Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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250 [250]

K. William Conq. Pope Hildebrand. K. William Conq. Pope Hildebrād.

MarginaliaConcilium Brixiense.
Brixia, an. 1083. where he purged himselfe, and accused the bishop Hildebrand of diuers crimes: to bee an vsurper: periured: a necromanser and sorcerer: a sower of discord, complayning moreouer of wronges & iniuries done by the bishop and church of Rome: in that the church of Rome preferred þe bishop before him, when that his father being Emperour before him, had inthronised and set in diuers and sundrye bishops there by hys assignment, without all other election. And now this bishop contrarye to his othe and promise made, thrust in himselfe, without the wyll and knowledge of him, being their king and magistrate. For in the tyme of his father Henricus. 3. this Hildebrand with other, bound thē selues with a corporall othe: MarginaliaNo bishop of Kome to be chosen without the assent of the Emperour.that so long as the Emperour and his sonne nowe being king shoulde lyue, they should neyther themselues presume, nor suffer anye other to aspire to the papall seate, without the assent and approbation of the foresayd Emperours: which nowe this Hildebrand contrary to hys corporal oth had done. Wherefore the foresayde councel with one agremente condemned thys Gregorye, that he shoulde be deposed: The tenor of which condemnation is thus expressed in Abbate Vrspergense.

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¶ The sentence of the councel of Brixia, agaynst Hildebrand.

MarginaliaAbbas Vrspergensis.BEcause it is not knowen, this bishop not to be elected of God, but to haue intruded himself, by fraude and mony, who hath subuerted all Ecclesiastical order, who hath disturbed the gouernment of the christiā Empery, manasing death both of body and soule against our catholike and peaceable kyng: who hath set vp and mayntayned a periured king, sowyng discord, wher concorde was: causing debate amongst frendes, slaunders, & offences amongst brethren, diuorcements and separation amonst the maried (for he tooke away the mariage of priestes, as Henricus Mutius witnesseth) MarginaliaHenricus Mutius.& finallye disquietyng the peaceable state of al quiet life: therfore we here in the name and authority of God congregate together, wyth the Legates and handes of xix. bishops, þe day of Pentecost at Mentz, do procede in Canonicall iudgement, against Hildebrand, a mā most wicked: preaching sacrilege and burnyng, maintayning periury and murthers, calling in question the catholike faith of the body & bloud of the lord, a folower of diuination & dreames, a manifest necromanser, a sorcerer, and infected wyth a Pythonical spirit, and therefore departed from the true faith, MarginaliaNote here the pope iudged and deposed of the coūcel.we iudge him to be deposed and expelled. And vnlesse he hearyng this, shal yeld and depart the seat: to be perpetually condemned. Inacted. vij. Calend. Iulii. feria. 5. indictione. iii.

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This beyng inacted and sent to Rome, they elected Guibertus archbishop of Rauēna, in the place of Hildebrand, to gouerne the church of Rome, named Clemens iij. But when Hildebrand neither woulde geue ouer his holde. nor geue place to Clement: the emperour gathering an army to send to Italy, came to Rome to depose Gregorye, and to place Clement. MarginaliaThe pope seketh succour of hys paramour. This fyrst example to fight for remissiō of sinnes began in Hildebrand.But Hildebrand sending to Mathilda þe countesse, before mentioned: required (in remission of all her sinnes) to wythstand Henrye themperor, and so she dyd. Notwithstandyng Henricus preuailyng came to Rome, wher he besieged the city all the Lent, and after Easter got it, the Romaines being compelled to opē the gates vnto hym: so he cōming to þe temple of s. Peter, there placeth Clemēt in his papacy. Hildebrand straight flyeth into Adrians tower wt his adherentes. Wher he being beset round aboute, at length sendeth for Robert Guiscardus his frend a Norman. In the meane tyme while Robertus collecteth hys power, the abbot of Cluniake, conferryng wyth Gregory, exhorteth him to crown Henricus Emperour in Lateran. Which if he woulde doe, the other promiseth to bring about, that Henricus should departe with his ar-my into Germany. Wherunto the people of Rome also did likewise moue him. To whom Gregory answered þt he was content so to do (but vpon this condition) that the emperour would submit hymself to aske pardō, to amēd hys fault, and to promise obedience. The Emperor not agreing to those conditions went to Senas, takyng Clement, new stalled pope wyth hym.

