Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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361 [352]

K. Henry the. 3. Trouble about the Popes cruell exactions. Actes and Mon. of the church.

therfore must necessarely be required. &c.

The proctours and parties thus sent home by the legate, meruellyng with them selues why the bishoppes and abbats should be stayd and they sent home, and suspecting no lesse, but as the matter was in dede: conferred their counsails together, and diuised with them selues to send certaine vnto hym in the behalfe of al the cathedrall and conuentuall churches in Fraunce, & sent to the sayd legate this message, to signifie vnto hym: MarginaliaThe clergye of fraunce ansuering to the lagate.That they were credibly informed, that he came with speciall letters from the court of Rome, for the obteinyng of certaine prebendaries within euery cathedrall and conuentuall churche. Whiche beyng so, they much merueled that he would not in the publike counsaile, make manifest to them those letters whiche specially concerned thē, as much as the others. Wherfore their request was to him in the Lord, that no such offēsiue matter might rise by him in the French church: knowyng this, þt the thing whiche he enterpriseth, could not be brought to effecte, without great offense taken, and inestimable damage to the churche of Fraūce. For graunt, sayd they, that certaine will assent vnto you, yet there assente standeth in no effecte, concerning such matters as touche þe whole: especially, seyng both the states of the realme with all the inferiour subiectes, yea and the kyng hym selfe, they are sure, will withstād the same: to the venture not only of their honour, but of their life also, consideryng þe case to be such, as vpō the offense wherof standeth the subuersion both of the realme publike and of the whole churche in generall. Declaryng moreouer the cause of this feare to rise hereof, for that in other realmes suche communication hath bene with bishops and prelates, for the procuring of such prebendships, where as neither the prince nor the subiectes were made any thing priuy therto.

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MarginaliaInferiors euer more bold to speake in difficulte causes of truth, then the ryche.In conclusion, when the matter came to debatyng with the legate, the obiections of the inferiour parties, agaynst the cruell exaction, were these in brief effect, as is in Parisiens. noted.

MarginaliaThe obiectiōs of the clergye of Fraunce, agaynst the popes exactiō.First they alledged there great damages and expenses whiche they were lyke to susteyne therby by reason of the continuall procurators of the pope, whiche in euery dioces must lyue not of their own, but must be susteined vpon the charges of the cathedrall Churches and other Churches also: And many tymes they beyng but procurators wilbe found as legates.

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Item, by that meanes, they sayd great perturbations myght ensue to the couentes and chapters of cathedrall churches in their elections: for somuch as þe popes agētes and factors, beyng in euery cathedrall churche and chapter house, percase the pope would commaund hym in his person to be present at their elections, and so might trouble the same: in delayng and differryng till it might fall to the court of Rome to geue. And so should be placed mo of the popes clientele in the churches of Fraūce, thē of the proper inhabitance of the land.

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Item, by this meanes they affirmed, that all they in the court of Rome should be richer and should receaue more for their proportion, thē the kyng of the realme: by reason of whiche aboundance of riches, it was lyke to come to passe, þt as þe worme of rich men is pride: so by þe meanes of this their riches, þe court of Rome woulde delaye & driue of great sutes, and scarse would take any paines wt smal causes: the experimēt wherof is euident, for þt now also they vse to delay their matters whē they come with their giftes, & being in assurance to receaue. And thus should iustice stand a side, and poore suters die at the gates of the court of Rome, thus flowyng & triumphyng in full abundaunce of all treasure and riches.

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Item, for somuch as it is mete & conuenient to haue frendes in the court of Rome, for the better speadyng of their causes: therefore they thought to kepe them nedy, wherby their giftes may be the sweter and their causessooner dispatched.

Item, when as it is impossible the fountaine of gredy desire to be stopped, it was to be feared, that eyther they would do that by other, whiche they were wont to do by them selues: or els they should be enforced to geue greater rewardes, then before. For small giftes in the sight of great riche men are not looked vpon.

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Item, where he alledged the remouyng away of the slaunder whiche goeth on the court of Rome: By thys meanes rather the contrary were to be feared: wherin they alledged the sentence of the verse, that great riches stoppe not the takyng of much, but a minde contented with a litle.

Quod virtus reddit, non copia sufficientem.
Et non paupertas sed mentis hiatus egentem.

Farther they alledged þt great riches would make þe Romanes mad: and so might kindle among thē sides & partes taking, so that by great possessions seditiō might followe, to the ruine and destruction of the citie: wherof some experiment they had all ready.

Item, they added that although they would condescend and oblige them selues to that contribution, yet their successours would not so be bound, nor yet, ratifie the bond of theirs.

Lastly thus they concluded the matter, desiring him that the zeale of the vniuersal churche and of the church of Rome would moue hym. For if this oppression of the churche should be vniuersall: MarginaliaGod graunt saye were to be doubted, least an vniuersall departyng might folow from the churche of Rome (whiche God forbid sayd they) should happen.

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The legate hearyng these wordes, beyng therewith something moued, as semed, thus excused hym self: that he beyng in the court, neuer agreed to this exaction. And that the letters herof came not to hym before he was in Fraunce, wherat he sayd he was greatly sory. Addyng this with al, that the wordes of his precept included this secret meanyng in thē, thus to be vnderstand & taken: so farre forth as the Empire & other realmes would agree vnto the same. MarginaliaThe cardinall repulsed, & defeyted of hys purpose in Fraunce.And as for hym, he would stirre no more in the matter, before it were proued, what other countreys would say and do therin.

