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899 [899]

K. Henry. 7. The historye and tyrannye of the Turkes.

then hearyng that Caramannus inuaded the same tyme the countrey of Bithynia and Pontus, in Asia: MarginaliaAmurathes seketh treuse of the Christians.was glad to take truce with Ladislaus and Huniades vpon such cõditions as they listed to make them selues: whiche conditions were these, MarginaliaThe cõditions betwene Ladislaus king of Polonie, and Amurathes.that Amurathes should depart clerely from all the region of Seruia, and should remoue from thēce all his garrisons, which were placed in the castles & fortes of the same: Also he should restore George Despota (whiche is to say) prince of Seruia vnto his possession, and set his children free, whom he had in captiuitie, and restore them to their inheritaunces. Item, that he should make no more clayme nor title to the coūtrey of Moldonia aboue mentioned, nor to that part of Bulgrauia whiche he had lost: and that he should desiste hereafter from all wronges and iniuries agaynst the Christians. MarginaliaTreuse betwene the Christians and the Turke for x. yeares.Vpon these conditions the Turke beyng agreed, so was truce concluded on both partes for. x. yeares, and with solemne othe betwene them confirmed.

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MarginaliaAmurathes returneth into Asia.This done, Amurathes the tyraūt addresseth him selfe toward Asia, to resiste the inuasion of Caramannus afore sayd 

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In fact, Murad wished to abdicate in favour of his son Mehmed.To serve that end, and ease the crisis in the Ottoman treasury caused by having towage war in both Anatolia and Europe, he made peace with Vladislav III ofHungary, George Branković, despot of Serbia and with the emir of Karaman. News of Murad's subsequent abdication led the papacy to break the treaty and launch a newcrusade against the Turks.

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. At what time Pope Eugenius so soone as he heard þe Turke to be returned into Asia, sendeth Iulianus Cesarianus his Cardinall (whose story is before touched 
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1583, pp. 697-700.

, pag. 829.) vnto Ladislaus the foresayd kyng, MarginaliaThe popes dispensation and absolution abused.with full dispensation and absolution, to breake his othe and league with þe Turke, promising moreouer great hope of ayde, if hee would go in armes stoutly agaynst the tyranne. MarginaliaThe popes rashe counsaile pernicious to Christēdome.¶ Where by the waye is to be noted, that as there is no truth of promise in that pestilent sea of Rome, MarginaliaNothing prospereth that is taken in hand by the popes setting on.neither was there euer any warre prospered, whiche was takē in hand by the Popes counsaile: so was there neuer any counsaile of the Pope, that brought with it more detriment to christianitie, then this. But the Pope belyke thought that as he might lawfully breake promise with Iohn Hus, and with other Christians, MarginaliaThe pope breaketh the treuse made betwene the Christians and the also he neaded not to obserue any league or truce taken with þe Turke: but it turned muche otherwise then the Popes blynde braynes imagined: as by the sequele is to bee seene 
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This sentence in Foxe's addition to Cuspinian's account of the battleof Varna. Blaming the papacy for Ottoman successes is a favourite theme of Foxe's.

. MarginaliaThe pope moueth Ladislaus to breake treuse.For Ladislaus beyng thus excited by the vnaduised and sinister instigation of Pope Eugenius, contrarye to the truce stablished a litle before, set out with his armye frõ Seledinus, and so procedyng to VValachia and Burgaria, came to Varna, a town of Bulgarye: where he fell sicke.

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It was not long but þe Turke hauyng therof intelligence, left his warres begon with Caramannus in Asia 

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Murad returned to Europe from Anatolia, but he had not been at warwith Karaman. He had been in retirement, but re-ascended the throne to deal withthis emergency.

, and with great iorneys made hast into Europe, passyng ouer by the straites nere to Callipolis, MarginaliaThe false dealing of the Italian Nauie.where all the Italian nauye still lookyng on, and whether of purpose, or whether for cowardlynes, would not styrre one ore to stoppe the passage of the Turkish army 
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Actually Byzantine, Venetian and Burgundian ships tried to preventMurad's army from crossing the Bosporus but were thwarted by storms and Turkishcannon.

. When Amurathes was come to Adrianopolis in Thracia, vsing such celeritie as no mã looked for, within. vii. daies he was in Burgaria, & there encamped him selfe agaynst Ladislaus. The day of battaile being set, þe armies ioined on both sides. Huniades was him selfe there present, but all the matter was ruled by Iulianus the Cardinall, and the Popes clergie. MarginaliaThe battaile of Varna, betwene Ladislaus kyng of Polonie, and Amurathes.The fight continued three dayes & three nightes together, with great courage and much bloud shed on ech side: in so much that the field did stand with lakes of bloud. They semed at the first to incline to the Christians, by breakyng the first rankes of the Turkes. MarginaliaThe popyshe prelates were the cause of losing the field.But the priestes and prelates whiche were at the fielde (whiche had bene more fite to haue bene in the churche) seyng the Turkes to begyn to flye, vnskilfully left their array to pursue the enemie, so that they leauyng þe other stãdinges of þe Christians naked, gaue great aduaūtage to the Turkes, with their dartes and shot to disturbe the Christiã rankes. By the whiche occasion Amurathes inclosing the Christiãs with his army round about, obteyne the victorie. In the which fielde Ladislaus the yong kyng of Polonie, hauing his horse first killed vnder him, was strooken downe, and slayne. The Popes Byshops MarginaliaA iuste punishment vpon the popyshe prelates for theyr vniust dealyng.flyeng to saue them selues, fell into the marishes, and there were destroyed, susteynyng a durtey death condigne to their filthy falsehode and vntruth 
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The comment about a dirty death being suitable for the pope's bishopsis Foxe's insertion into Cuspinian's accout.

