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554 [554]

K. Richard. 2. The history of John Wickleffe.

law limited) to withdraw temporall commodities, from churche men abusing the same, habitualiter.

☞ The reason therof is playne, for that temporall Lordes ought rather to leane to spirituall almes, whiche bryngeth with it greater fruite, then to corporall almes the case so standyng, that some tyme it were a necessary worke of spirituall almes, to chastise such clerkes by takyng from them their temporall liuinges, whiche vse to abuse the same to the damnyfyeng both of their soule and body. The case, whiche the lawe doth limite in this matter were the defect of correctyng hys spirituall head or els for lacke of correctyng the fayth of clerke whiche so offendeth, as appeareth 16. q. 7. filiis, Dist. 40 cap. Si papa. Marginalia16. q. 7. filijs.

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Marginalia17Whether they be temporall Lordes, or any other men what soeuer, whiche haue endued any churche with temporalties. &c.

☞ The truth hereof is euidently sene, for that, nothing ought to stoppe a man from the principall workes of charitie necessarily, because in euery action and worke of man is to be vnderstand a priuy condition necessary of God hys good will concurring with all, as it is in the ciuill lawe de c. Conradi cap 5. in fine collat. x. And yet God forbyds, that by these wordes occasion should be geuen to the Lordes temporall to take away the goods of fortune frō the church

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Marginalia18An ecclesiasticall minister, yea the bishop of Rome may lawfully be rebuked of hys subiectes, and for the profyte of the church be accused, eyther of the clergye, or of the laitye.

☞ The proofe of thys is manifest hereby, because the sayd B. of Rome is subiect to fall into the sinne against the holy ghost, as may be supposed, sauing the sanctitude, humilitie and reuerence due to such a father. For so long as our brother is subiecte vnto the infirmitie of falling, he lyeth vnder the law of brotherly correction. And when the whole colledge of Cardinalls may be slouthfull in ministring due correction for the necessary prosperitie of the church: it is apparent that the residue of the body of the church, which possibly may stand most of lay men, may wholesomly correct the same, accuse and bring hym to a better way. The possibilitie of thys case is touched. Dist. 40. Si Papa. yf the pope do erre frō þe right fayth, &c. For lyke as such a great fall ought not to be supposed in the L. pope without manifest euidence: so agayne such an obstinacie ought not to be supposed in hym, possibly being fallen, but that he will humbly receaue the wholesome medicine of hys superiour, correcting hym in the Lord. The practyse of which conclusion also is testified in many Chronicles. Far be it from the church of Christ that veritie should be condemned, which soundeth euill to transgressours and other slouthfull persons, for then the whole fayth of the Scripture were in a damnable case.

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Thus Iohn Wyckleffe in geuing his exposition vnto his foresaid propositiōs and conclusions, as is aboue prefixed, through the fauour and diligence of the Londoners, eyther shifted of the bishops, or els satisfied them so: that for that tyme he was dismissed and scaped clearly away, onely being charged and commaunded by the said bishops, that he should not teach or preach any such doctrine anymore, for the offence of the lay people.

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Thus this good man being escaped from the bishops, with this charge aforesayd, yet notwithstanding, ceased not to procede in his godly purpose, labouring and profiting styll in the church as he had begon.

With whom also (as it happened by the prouidence of God) this was a great helpe and stay, for that in the same yeare, or in the beginning of the next yeare folowing, MarginaliaThe death of pope Gregory. xi.the foresayd pope Gregorye xi. which was the styrrer vp of all this trouble agaynst him, turned vppe hys heeles and dyed. 

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Foxe is taking his material on the pontificate of Urban VI from Bale, Catalogus, pp. 439-40 and 487.

After whom insued suche a schisme in Rome, betwene two popes, and other succeeding after them, one striuing agaynste an other: that the schisme thereof endured the space of. xxxix. yeares, vntyl the time of the councell of Constance.

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MarginaliaVrbanus 6. pope. A schisme in Rome.The occasioner of which schisme first was pope Vrbane the 6. who in the first beginning of hys popedome was so proud and insolent to his Cardinalls, and other, as to Dukes, princes, & queenes, and so set to aduaunce his Nephew & kindred, with iniuries to other princes: that the greatest number of hys Cardinals and courtyours by litle and litle shronke from hym, and set vp an other French pope agaynst hym, named Clement, who reigned xi. yeares. And after him Benedictus the 13. who reigned yeares 26. Agayne of the contrarye side after Vrbanus the 6. succeded., Boniface the 9. Innocentius the viij. Gregorius the xij. Alexander the v. Iohn. 13.