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And thus much concernyng the second part of the blynd commission of this legate, touchyng hys exaction of prebenships in euery cathedrall & conuentual church: Wherin as ye here, he was repulsed. Ex Mat. Parisiensi. pag 63.

MarginaliaEx Math. Parisiens. Pag. 63.Now to returne to the first part of his commission agayne, whiche was concernyng Reimundus the godly Earle of Tholouse, thus the story procedeth. 

Commentary  *  Close
Albigensian Crusade

The Albigensian Crusade was a response to the Cathar 'heresy' flourishing principally in the Languedoc region of France and in Italy. This was the first crusade against a Christian region and resulted in the successful extermination of the Cathars. The situation was more complex than Foxe details here, with political and religious priorities making the Crusade a complex event. For an outline of these complexities, especially its connection to England see Nicholas Vincent, 'England and the Albigensian Crusade', in Björn Weiler and Ifor W. Rowlands (ed.), England and Europe in the Reign of Henry III 1216-1272 (Aldershot, 2002), pp. 67-85.

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Foxe's concentration on the Siege of Toulouse taken from Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (7 vols., London, 1872-1884), vol. 3, pp. 51-7 and ending with a description of the history of the persecution taken from Chronica Majora, vol. 3, pp. 57, 105-119 presents the Cathars and Count Raymond VI of Toulouse as holding 'true' doctrines and being unfairly treated by the machinations of the papacy. There were, in fact, a variety of differences in the dualistic and Gnostic doctrines of the Cathars to the beliefs of the Protestant reformers, however Foxe uses the lack of detailed documentation available to him to his advantage, by having previously stated that 'what these Albingenses were, it can not be wel gathered by the old popishe histories' (1570, f. 341). Instead Foxe concentrates on how the Papacy through greed, trickery and hatred forced the French to persecute the Cathars as they had done on a variety of other occasions. Thus Foxe uses the Albigensian Crusade as a characterisation assassination of the papacy and its legates.

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In-between this account Foxe has added accounts of events going on in England at the same time largely taken from his favoured sources the Chronica Majora, Flores Historiarum and Nicholas Trivet. This includes the arrival of the Minorities to England from Chronica Majora, vol. 3, pp. 60-1, Matthew Paris, Flores Historiarum, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (3 vols., London, 1890), vol. 2, pp. 187-8 and Nicholas Trivet, Annalium continuatio; ut et Adami Murimuthensis Chronicon (Oxford, 1722), p. 211, Stephen Langton's holding of a meeting at Oxford from Nicholas Trivet, p. 210, an introduction to Hubert de Burgh from the Chronica Majora, vol. 3, pp. 71-3, 291, with whom Foxe would deal in detail after the Albigensian crusade, general conflicts between the Bishops of London and Westminster and bad storms across the country also from the Chronica Majora, vol. 3, pp. 74-75 and the Flores Historiarum, vol. 2, pp. 172-5. As an introduction to the Albigensian persecution Foxe also described Louis IX (ruled 1226-1270) becoming king of France from the Chronica Majora, vol. 3, p. 77, Flores Historiarum, vol. 2, pp. 177-8 and Nicholas Trivet, p. 212.

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From other sources Foxe mentioned the building of Salisbury Minster from Arundel MS 5 (which Foxe names Scala Mundi) and the reaffirmation of Magna Charta from The Chronicle of Walter of Guisborough, ed. Harry Rothewell, Camden Society, 3rd Series, 89 (London, Camden Society, 1957), pp. 162-173. Guisborough was probably the most detailed account of Magna Charta available to Foxe, however he did not solely rely on it for his account. He took from Robert Fabian, The New Chronicles of England and France, ed. Henry Ellis (London, 1811), p. 326 a corrective on the dating of the affirmation.

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Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaThe pope rayseth war against the Earle & the people of Tholouse.That while the legate was in hād with this matter of the popes money, in the meane season certaine preachyng friers were directed by the said Romanus þe Popes Legate, into all Fraunce: to incite and stirre vp the French men to take the crosse vpon them, and to warre agaynst the Earle of Tholouse, and the people therof whom they accounted then for heretikes. At the preachyng wherof, a great nūber of prelates and lay men signed them selues with the crosse, to fight agaynst the Tholosians: beyng therto induced, as the story sayth, more for feare of the Frenche kyng, or fauour of the legate, then for any true zeale of iustice. For so it foloweth in the wordes of Mat. MarginaliaTestimony of the autor for the clearing of Reimūdus and of the AlbingēsesVidebatur enim multis abusio, vt hominem fidelem Christianum inferstarent: præcipue cum constaret cunctis eum in concilio nuper Bituriensi, multis precibus persuasisse legato, vt veniret ad singulas terræ suæ ciuitates, inquirens a singulis articulos fidei: et si quempiam contra fidem inueniret. &c. i. For to many, sayth he, it seemed an abuse, to moue warre against a faythfull christen man: especially seing in the councel of Bitures (before all men) he intreated the legate with great instance, that he would come into euery citie within his dominiō. And there to require of euery person the articles of his fayth. Where if he

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