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907 [907]

K. Henry. 7. The historye and tyrannye of the Turkes.

ther, first began to write agaynst the Popes indulgēces, whiche was in the yeare of our Lord. 1516.

¶ Solymannus the. 12. after Ottomannus.

MarginaliaSolymannus the 12. after Ottomannus. 

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Sulieman I

While Foxe's account of the reign of Süleyman I emphasizes the same themes as his history of the reigns of previous sultans, there are two significant differences. The first is in the detail which Foxe gives to the reign (it is roughly equalto that given to all eleven of Süleyman's predecessors combined). There are a number of reasons for this extended coverage. Süleyman had a long reign (46 years) and a great deal happened within it. Although the conquests of Selim were arguably more notable, they took place in the Islamic world. Süleyman's major triumphs, the capture of Rhodes and the conquest of Hungary, were, on the other hand, directed against Europeans. Consequently, European writers devoted a good deal of attention to Süleyman's reign. Because of this attention and because Süleyman was a contemporary, Foxe was able to draw on more numerous and detailed sources for his reign. As a result, Foxe no longer relied on the necessarily brief accounts in the world chronicle of Johann Carion. Instead, apart from the occasional use of Sebastian Münster's Cosmographia universalis, Foxe relied on the histories collected in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De orgine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556). Although Foxe pays far more attention to the military and politics in his history of theOttomans than he does elsewhere in his work, it is important to look for the ways inwhich he was able to use such 'secular' topics in relation to other incidents, to paint the Ottomans as a diabolical enemy, if not the actual Antichrist.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

SOlymannus the onely sonne of Zelymus succeded 
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The material on the failed conspiracy against Süleyman and on his capture of Belgrade is taken from Sebastian Münster, Cosmographiae universalis(Basel, 1559), p. 968.

after his fathers death, who in the first begynnyng semed to some to be simple and shepishe, and not meete for the turkishe gouernement. Wherefore certeine of his nobles consulting howe to depose him, entended to set vp an other Emperour. In whiche conspiracie, especially are named Caierbeius and Gazelles. This Caierbeius was he that betrayed before, Campson the Sultane of Ægypt to Zelymus, as is aforesayd: MarginaliaRead in the page before 885.who now also beyng in consultation with Gazelles and other about this matter, detected thē also vnto Solyman. Wherfore the sayd Gazelles and hys felowes beyng thus detected, were put to death by Solyman, declaryng therby that he was not so shepishe as he was thought of them to be, and as also by his actes afterward did more appeare.

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MarginaliaBelgradum agayne besieged of the Turke.Solymannus, after this execution done vpon the conspiratours, takyng his viage into Europe, first besieged Belgradum: whiche beyng a Citie in Hungarie, was the strongest forte of all the Romaine Empire, and the chief defence at that tyme, of all Christendome, whiche also beyng assaulted before tyme by Amurathes the second, was valiauntly defended by Ioannes Huniades, as is aboue specified. MarginaliaRead before pag 881.But here now lacked such a one as Huniades was: For the kyngdome of Hūgary at that tyme, was vnder the gouernement of Ludouicus a yong king, vnexpert and of a simple witte. Whom other princes, & specially the couetous Church men 

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The passage on Lajos II being dominated by his nobles and prelates is from Sebastian Münster, Cosmographiae universalis (Basel, 1559), p. 968, but Foxe adds strictures on the greed of the clergy.

did so pill and pole, that they left him nothyng but onely the bare name and title of his kyngdome: Wherby he beyng vnfurnished both of men and money, was vnable to matche with such an enemy.

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MarginaliaDiscorde amongst Christian princes, what mischiefe it bringeth.An other vauntage 

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The passages blaming the fall of Belgrade on the wars among Christians and on the Papacy are Foxe's additions to the text.

also the Turkes had in besiegyng of Belgrade: For the Christian princes at that time were in ciuill dissension and variaunce amōgest them selues: and the Pope with his Churche men also were so busie in suppressyng of Luther, and of the Gospell then newly springyng, that they minded nothyng els, except it were to mainteine þe wealth of their own belyes. Which pope if hee had set his care (as his dutie was) so much in styrring vp princes agaynst the common enemy, as he was bent to deface the Gospell, & to persecute the true professours therof: soone might he haue brought to passe, not onely that Belgrade myght haue bene defended agaynst the Turke, but also that to be recouered againe, whiche was lost before: and moreouer might haue stopped the great daungers and perils, whiche now are like to fall vpone the religion and Church of Christ: which the Lord of his great mercy auerte & turne away. MarginaliaThe pope so busye agaynst Luther, that he neglecteth the ruine of Christendome.Certes what soeuer the Pope then did, this had ben his dutie, setting all other thinges a part, to haue had an earnest compassion of so many miserable & lost captiues, whiche were fallen from their faith and Religion, vnto the miserie & slauery of the Turke, and thraldome of the deuill, and to haue sought all meanes possible to haue reduced thē, as lost shepe, into the folde agayne: Whiche then might soone haue bene done, if prelates and princes ioyning together in Christian concorde, had loued so well the publike glorie of Christ & soules of Christians, as they tendered their owne priuate, worldly, and friuolous quarelles. MarginaliaTrue compassion lacking in the pope.And admit that the Pope had conceiued neuer so much malice against Luther, his quarel also being good: yet the publike Churche standyng in such daunger as it then did by the inuasion of the Turke, reason would, nature ledde, religiō taught, tyme required that a good Prelate forgettyng lighter matters, should rather haue layed hys shoulder to the excludyng of so great a daunger, as then was imminent both to hym selfe, and the vniuersall Church of Christ: But now his quarel being vniust, and the cause of Luther being most iust and god-ly, what is to be sayd or thought of such a prelate, who forebearning the Turke, whō in a tyme so daungerous he ought chiefly to haue resisted, persecuted the truth, which he should specially haue mainteined? But Christ for his mercie stande for his Church, and styrre vp zelous princes and prelates, if not to recouer that is lost, yet at least to reteine that litle whiche is left.

