Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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348 [339]

K. Henry the. 3. The table or rable of religious orders.

Kyng Iohn, and Pope Innocent 

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Innocent III and the mendicant orders

Foxe moved the short tract on the life and acts of Innocent III from the end of the section on King John in the 1563 edition to the beginning of the section on Henry III's early reign in the 1570 edition. The account is almost entirely extracted out of John Bale, Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Brytanniae …Catalogus (Basel, 1557), pp. 234-5 but also supplemented with evidence from Innocent III's papal decretails, commonly called Corpus Juris Canonici. There were various manuscript versions in existence making it difficult to know which version is used here.

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From this summary Foxe indulges in anti-papal polemics from the thirteenth century as a framework for his rewriting of the Cathar heresy into agents of Christ's church. First Foxe attacked the increase of Monastic Orders as a sign that the Roman Church could not even agree from within itself. The text is largely lifted from John Bale's Catalogus pp. 234-5 and The Chronicle of Walter of Guisborough, ed. Harry Rothewell, Camden Society, 3rd Series, 89 (London, Camden Society, 1957), pp. 150-1. The list of 101 Orders is interesting. Martin Luther did not produce any such list despite Foxe's reference to him. The unidentified English book that Foxe refers to is also unknown. It is possible that Foxe was relying on an unprinted list compiled by John Bale.

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Next follows the prophecy of the nun, Hildegard written down in her Scivias, Liber vitae meritorum and Liber divionorum operum, which represented a popular prophecy about the Antichrist from the early thirteenth century that had transmitted to the fourteenth-century primarily through Gebeno, Prior of Eberbach's Speculum Temporum Futurorum (1220). This text had attempted to link Hildegard's prophecy to the growing Cathar heresies. Hildegard was the abbess of Disibodenberg and Rupertsberg. In the 1563 edition Foxe took this account from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Strasbourg, 1556), pp. 650-655. However, in the 1570 edition Foxe has corrected the date of the prophecy from 1170 to 1146 and rearranged the prophecy itself. This suggests that he had either consulted Flacius' source, the Chronica Martini Poloni from Matthew Parker's collection (probably CCCC MS 372 or CCCC MS 59) or alternatively from a composite manuscript (CCCC MS 404) containing various prophesies including Hildegard.

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Once this prophecy is outlined Foxe begins his discussion of the Cathars (Albigenses). Foxe publishes a letter by the Pope's legate concerning the Cathars setting up of a rival Pope. This account was first printed in the 1563 edition but from the 1570 edition onwards would be followed by a larger account of the Albigensian crusade (1209-1229) after further discussion of England's financial plight. The inclusion of the 1563 account without change even though Foxe had discovered more details reveals something of Foxe's working practise for the second edition. The account is extracted from either Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (7 vols., London, 1872-1884), vol. 3, pp. 78-9 or Roger of Wendover, Flores Historiarum, ed. Henry G. Hewlett, Rolls Series (3 vols., London, 1886-9) vol. 2, pp. 272-3.

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This section is then completed by a full reproduction of a post-Wyclif Lollard tract attacking the practises and corruption of friars probably written in the early fifteenth century. Jack Upland was either mistaken as a work of Chaucer or for political and religious reasons attributed to the famous author of the fourteenth century to by-pass the ban on Lollard writings under the Six Articles. The popularity of Chaucer also made the association a powerful propaganda tool. In 1550 Robert Crawley had published a similar tract for reformist purposes entitled Piers Plowman, which had proved successful. See John N. King, 'Robert Crawley's editions of "Piers Plowman": A Tudor Apocalypse', Modern Philology, 73:4 (1976), pp. 342-352. If the reformists could show that Chaucer was a 'proto-Protestant' then this would help to popularise acceptance of the Elizabethan Church. P.L. Heyworth, 'The Earliest Black-letter editions of "Jack Upland"', The Huntingdon Library Quarterly, 30:4 (1967), pp. 307-314 has suggested that its original publication in the 1530s by John Gough and then again by John Day was to support the Henrician break from Rome and the subsequent dissolution of the monasteries. Jack Upland allowed Foxe to trace, through the association of Chaucer with Wyclif as 'faithful witnesses', the apostolic church at a time when the Antichrist was in full control of the church. The decision must also be, in part, related to John Day's earlier publication of the tract in the 1540s, which made its inclusion in the Acts and Monuments an easy addition to print. Its publication in the midst of Henry III's reign was to demonstrate the corruption of monkish orders, which Foxe had listed two pages earlier.

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Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

, began the two sectes & orders of Friers, one called the preachers order, or black Friers of S. Dominicke. The other called the Minorits of S. Francis. Marginalia1215.
The preachers or black Fryers order began of one Dominicke a Spaniard, about the partes of Tholouse, who after he had laboured ten yeares in preaching against the Albingēses, and such other as did hold against the churche of Rome: afterward comming vp to the coūcel of Lateran with Fulco Bishop of Tholouse, desired of the foresaid Innocent the iij. to haue his order of preaching Friers confirmed, whiche the pope a great while refused to graunt: at lēgth he had a dreame, þt the churche of Laterane was ready to fall. Which when he beheld, fearing and much sorrowyng thereat, commeth in this Dominicke: who with hys shoulders vnder propped the churche, and so preserued the building therof frō falling. &c. MarginaliaFriers vpholders of the popes church.And rightwel this dreame may seme to be verified, for that Friers haue been alwayes þe chief pillers and vpholders of the popes church. Vpon this, the Pope (waking out of his dreame) called Dominicke to him, & graunted his petition. And so came vp this Woluish order of the Dominickes. I call it Woluishe, for that hys mother when she was great with this Dominicke, dreamed that she had in her wombe a Wolfe, whiche had a burning torche in his mouth. The which dreame, the preachers of that order do greatly aduaūce, and expoūd it to their orders glory, as well as they cā. Neuerthelesse how soeuer they expounde it, they can make a wolfe but a wolfe, and this to be a woluishe order. The rule which they folowe, semeth to be taken out of S. Augustine, as who should say, that Christes rule were not inough to make a christian man. Marginalia1216.Their profession standeth vpon three principall pointes, as thus described. Charitatem habentes, humilitatem seruantes, & paupertatem voluntariā possidentes: That is, hauing charity, holdyng humility, and possessyng wilfull pouerty. Theyr habite and clothyng is blacke.