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¶ Papæ..yeres.mon.¶Antipapæ.yeres.
Vrbanus. 6.11.8.Clement.11
Bonifacius. 9.14.9.Benedictus. 13.26
Innocentius. 8.2.0.
Gegorius. 12.2.7.
Alexander. 5.0.11.
Iohannes. 13.5.10.

As touching this pestilent & most miserable schisme, it would require here an other Iliade to comprehend in order all the circumstances and tragicall partes therof, what trouble in the whole church, what partes taking in euery country, what apprehending and imprisonyng of priestes and prelates, taken by land and by sea, what shedding of blood did follow therof. How Ottho Duke of Brunsewyke and prince of Tarentum, was taken & murthered. How Ioane Quene of Hierusalem MarginaliaThis Ioane was wife to the Duke of Brunswike. and Sicilia his wyfe, who before had sent to Pope Vrbane, beside other gyftes at hys coronation, xl. thousande Duckets in pure gold: after by the sayde Vrbane was committed to prison, and in the same prisō strangled. What Cardinals were racked, and miserably without al mercy tormēted on gibbets to death, what slaughter of mē, what battails were fought betwene the twoo Popes, whereof. 5000. on the one syde were slayne, beside the number of them which were taken prisoners. MarginaliaWas not here holy agreemēt?Of the beheading of. v. Cardinals together after long torments, and how the bishop Aquilonēsis, being suspected of pope Vrbane, for not ryding faster with the Pope, hys horse being not good, was there slayne by the Popes cōmaundement, sending his soldiours vnto him, to slay him, and cut him in peeces. All which thinges, with other dyuers mo actes of horrible cruelty, happening in the tyme of this abhominable schisme, because they are aboundantly discoursed at ful, by Theodorike Niem, MarginaliaTheodoricus a Niem. de schismate.who was nere to the sayd Pope Vrbane, and present at all his doings: therefore as a thing needeles I here pretermit, referring them who couet to be certefied more amply herein, vnto the. 3. bookes of the said Theodorike aboue mentioned.

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MarginaliaRebellion in England by Iacke Straw.About the same 

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Foxe very probably took these brief mentions of the death of Archbishop Sudbury and of the succession of William Courtenay to his see, from Arundel 7 (see Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, Rolls Series 28, 2 vols. [London, 1863-4], I, p. 461 and II, p. 49).

time, also about iij. yeares after, there fell a cruell dissention in England, betwene the commō people and the nobilitie, the which did not a litle disturbe and trouble the common wealth. MarginaliaSimon the Archbishop beheaded.In this tumulte, Symon of Sudbery Archbiship of Canterbury, was taken by the rusticall and rude people, and was beheaded. MarginaliaW. Courtney archb. of Cant.In whose place after, succeded William Courtney, whiche was no lesse diligent, then his predecessor had been before him, in doing his diligence, to roote out heretickes. Notwithstanding, in the meane season Wickleffes seckte increased priuilie, and dayly grew to greater force, 
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Foxe's account of Berton's persecution of Wiclif and his followers is taken from the Fasciculi Zizaniorum (Bodley Library MS, Musaeo 86, fos. 36r-39v).

MarginaliaBarton Chauncellur of Oxford.
An. 1380.
vntill the tyme that William Barton Vicechaūceller of Oxford, about the yere of our lord. 1380. had the whole rule of that vniuersitie: who callyng together, viij. monasticall doctours, and iiij. other, with the cōsent of the rest of his affinitie, putting the common seale of the vniuersitie vnto certaine writinges: MarginaliaAn edict against the Wicsithistes.he set forth an edict, declaryng vnto euery man, & threatnyng them vnder a greuous penaltie, þt no mē should be so hardy, hereafter to associate them selues, with any of Wickleffes fautors or fauourers: and vnto Wickleffe him selfe, he threatned the greater excommunication, and farther imprisonement, & to all his fautors, vnles that they after iij. dayes canonicall admonition or warnyng, or as they call it, peremptory, did repent & amend. The which thyng when Wickleffe vnderstood, forsaking þe pope & all the clergy, he thought to appeale vnto the kings maiestie: but the Duke of Lancaster comming betwene forbad him that he should not hereafter attēpt or begyn any such matters, but rather submit him selfe, vnto the censure and iudgement of his ordinary. Wherby Wickleff beyng beset with troubles and vexations, as it were in the midest of the waues, he was forced once agayne to make confession of hys doctrine: in the whiche his confession, to auoyde the rigour of thinges, he aunswered as is aforesaid making his declaratiō, and qualified his assertiōs after such a sort, that

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