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MarginaliaThe citie of Belgrade wonne of the Turke.Solyman therfore 

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Foxe's use of Sebastian Münster, Cosmographiae universalis (Basel,1559), pp. 968-9 resumes here and continues through the fall of Belgrade, the fall ofRhodes and the battle of Mohács.

takyng his occasion, and vsing the cōmoditie of time, while our princes were thus at variance betwixt them selues, without any resistance or interruption, brought his armye vnto Belgrade, in þe yeare of our Lord. 1521. Whiche Citie beyng but sclenderly defensed, the Turke through his vndermyners, gunnes and other engines of warre, without great difficultie, and with litle losse of hys souldiours, soone subdued and ouercame.

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After this victorie, Solymā restyng him selfe a whole yeare, and casting in hys minde how to make all sure behynd him, for feare of enemyes to come vpon his backe, thought it expedient for his purpose if he might obteine the Ilād of Rhodes: for that onely remained yet Christiā betwixt him & Asia: 

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In the 1563 edition (TV 178/2) printed a letter purportedly from Süleyman to Phillipe Villiers de l'Isle Adam, Grand Master of the Knights of St.John. The letter is not genuine (it has Süleyman referring to Mohammad as God),and it is apparently Foxe's composition, based on details he obtained from EdwardHall, The unyon of the twoo noble and illustre families of Lancastre and York (London, 1550), STC 12723a, fos. CVIv-CVIIr.

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MarginaliaRhodes besieged.wherfore the next yeare folowyng he brought his armye of. 450. shippes &. 300. thousand men to the besiegyng therof. This Rhodes was a mightie and strong Iland, within the sea called Mare mediterraneum. The inhabitantes wherof at the first did manfully resiste the Turke, sparyng no labonr nor paynes for the defense of them selues and of all Christendome: But afterward beyng brought to extremitie, and pynched with penurie, seyng also no ayde to come from the Christians: somewhat began to languishe in them selues. The Turkes in the meane tyme castyng vp twoo great mountaines with strength of hande, two myles of from the Citie, like roling trēches caried them before them nere vnto the Citie, in the toppes wherof they plāted their ordinaunce and artillarie, to batter the Citie. The Master of the knightes of the Rhodes was thē one Phillippus Villadamus a Frenchmā, in whom no diligēce was lackyng that apparteined to the defense of the Citie. The Rhodians likewise so valiauntly behaued them selues vpon the walles, that with their shotte all the ditches about the Citie, were filled wt the Carcases of dead Turkes. Besides this, such a disease of the bloudy flixe reigned in the Turkes campe, that. 30. thousand of thē died therof: and yet for all this Solyman would not cease from his siege begōne: who at length by vndermyners castyng downe the vamures & vttermost partes of the Citie, wanne groūde still more and more vpon the Rhodians, and with mortarye peeces so battered the houses that there was no free place almost standyng in all the Citie. And thus continued the siege for the space of fiue or sixe monethes, and yet all this while came no helpe vnto them from the Christians. Wherefore they being out of all hope, through the aduise of Villadamus, yelded them selues vnto the Turke vpon condition that he would spare them with life and goodes, whiche conuention the Turke kept with them faythfully and truly. MarginaliaChristian princes negligent in helpyng theyr felowes.Thus Solyman with his great glory, & vtter shame to all Christian princes, and also ruine of all Christendome, got the noble Ile of Rhodes, although not without great losse and detriment of his armye: in so much that at one assault, 20. thousād Turkes about þe walles were slayne with fire, sword, stones, and other engines. Whereby it may be coniectured what these Rhodians might or would haue done, if succour had come to them from other Christian princes as they looked for. MarginaliaRhodes wonne of the TurkesThis Citie was wonne vpon Christmas day. an. 1522.

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This conquest of Rhodes obteyned, Solyman the iiij. yeare after, bringeth backe his armye agayne into Hungarie, where he founde none to resiste him but onely Ludouicke the young kyng: who beyng accompanyed with a small armye, and nothyng hable to matche with

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