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MarginaliaThe Minorite friers descended from sainct Fraunces.The order of the Minors or Minorite Friers descended from one Fraūcis an Italian, of the Citie Asisium. This Assisian Asse, whom I suppose was some simple & rude Idiot, hearyng vpon a tyme how Christ sent forth his Disciples to preach: thought to imitate the same in him selfe and his Disciples, and so left of shoes, had but one coate, & that of course clothe. In stede of a latchet tohis shoe, and of a girdle: he tooke about him an hempen corde, & so apparelled his disciples, teaching thē to fulfil (for so he speaketh) the perfection of the Gospell, to apprehend pouertye, & to walke in the way of holy simplicity. He left in writing to his disciples and folowers, his rule whiche he called Regulam Euangelicam. 1. the rule of the Gospell, as though the Gospell of Christ were not a sufficient rule to all Christen men, but it must take his perfection of franticke Francis. And yet for all that great presumption of this Francis, and notwithstādyng this hys rule, soundyng to the derogation of Christes Gospell, he was confirmed by this pope Innocēt. Yea, & such fooles this Frauncis founde abroad, that not onely he had followers of his doltish religion (both of the nobles, and vnnobles of Rome) but also some there were, which builded mansions for him and his Friers. This Francis, as he was superstitious in castyng all thynges frō him (as his girdle, girding a coard about him) so in outward chastising of him selfe, so streight he was to his fleshe (leauyng the ordinary remedy appointed by God) that in winter seasō, he couered his body with yse and snow. He called pouerty his Lady: he kept nothyng ouer nyght. So desirous he was of martirdom, that he went to Siria to the Souldane, whiche receyued him honorablye: whereby it may be thought, that (surely) he told him not þe truth, as Ihon Baptist did in Herodes house. For truth is seldom welcome in courtes, and in the world. But it is hard to make a martyr of him whiche is no true confessor. I wil here passe ouer the fable, how Christ and hys saints dyd marke him with fiue woundes. MarginaliaDiuers sectes of Franciscans.These Franciscanes or beggyng Friers, although they were all vnder one rule and clothyng of S. Francis: yet they be diuided in many sectes, and orders: some go on treen shoes or Pattins, some barefooted, some regulare Frāsciscanes, or obseruantes, some Minors, or Minorites, other be called Minimi, other of the Gospell, other de Caputio. They all differ in many thinges, but accord in superstition and hipocrisy. And for somuch as we haue here entred into the matter of these two orders of Friers: by the occasion hereof I thought a litle by the way to digresse from our story, in recityng the whole cataloge or rablement of monkes Friers, and Nunnes, of all sectes, rules, and orders set vp and confirmed by the pope. The names of whom here in order of the Alphabet follow vnder written.The rablement of religious orders. MarginaliaThe table of al religious orders.

AVstinians the first order.
Ambrosians two sortes.490.
Antonies heremites.324
Austines heremites498
Austines obseruauntes.490
Armenians secte
Ammonites and Moabites
Basilius order.384
Benets order.524
Bernardes order.1120
Barefooted Friers.1222
Brigittes order.1370
Beghartes or white spirites.1399
Brethren of Ierusalem.1103

Brethren of sainte Ihon de Ciuitate
blacke Frier.
Brethren of wilfull pouerty.
Cluniacensis order.913
Chanons of saint Austine.1080
Charterhouse order.1086
Cisterciensis order.1098
Crosbearers or crossed Friers1216
Carmelites or white Friers.1212
Clares order.1225
Celestines order.1297
Camaldulensis order.950
Crosse starred brethren.
Constantinopolitanish order
Crosse bearers
Chapter monkes
Dutch order1216
Dominicke blacke Friers1220
Graundmontensis order1076
Gregorian order591
Georges order1407
Gerundinensish order
Galilei or Galileans
Helenes brethren Humiliati.1166
Hospitall brethren
Holy Ghost order.
Ieromes orders two sortes1412
Iohns heremites
Iustines order1432
Iohns order Ioannites380
otherwise knights of the rods1308
Ieromes heremites490
Iosephes order
Iacobites secte
Iames brethrens order
Iames brethren with the sweard
Indians order
Katherine of Senes order1455
Keyed monkes knightes of rhodes

Lazarites or Marye Magdalenes
our Lady brethren
Lordes of Vngary

whiche be
De Caputio.
De Euangelio.
Clarini, and other.
Minores, or Minorites1224
Maries seruaunts1304
Monkes of moūt Oliuete1406
Marouinies secte
Moronites secte
Monachi and Monache
Morbonei and Meristei
Menelaysh and Iasonish sect
New Chanons of S. Austen1430
Nalharte brethren
New order of our Lady
Paules heremites345
Premonstratensis order1119
Preacher order, or blacke Friers
Peter the Apostles order1409
Purgatory brethren

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