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858 [858]

K. Henry. 6. The benefite and inuention of Printyng.

for the sayd Richard Candray in the kings name doth protest by this instrument, that it standeth not wyth the kinges mynde or intent, by the aduise of his Counsayl, to admit, approue, or ratifie the cōming of the sayd Legate in any wyse, in derogation of þe rightes, customes & lawes of this his realme: or to recognise, or assent to any exercise of this his autoritie Legantine, or to anye actes, attemptes, or hereafter by him to be attempted in this respect, contrary to the foresayd lawes, rightes, customes, & liberties of this realme, by these presentes. &c.

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And thus much as an Appendix, annexed to the story of Duke Humfrey, and the Cardinall of Wint. extract out of an old written volume, remayning in the handes of Maister VVilliam Bowyer.

☞ The benefite and inuention of Printyng. 
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Invention of Printing

Foxe's account of the invention of printing is one of the most famous and often-quoted sections of the Acts and Monuments. However, most citations of it and quotations from it, fail to appreciate a crucial dimension to these passages: Foxe saw the invention of printing as a milestone in the unfolding of the end times. In the 1563 edition (p. 362), Foxe printed a declaration that the invention of printing had been prophesied by the Sibyls. This declaration was never reprinted, but was replaced in a much longer and more detailed account in the 1570 edition. Although no mention was made of the Sibyls in the revised account, Foxe insisted on the providential timing of the invention, which he saw as a divine response to the burnings of Jan Hus and Jerome of Prague. Foxe never lost his belief in the apocalyptic significance of printing. In his commentary on Revelation, he maintained that the invention of printing had been prophesied by St. John (See John Foxe, Eicasmi seu meditationes in sacram Apocalypsim [London, 1587}, STC 11237, p. 107). Foxe's narrative of the invention of printing contains a great deal that was his own opinion and his own writing - including the well-known passage that printing-presses were blockhouses against the Castel St Angelo. He also provided the first account of Gutenberg and the invention of printing in English. Foxe drew this material from two sources. The first was a treatise, De typographiae inventione by the Lutheran reformer, Matthaeus Judex. This provided almost all of Foxe's narrative of Gutenberg, Schaeffer and Faust. (See Matthaeus Judex, De typographiae inventione [Copenhagen, 1566], pp. 14 and 29). The citations of Wimpheling and Ziegler came fom Caspar Hedio's continuation of the chronicle attributed to Conrad of Lichtenau, the abbot of Ursperg. Also from Hedio is the material on John Mentell, Ulrich Han and the Latin poems in this account. (See Abbatis Urspergensis Chronicum, ed. Caspar Hedio [Basel, 1569], pp. 403-4).

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Thomas S. Freeman

The Arte of Printing inuented.
IN folowyng the course and order of yeares, we fynde this foresayd yeare of our Lord. 1450. to be famous and memorable, for the diuine and miraculous inuention of printyng. Nauclerus and VVympselingus folowyng hym, referre the inuētion therof to the yeare. 1440. In Paralipom. Abbatis Vrsp. it is recorded this facultie to be foūd. an. 1446. MarginaliaDe Typographia per Matteum Iuditem.Auentinus and Zieglerus do saye, an. 1450. The first inuentour therof (as most agree) is thought to be a Germaine dwellyng first in Argētine, afterward Citizen of Mentz, named Iohn. Faustus, a goldesmith. The occasiō of this inuētion, first was by engrauyng the letters of þe Alphabet in metall: who thē laying blacke yncke vpon the mettall, gaue the forme of the letters in paper. The man beyng industrious, and actiue, perceauyng that, thought to procede further, & to proue whether it would frame as well in wordes, & in whole sentences, as it did in letters. Which whē he perceaued to come well to passe, he made certein other of his coūsail, one Iohn Guttemberge, & Peter Schafferd, byndyng them by their othe, to kepe silence, for a season. After. x. yeares, Iohn Guttemberge compartener with Faustus, began then first to broche the matter at Strausbrough. The Arte beyng yet but rude, in processe of tyme, was set forwarde by inuentiue wittes, addyng more & more to the perfection therof. In the number of whom, Iohn Mentell, Iohn Prus, Adolphus Ruschius, were great helpers. Vlrichus Han, in Latine called Gallus, first brought it to Rome. Wherof the Epigramme was made.

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MarginaliaCarmen Aut. Campani.
Anser Tarpeij custos, vigilando quòd alis
Constreperes, Gallus decidit: vltor adest
Vlricus Gallus, ne quem poscantur in vsum,
Edocuit pennis nil opus esse tuis. 

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An epigram on Ulricus Han (Gallus)
Foxe text Latin

Anser Tarpeii custos ... opus esse tuis.


J. Barrie Hall

Because the geese which were guardians of the Tarpeian rock kept watch and made a din with their wings, the Gaul fell. The avenger is at hand. Ulricus Gallus, lest they should be called upon for any service, taught that there was no need of your quills.

