Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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310 [310]

K. Henry. 2. The story of the Waldenses.

that the holy bred of eternall lyfe, consecrated by the ministery of the priest, was not the body of the Lord. &c.

MarginaliaVualdenses sen Pauperes de lugduno Leoniste. Insabbatati.In the time of this Alexander sprong vp the doctrine and name of them, which were then called Pauperes de lugduno which of one Vualdus a cheif senatour in Lions were named, Vualdenses: Item leonistæ: et Insabbatati: about the yeare of our Lord. 1109:, or (as Laziardus writeth) an. 1170.

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Marginaliaiiii Arche pillers of proud papistry.Not long before this time (as is expreste aboue) rose vp Gratianus master of þe decrees, & Petrus Lōbardus, master of the sentence, both archepillers of all papistry. After whome folowed also two as euell, or worse then they, Franciscus and Dominicus, mainteyning blynde hipocrisie, no les then the other mayntayned proud prelacy. As these labored one way, by superstition & worldlye aduauncement to corrupt the sinceritie of religion: So it pleased Christ the contrary way, laboring against these, to rayse vp therfore þe said Valdensians, against þe pride and hipocrisie of the other. 

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The Waldensians were of crucial interest and importance to Protestant historians and martyrologists. They traced their origins to Peter Waldo, a wealthy twelfth-century merchant of Lyons, who gave away his money and became a wandering preacher. He began to attract followers, but the ecclesiastical authorities were suspicious and denied Peter and his followers permission to preach. In 1215, the Waldensians were condemned as heretics and this, in turn, radicalized the movement. Much of what is known about the Waldensians comes from reports by Reinerius Saccho (d. 1259), a former Cathar who became an informant for the Inquisition. The Waldensians were almost completely suppressed in southern France but they spread into the Piedmont, northern Italy, southern Germany and Bohemia. Aeneas Sylvius, in his influential history of the Hussites, linked them to the Waldensians. The importance of the Waldensians to Protestant historians stems from their relative antiquity and geographical diffusion. This made them a useful counter-example to Catholic challenges that there were no Protestants before Luther. They were even more useful because, in contrast to the Albigensians, their beliefs were compatible with those of the Reformers. Interestingly, Catholic writers like Reinerius and Aeneas were particularly useful to the Protestants because both groups of writers, albeit for different reasons, wished to emphasize the continuity between the early Waldensians and late medieval heresies.

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Foxe's account of the Waldensians first appeared in his 1563 edition and itwas reprinted without change in subsequent editions. It began with a history of Peter Waldo and the genesis of the Waldensians, which was taken from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Strasbourg, 1562), pp. 705-9. The list of Waldensian articles is taken directly from Flacius, although one article, stating that only baptism and communion were sacraments was - accidently? - dropped by Foxe. (Cf. Flacius, Catalogus testium, pp. 709-10). The letter from the Waldensians to the king of Hungary is excerpted from Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculus rerum expetendarum ac fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535), fos. 87v-88r, 92r and 92v-93r. All of the remaining material in the account of the Waldensians is reproduced accurately from scattered items in Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis, pp. 711-12, 721-7, 757-6 [recte 759], and 760-1. It is worth noting that the one item in this account, the letter to the king of Hungary, not from Flacius, argued against any real or corporal presence of Christ in the sacramental bread. This belief was offensive enough to Flacius not to print (Flacius was well aware of Gratius's book) and important enough to Foxe for him toinsert it into the other material Flacius had provided on the Waldensians.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

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Thus we neuer see any great corruption in þe church, but that some sparkle, yet of the true light of the gospel, by Gods prouidence doth remayne. What soeuer doctour Augustinus, Reinerius, Siluius, Cranzius wyth other in their popishe histories, doo write of them (diffaming them throughe misreporte) and accusing them to magistrates, as disobedient to orders, rebels to the Catholicke church, and contemners of the virgine Marye: Yet they that carye iudgement indifferent, rather trusting truth then wauering with times, in weying their articles, shal find it otherwise: that they maintained nothing els, but þe same doctrine, which is now defēded in þe church. And yet I suppose not, cōtrary but as they did wyth the articles of Wicklif, and Hus: so the Papistes did in like maner wyth their articles also, in gatheryng and wrastyng them otherwyse then they were ment.

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¶ The history of the Valdenses, concerning their originall, and doctrine, wyth their persecutions.