. MarginaliaIulianus the Cardinall slayne in the war & spoiled.Iulianus the Cardinall, whiche with the Pope was the chief doer in breakyng the leage 
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The description of Julian's death is from Johannes Cuspinian, DeTurcorum origine (Antwerp, 1541), fo. 25v, but Foxe adds the comment blaming Julian for the defeat.

, in the way was found dead, beyng full of woundes and spoyled to his naked skinne. Of the rest of þe army that escaped by flying, part was drowned in the marishes, some perished miserably for hunger, some for cold, watching and wanderyng in the woodes. MarginaliaHuniades escapeth.Huniades hardly escaped the daunger by the mercyfull prouidēce of God, beyng reserued to the further profite and commoditie of Christendome.

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MarginaliaThe worthy commendation of Ihon Huniades.This Iohn Huniades 

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This encomium of Hunyadi is Foxe's addition to the text.

the worthy warrier was borne in VValachia, beyng Earle of Bistrice, of all Captaines that euer wēt against the Turkes, most famous and singular, prudent in witte, discret in counsaile, expert and politike in warre, prompt of hand, circumspect before he attempted, quicke in expedition: in whõ wanted almost no good propertie requisite in a warlike Captaine. Agaynst ij. most mighty & fierce tyrauntes, Amurathes: & Mahumetes, through the Lordes might, he defended all Pannonia, and therfore was called the thunderbolt and terrour of the Turkes. Like as Achilles was vnto þe Grecians, so was he set vp to God to bee as a walle or bulwarke of all Europe agaynst the cruell Turkes and enemies of Christ, and of his Christiãs. Neither was there any kyng or prince that euer achiued suche noble victories, either so many in nūber, or so profitable for the publique vtilitie of all Europe, as did he, and that not onely in the dayes of this Amurathes, but also of Mahumetes his successor, as hereafter remaineth further to be sene. This battaile of Amurathes agaynst the Christiãs at Varna in Bulgaria, was fought in the yeare of our Lord. 1404.

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MarginaliaAmurathes taketh his viage agaynst the Grecians.Amurathes 

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Foxe draws the reminder of his account of Murad's reign from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 649-51.

by reason of this victorious ouerthrow against the Christiãs surpressed with no small pride, directeth his iourney incontinēt toward the Grecians, where Castriotus was, otherwise called Scanderbeius. And first cõmyng to Peloponesus, & breaking downe the walle about the straites of Corinthe, encountred with the brother of the Emperour of Constãtinople, whom with his sodeine commyng he oppressed, with all the Grekes armie, ere they were prouided. Paleologus the Emperour, after that, did build vp the wall agayne: but at þe Turkes byddyng he was compelled to vndoe it agayne: which wall afterward the Venetians did repayre. MarginaliaPeloponesus, Sycione, Patris, with all the parte of Thessalia and Achaia, brought vnder the Turke.After the demolition of the wall, Amurathes entryng into Peloponesus, tooke diuers townes and Cities, as Sycione, and Patris, and moreouer made all the partes of Thessalia and Achaia, tributaries vnto hym.

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The nexte yeare after this battaile of Amurathes fought against the Christiãs at Varna, the Turke being now about the partes of Grecia, purposed to bēd all hys force & maine, agaynst the countrey of Epyrus belõging to Georgius Castriotus Scamderbeius. MarginaliaThe memorable actes of Scanderbeius agaynst Amurathes.Of this Scanderbeius mētion was made before, how he was brought vp in the Turkes court, from whence we declared also how subtily he conueyd him self, and came to the possessiõ of his own patrimonie of Epyrus. MarginaliaThys Epyrus is a countrey in Grecia bordering nere to the partes of Macedonia.Which Epyrus this noble and victorious Scamderbeius (whõ the lord also had raised vp the same time with Huniades, to bridle the fury of the Turkes) valiauntly defended agaynst all þe power of Amurathes: MarginaliaVii. captaynes of the Turkes ouercome by Castriotus Scãderbeius.In somuch that he discomfited and vanquished. vii. of the most expert Bassas or Dukes of the Ottoman Emperor, one after an other, with all their armyes of most pyked and chosen souldiours, dislodged thē of their tentes, & expulsed them vtterly out of all Epyrus. Also whē Amurathes him self with his whole puissance, had enuironed about the Citie of Croia, with cruell siege & ordinaunce out of measure, yet notwithstandyng the sayd Scander-

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