MarginaliaPrintyng came of God.Notwithstandyng, what man so euer was the instrumēt, without all doubt God him self was the ordainer and disposer therof, no otherwise, thē he was of the gift of tongues, & that for a singular purpose. MarginaliaPrintyng lykened to the giftes of tounges.And well may this gifte of printyng bee resembled to the gifte of tongues: for like as God then spake with many tōgues, and yet all that would not turne þe Iewes, so now, when the holy Ghost speaketh to the aduersaries in innumerable sortes of bookes, yet they will not be conuerted: nor turne to the Gospell.

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Now to cōsider to what end & purpose the Lord hath geuen this gift of printyng to the earth, & to what great vtilitie and necessitie it serueth, it is not hard to iudge, who so wisely perpendeth both the time of the sendyng, and the sequele whiche therof ensueth.

MarginaliaThe tyme considred whē Printyng was found.And first, touching the time of this facultie geuen to the vse of man, this is to be marked: that when as þe Bishop of Rome, with all the whole and full consent of his Cardinals, patriarches, Archbishops, Bishops, Abbots, Priours, Lawiers, Doctours, Prouosts, Deanes, Archdeacons, assembled together in þe Councell of Constance had condemned poore Iohn Hus, and Hierome of Prage to death for heresie, notwithstanding they were no heretikes, and after they had subdued the Bohemians, and allthe whole world vnder the supreme authoritie of the Romish sea: & had made all Christen people obedienciaries and vassals vnto the same, hauyng (as one would say) all the worlde at their will, so that the matter now was past, not onely the power of all men, but the hope also of any man to be recouered: In this very tyme so daungerous & desperate, where mans power could do no more, there the blessed wisedome and omnipotēt power of the Lord began to worke for his Churche, not with sworde and tergate to subdue his exalted aduersarie, but with printyng, writing, and readyng, to conuince darkenesse by lyght, errour by truth, ignoraunce by learnyng: MarginaliaDouble confusion vpon the pope by Printing.So that by this meanes of printyng, the secret operation of God hath heaped vpon that proude kyngdome a double confusion. For where as the Byshop of Rome, had burned Iohn Hus before, & Hierome of Prage, who neither denyed hys transubstantiation, nor hys supremacie, nor yet hys Popishe Masse, but sayd Masse, and heard Masse them selues, neither spake agaynst hys Purgatorie, nor any other greate matter of hys Popyshe doctrine, but onely exclamed agaynst hys excessiue and pompous pride, hys vnchristian, or rather Antichristian abhomination of lyfe: thus, whyle he could not abyde hys wickednes onely of lyfe to be touched, but made it heresie, or at least matter of death, what soeuer was spoken agaynst hys detestable conuersation, and maners: God of his secrete iudgement, seyng tyme to helpe hys churche, hath founde away by this facultie of printyng, not onely to confound his life, and conuersation, which before, he could not abyde to be touched, but also to cast downe the foundation of his standyng, that is, to examine, confute, and detecte his doctrine, lawes, and institution most detestable, in such sorte, that though hys lyfe were neuer so pure: yet his doctrine standyng, as it doth, no man is so blynde, but maye see, þt either the Pope is Antichrist, or els that Antichrist is nere cosine to þe pope: And all this doth, and will hereafter more and more appeare by printyng.

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MarginaliaThe fruite and profite of Printyng.The reason wherof is this: for that hereby tongues are knowen, knowledge groweth, iudgemēt increaseth, bookes are dispersed, the Scripture is sene, the doctours be red, stories be opened, times cōpared, truth decerned, falsehode detected, & with finger poynted, and all (as I sayd) through the benefite of printyng. Wherfore I suppose that either the Pope must abolishe printyng, or hee must seke a new worlde to reigne ouer: for els, as this worlde standeth, printyng, doubtles, will abolishe hym. Both the pope, and all his colledge of Cardinals, must this vnderstand, that through the lyght of printyng, the world beginneth now to haue eyes to see, and heades to iudge. He can not walke so iniuisible in a nette, but hee will be spyed. And although through might he stopped þe mouth of Iohn Hus before, and of Hierome, that they might not preach, thinking to make his kingdome sure: yet in stead of Iohn Hus & other, God hath opened the presse to preache, whose voyce the pope is neuer able to stoppe with all þe puissance of his triple crowne. By this printyng, as by the gifte of tongues, & as by the singulare organe of the holy Ghost, þe doctrine of the Gospell soundeth to all nations & countreys vnder heauen: and what God reueleth to one mā, is dispersed to many, and what is knowne in one nation, is opened to all.

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MarginaliaGood counsayle to the pope.The first and best were for the Byshop of Rome, by the benefite of printing, to learne and knowe þe truth. If he will not, let him well vnderstand þt printing is not set vp for naught. To striue against þe streame, it auayleth not. What the Pope hath lost, since printyng & the presse began to preach, let hym cast his counters. First when Erasmus wrote, & Frobenius printed, what a blowe therby was geuen to all Friers and monkes in the world? And who seeth not, that the penne of Luther folowyng after Eras. and set forward by printyng, hath set the tri-

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