MarginaliaThe history of Valdēses or Albingēses.THe first originall of these Valdenses came of one Valdus, a mā both of great substaunce, & no les calling in the City of Lions: the occasiō wherof is declared of diuers writers, thus to come. About þe year of the Lord 1160. it chaūced þt diuers of the best and chiefest heads of the city of Lions, talking and walking in a certayne place, after their old accustomed maner, especially in the summer time, cōferred and cōsulted together vpō matters, eyther to passe ouer tyme, or to debate thinges to be done. Amongest whō it chaunced one (the rest looking vpon) to fall downe by sodaine death. In the number of whom thys foresayde Valdus there beyng amongest them was one. Who beholdyng the matter more earnestlye then the other, and terrefied wyth so heauy an example, beyng (as is sayd) a rich mā, and Gods holy spirite woorking wythall: was stroken wyth a deepe and inward repentaunce, whereuppon folowed a new alteracion, wyth a carefull study to reforme hys former lyfe. Insomuch that first he began to minister large almes of hys goods, to such as needed. Secōdlye to instruct hymselfe and his familye, wyth the true knowledge of Gods word: Thirdly, to admonish al that resorted to him, by any occasion, to repentaūce and vertuous amendement of lyfe.

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Whereby, partlye throughe his large geuyng to the poore, partly throughe his disgent teaching, and wholesome admonicions: more resorte of people dayly frequēted about hym. Whom when he dyd see ready & diligent to learne, began to geue out to them certayne rudimēts of the scripture, whych he had translated him selfe into the French tounge. For as he was a man wealthye in riches, so he was also not vnlearned.

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Although Laziardus Volateranus, wyth other: note hym vtterly vnlearned, and charge hym with ignorāce, as who should procure other to wryte and translate forhym. By other that haue seene hys doyngs yet remaynyng in old parchment monumentes, it appeareth hee was both able to declare & translate the bookes of scripture, also dyd collect the doctors mynde vpon the same.

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But what soeuer he was (lettered, or vnlettered) the bishops and prelates seyng him so to intermeddle wyth scriptures, and to haue such resort about hym: albeit it was but in hys own house, vnder priuate conference: coulde not abyde eyther that the scriptures shoulde bee declared of anye other, neyther woulde they take the paynes to declare it them selues. MarginaliaThe true nature of Antichrist, neither himself to further the word nor to suffer other men to do it.So beyng moued with great malice agaynst the man: threatned to excōmunicate hym, if he dyd not leaue of so to do. Valdus seing hys doyng to be but godly, and their malice styrred vp vpon no iust nor godlye cause: neglecting the threatnynges and freatinges of the wycked, sayde that God must be obeyed more then man: to be briefe, the more diligent he was in setting forth the true doctrine of Christ agaynst the errours of Antichrist: the more maliciously their fearcenes increased. Insomuch that when they did see theyr excommunication to be despised, and woulde not serue: they ceased not wyth pryson, wyth swoorde, and banishment to persecute, tyll at length they had driuen both Valdus, and all the fauourers of his true preaching out of the citye.

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Wherupon came first their name, that they were called Valdenses, or pauperes de Lugduno not because thei would haue all thinges common amongst them: or that they professing any wilfull pouerty, wold imitate to liue as the Apostles did (as Syluius did falsly belie them) but because they beyng thrust out both of countrey & goods, were compelled to liue poorely, whether they woulde, or no. And thus much touching the first occasion and beginning of these men, & of the restoryng & maintainyng the true doctrine of christes Gospell, against the proud procedings of popish errors. Now concernyng their articles: whiche I finde in order, and in number to be these.

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SOlis sacris literis credendum esse in iis, que ad salutem. &c.

MarginaliaThe Articles of Vualdenses.That is: Onely the holy scripture is to be beleued in matters perteining to saluation: and no mans wrytyng, or man besides.

2 All thinges to be conteined in holy scripture, necessary to saluation: and nothyng to be admitted in religion, but what onely is commaunded in the worde of God.

3 To be one alonely mediatour. Other sainctes in no wyse to be made mediatoures, or to be inuocated.

4 To be no purgatory, but that al men either by christ are iustified to life: or without Christ to be condēned: & besides these ij. neither anye thirde or fourth place to be.

5 That all masses, namely such as be song for the dead to be wycked, and to be abrogate.

6 All mens traditions to be reiected, at least not to bee reputed as necessary to saluation: and therfore this singyng and superfluous chauntyng in the chauncell to bee left: constrayned and prefixed fastes bound to days and times: difference of meates: such varietie of degrees and order of Priestes, Friers, Monkes, and Nunnes: superfluous holidayes: so many sundre benedictions and halowyng of creatures: vowes, peregrinations: wyth all þe rablement of rites and ceremonies brought in by mā, to be abolished.

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7 The supremacy of the pope, vsurping aboue all churches, and especially aboue all politike realmes & gouernmentes: or for him to occupy and vsurpe the iurisdiction of both the swordes to be denied: neyther that any degree is to be receyued in the church, but onelye priestes, Deacons and byshops.

8 The communion vnder both kyndes to be necessarye to all people according to the institution of Christ.

9 Item, the churche of Rome to bee the verye babilon spoken of in the Apocalips: And the pope to be the foun-

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