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Benno, &c.
After the returne of the emperor, the foresaid Robert Guiscardus approchyng wyth his souldiers, brast in at one of the gates, and spoyleth þe city. And not long after deliuereth Hildebrand out of his enemies handes, and caried him away to Campania, where he, not long continuyng after, dyed in exile.

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Antoninus writeth, that Hildebrand, as he dyd lye a dying, called to him one of his chiefe Cardinals: bewaylyng to hym his fault and misorder of his spiritual ministry, in stirring vp discord, warre and discension: wherupon he desired the Cardinal to go to the Emperour, & to desire hym of foregeuenesse: absoluyng from the daunger of excommunication, both him and all his pertakers both quicke and dead.

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Thus hast thou (gentle reader) the full history of pope Gregory vij. called Hildebrand which I haue layde out more at large, and desyre thee to marke: MarginaliaHildebrād, the fyrst author & patrone of all misrule that followed in popes.because þt from this pope (if thou marke well) springeth all the occasion of mischief, of pride, pompe, stoutnes, presumption and tiranny, which sence that tyme hath raigned in his successors hetherto, in the Cathedral church of the Romishe cleargy. For here came first the subiection of the temporall regiment, vnder the spiritual iurisdiction. And emperours, which before were their maisters, now are made their vnderlinges. Also here came in the suppression of priestes mariage, as is sufficiently declared. Here came in moreouer the authority of both the swordes, spiritual and seculare into spiritual mens hands. So that christiā magistrates could do nothyng in election, in geuyng bishoprikes, or benefices, in callyng councels, in hearyng & correcting the excesses of the cleargy, but onely the Pope must do all. Yea moreouer no bishoppe nor pastor in hys owne parish could excommunicate or exercise any discipline amongst hys flocke, but onely the pope chalenged that prerogatiue to himself. Finally, here came in þe first example to persecute Emperours and kings, with rebellion an excommunication: as the cleagy thēselues hereafter do testifye & witnes in procedyng against Pascalis. Thus these notes beyng well obserued, let vs (by the grace of Christ) now repayre agayn to our countrey history of England.

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MarginaliaThe death of W. Conqueror.About the death of pope Hildebrād (or not long after) folowed the death of kyng William conquerour, in the yeare of our Lord. 1090. after he had reigned in Englād the space of xxi. yeares and x. monethes. 

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William the Conqueror

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008). This commentary will become available in due course from the 'Late Additions and Corrections' page of the edition.

The cause of his sickenes & death is said to be this: for that Philippe the French kyng vpō a tyme (iesting sayd) þt kyng William lay in childe bed and nourished his fate belly. With this the foresayd Williā hearyng therof, aunswered agayne and sayd, when he should be churched, he would offer a thousand candels to hym in Fraunce, wherewithall the kyng should haue litle ioy. Wherupon kyng Williā in the moneth of Iuly (when the corne, fruite, and grapes were most florishing) entred into Fraūce, and set on fire many cities and townes in þe Westside of Fraūce. And & lastly cōming to the citie of Meaus, where he burning a woman beyng as a recluse in a wall inclosed (or as some, say ij. men anachorites inclosed) was so feruent & furious about the fire: that with the heate partly of the fire, partly of the tyme of yeare, thereby he fell into sicknes, and dyed vpon the same.

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By the lyfe & actes of this kyng it may appeare true as storyes of him reporte, that he was wise but gylefull: Riche but couetous: a fayre speaker, but a great dissembler: glorious in victory, and strong in armes, but rigo-

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