wickednes of this strumpet Marozia, how she maryed ij. brethrē, one after the death of the other: And how she gouerned all Rome, and the whole church at that tyme, I let it passe. Although the latine verses wherwith þe sayd Liuthprandus MarginaliaLiuthprādus Ticinēsis. li. 3.doth inuey agaynst such women as marye two brethren, were neither vnworthye here to be recited, and perhappes might be further applyed then to that Marozia of Rome, but for shortnes I let them also passe.

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MarginaliaPope Stephan. 7.
Pope Leo. 7.
Pope Stephan. 7.
Pope Martin. 3
Pope Agapetus. 2.
After Ioan. xij. followed Pope Stephan. iij. yeares. Pope Leo. iij. yeares and 4. monethes. Pope Stephen the eyght. iij. yeares and. 4. monethes. Pope Martine iij. yeares and. vj. monethes. After him Pope Agapetus viij. yeares and. vj. monethes. About whose time or a litle before began fyrst the order of monkes called Ordo Cluniacensis, &c.

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MarginaliaOrdo Cluniacensis beginneth.But now to leaue of those monstruous matters of Rome, and to returne agayne to our countrey of England, where we last left before.

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Edward the Elder to Edgar

Foxe's sources for the history of Anglo-Saxon England after the death of Alfred the Great remained something of the same mix as they had for the earlier sections of book 3 in the 1570 edition (which is the first edition in which he treats these matters in detail). He continued to rely on Fabian's Chronicle (R. Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559]) and John Brompton's Chronicle (J. Brompton, 'Chronicon Johannis Brompton Abbatis Jornalensis.' In Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores X. [....], ed. by Roger Twysden (London, 1652)) as his baseline source-textsm, supplementing them with other chronicles in a way that suggests a continuing diligence in comparing the various extant accounts open to him. In one respect, however, his diligence was less than complete. Foxe continued to use John Brompton as his source for the Anglo-Saxon law-codes, even though his own printer, John Day had published in 1568 the edition of them prepared in translations directly from Old English by William Lambarde (William Lambarde, Archaionomia [London: 1568]). Foxe certainly used this source for his argument against the Six Articles later on, but he does not seem to have had access to it whilst he was revising the earlier parts of the Acts and Monuments (books 1-2) and here he seems only to have used it in respect of the Epistle to King Lucius, which may have been abstracted for him by someone in Archbishop Matthew Parker's household, or passed on by Nowell or Lambarde himself.

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Matthew Phillpott and Mark Greengrass
University of Sheffield

¶ King Edward the elder.

MarginaliaKing Edward the elder. 

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Foxe's use of his sources here was quite rich. In addition to Brompton's Chronicle (J. Brompton, 'Chronicon Johannis Brompton Abbatis Jornalensis.' In Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores X. [....], ed. by Roger Twysden [London, 1652], p. 831), the first few sentences come directly from William of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum (J. S. Brewer, and C. T. Martin, 'William of Malmesbury: Gesta Regum.' In Reigistrum Malmesburiense. The Registor of Malmesbury Abbey, ed. by J.S. Brewer and C.T. Martin (London: Rolls Series, 1869-1880), book 2, ch. 125). He also may have cross-referenced to Matthew Paris' Flores (H. R. Luard, ed. Matthew Paris. Flores Historiarum 3 vols [London: Rolls Series, 1890], 1, p. 478) and Henry Huntingdon's Chronicle (T. Arnold, ed. Henry of Huntingdon. Henrici Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum, the History of the English, by Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, from B. C. 55 to A. D. 1154 [London: Rolls Series, 1879], book 5, ch. 14).

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AFter þe reigne of þe famous king Alfred, Hys sonne Edward succeded, surnamed þe elder. Where first is to be noted, þt before the conquest of the Normandes, there were in England. iij. Edwardes, MarginaliaThe Edwardes before the conquest.first this Edward the elder. 2. Edward the martyr. 3. Edward the confessor. Wherof hereafter (by the grace of Christ) shal followe in order, as place shall geue to be declared. This Edward began his reigne, the yeare of our Lord. 901. and gouerned the land right valiantly and noblie. xxiiij. yeares. MarginaliaA comparison betwene Alfrede, and hys sonne EdwardIn knowledge of good letters and learning, he was not to be compared to hys father. Otherwyse, in princely renowne, in ciuile gouernment, and such lyke martial prowesse, he was nothing inferiour, but rather excelled him. Through whose valiaunt actes first the princedome of Walles, and kingdome of Scotland, with Contantine king therof were to hym subdued. He adioyned moreouer to his dominiō þe countrey of Eastanglia, that is, of Norfolke, Suffolke and Essex. All Merceland, also he recouered & Northbūerland out of þe handes of the Danes. In al his warres he neuer lightly went without victorie. MarginaliaVse & lōg exercise of things maketh perfectnes.The subiectes of his prouinces and dominions were so inured, and hardened in continuall practise and feates of warre: that when they heard of any enemies cōming (neuer tarying for any bidding from the king, or from his dukes) straight waies they encountred with them: both in number, & in knowledge of the order of warre excelling alwayes their aduersaries. Guliel. de Regi. Ita hostes militibus cōtemptui, Regi risui erant. To meane, So was the comming and assaulting of their enemies to the people and common souldiours but a trifle, to the king but a ridicle. Among other aduersaryes which were busie rather then wise, in assayling this king: was one called MarginaliaClyto Ethelwold rebelleth against king Edward.
An 904
Clyto Ethelwoldus a young man, king Edwardes vncles sonne. Who fyrst occupying the towne of Wimborne (taking thence a nonne with him, whom thē he had maryed) fled by night to Northūberland, to adioyne himself vnto the Danes, who was made chiefe king and captaine ouer them. Then chased from thence, he fled ouer into Fraūce, but shortly returning againe into England, landed in Eastengland, where the sayd Clyto with a cōpany of Danes of that countrey gathered vnto him, destroyed and pylled much of the countrey about Crekinford and Crikeland. And so passing ouer Thamys after he had spoyled the lande there to Bradenestocke: returned agayne to Norfolke and Suff where he meting with a bushment of Kentish men, which dragged & taried after the maine hoste of Edward, contrarye to hys commaundement, inclosed them in, and slewe the most part of them. Sone after the two hostes meting together, betwene the twoditches of S. Edmundes land, after a long fight Clyto with many of the Danes were slaine, and the remnant were constrained to seeke for peace, which vpon certain conditions, and vnder a tribute was to them graunted.

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Marginalia913.In processe, aboute the. xij. yeare of his reigne, the Danes repenting them of their couenantes, & minding to breake the same: assembled an hoste and met with the king in Staffordshire at a place called Totenhall, and sone after at Wodnesfield: at which two places the king slew. ij. kinges, ij. erles, and many thousand of Danes, that occupyed the countrey of Northumberland.

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Thus the importune rage of the Danes being asswaged, king Edward hauing now some leysure geuen frō warres to other studies: gaue his minde to þe building, or reparying of cities, townes, and castles, that by the Danes were rased, shatred, and broken. MarginaliaChester repaired and enlarged.As first of Chester, which citie he double inlarged to that it was before: cōpassing the castle within the walles of the same, which before stoode without. The done, MarginaliaThe castle of Herford builded.the king builded a strong castle at Herforde in the edge of Wales. MarginaliaCastles builded vpō the riuer of Auene, and of Owse.Also for the strengthning of the countrey, he made a castle at the mouth of the water of Auene, and an other castle at Bockingham, & the thyrd fast therby vpon the riuer of Owse. MarginaliaThe townes of Towserout and Wigmore builded.Moreouer he builded or reedified the townes of Towsetour, and Wigmore, and destroyed the castle that þe Danes had made at Demesford. Likewise, vpon the riuer of Trent agaynst the olde towne of Nottingham, MarginaliaThe new towne of Nottinghā builded.he builded a new towne on the southside, and made a bridge ouer the riuer, betwene the said two townes. Also by the riuer of Merce, MarginaliaThilwalde.
Manchester repaired.
he builded a citie or towne, in the north end of Mercia, & named it Thilwall, and after repayred the citie of Māchester, that sore was defaced with warre of the Danes.

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MarginaliaElfleda.In this renuyng and building of townes and castels for the more fortefeing of his realme: his sister Elfleda, daughter of kyng Alfrede, & maried to the duke of Mercia (as is afore mentioned) was no small helper. Of thys Elfleda it is firmely of writers affirmed, that she beyng as is said maried to Ethelrede duke of Mercia, after she had once assayed the paynes of wemen in trauelyng wt her childe: so much she abhorred euer after the embrasing of her husband, that it semed to her (she sayd) not semely for a noble woman to vse such fleshly lyking wherof so great sorow & trauaile should ensue. And yet notwithstandyng the same Elfleda, for all her delicate tendernes in eschuyng the naturall passion, which necessitie geueth to wemen: so hardy she was in warlike daūgers, which nature geueth not to wemē, þt fighting agaynst þe Danes, so venturous she was of stomack, þt foure of her next knightes, whiche were gardeins of her body, were slayne fast by her. MarginaliaCities, townes & castles builded by Elfleda.This Elfleda emong her other noble actes, wherin she deserued praise, was a great helper and styrer vp of her brother Edward: who builded and newly repayred many castels & townes, as Tomworth, beside Lychfield, Stafforde, Warwick, Shrowesbury, Watrisbury, Eldisbury, besides Chester in the forest nowe destroyed. Also in the North ende of Mercia, vpon the riuer of Merce, a castel called Rimcorn. also a bridge ouer seuern named Brimmisbury bridge.

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MarginaliaThe lawes of king Alfred & king Edward.As touchyng the lawes & statutes of this Edward, as also of his father Alfred made before him, I omitte here to record them for length of matter & wast of time: yet notwithstāding, this admonitiō by the way I thinke good to note: that in these daies of these auncient kings reigning in England, the autoritie then both of conferryng byshoprikes, and spirituall promotions, and also of prescribyng lawes as well to the churche men, as to the laytie, and of orderyng and intermedling in matters mere spirituall, was then in the handes of kings, ruling in the land, and not onely in the hand of the pope, as appeareth by these lawes of Alfred.

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