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943 [943]

K. Henry. 7. Persecution in Couentry. Picus Mirandula.

Item, that no priest hath power to assoyle a man in the market of penaunce, 

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The phrase 'in the market of pennance' is Foxe's insertion into the text(cf. Lollards of Coventry, 1486-1522, ed. Shannon McSheffrey and Norman P. Tanner, Camden Society, Fifth series 23 [2003], p. 68).

from his sinnes.

MarginaliaRoger Browne.ROger Browne of the same Citie, was also accused to be an heretike because he did hold that MarginaliaAgaynst mā ought to worshyp the Image of our Lady of Walsingham, nor the bloud of Christ at Hailes, but rather God almighty, who would geue him what so euer he would aske. 

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Roger Brown went on to declare that the Lord never shed his blood onearth and that he did not have a mother (Lollards of Coventry, 1486-1527, ed. Shannon McSheffrey and Norman Tanner, Camden Society, Fifth series 23 [2003], p.69). Foxe omitted this statement.

Item, that he held not vp his handes, nor looked vp, at the eleuation of the Eucharist.

Item, that he promised one to shew him certein bookes of heresie, if he would sweare that hee would not vtter them, and if he would credite them.

MarginaliaFlesh eatyng in Lent.Item, that hee did eate fleshe in Lent, and was taken with the maner.

MarginaliaAgaynst purgatory and confession auricular.Itē, if any man were not shriuen his whole lyfe long, and in the poynt of death would bee confessed and could not, if he had no more but contriciō onely, he should passe to ioye wtout Purgatory: And if he were cōfessed of any sinne, & were enioyned onely to say for penaūce one Pater noster, if he thought he should haue any punishment in Purgatory for that sinne, he would neuer be confessed for any sinne.

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MarginaliaAgaynst confession and satisfaction.Item, because he said all was lost þt is geuē to priestes.

Item, that there was no Purgatory, & that God would pardon all sinnes without confession and satitisfaction.

MarginaliaThomas Butler.THomas Butler of the same Citie, was likewise openly accused to be a very heretike, because he did holde that there were but two wayes, that is to say, to heauen, and to hell.

Item, that no faythfull man should 

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Butler was charged with saying that nobody undergoes any punishmentfor sin after death (Lollards of Coventry, 1486-1522, ed. Shannon Mcsheffrey andNorman Tanner, Camden series, 23 [2003], p. 70). Foxe has altered this to a statement that no faithful man should be punished for sin after death.

abyde any payne after the death of Christ, for any sinne, because Christ dyed for our sinnes.

MarginaliaAgaynst purgatory.Item, that there was no Purgatory, for euery mā immediatly after death passeth either to heauen, or hell.

MarginaliaAgaynste merites.Item, that who soeuer departeth in the faith of Christ & the Churche, how soeuer he hath lyued, shalbe saued.

Item, that prayers and pilgrimages are nothyng worth, and auayle not to purchase heauen.

MarginaliaIohn Falkes.IOhn Falkes was accused to bee a very hereticke, because he did affirme that MarginaliaAgaynste was a foolishe thyng to offer to the Image of our Lady, saying, her head shalbe hoare or I offer to her: what is it but a blocke? If it could speake to me, I would geue it an halpenyworth of ale.

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Item, that when the priest carieth to the sicke the body of Christ, why carieth he not also the bloud of Christ?

Item, that he did eate cowe milke vpon the first Sonday of Lent.

Item, that as concernyng the Sacrament of penance and absolution, no priest hath power to assoyle any man from hys sinnes, when as he can not make one heare of hys head.

Item, that the Image of our Lady was but a stone or a blocke. MarginaliaIt is heresie to say a stone is a stone, and a blocke is a blocke.

MarginaliaRichard Hilmin.RIchard Hilmin was accused that he was a very hereticke, because he did say and mainteine that it was better to depart with money to the poore, then to geue tythes to priestes, or to offer to the Images of our Lady, and that it were better to offer to Images made by God, then to the Images of God paynted.

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MarginaliaScripture in English.Item, that he had the Lordes Prayer and the Salutation of the Angell and the Crede in Englishe, and an other booke did he see and had, whiche conteined the Epistles and Gospels in Englishe, and accordyng to them would he liue, and therby beleued he to be saued.

Item, that no priest speaketh better in the pulpit then that booke.

Item, that the Sacrament of the altare is but bread, and that the priestes make it to blynd the people.

Item, that a priest whiles hee is at Masse, is a priest, and after one Masse done, till the begynnyng of an otherMasse, he is no more then a lay man, and hath no more power then a mere lay man.

¶ After they were enforced to recant, they were assoyled and put to penaunce.

MarginaliaMargery Goyt.IN the yeare of our Lord. 1488. þe iij. of Aprill, Magery Goyt, wife of Iames Goyt of Asburne, was brought before the foresayd Iohn Bishop of Couentry and Lychfield: MarginaliaAgainst the Sacrament of the Altar.who was there accused 

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Margery Goyte was prosecuted two years after the previous eight Coventry Lollards and there is no evidence that she had any connection with them. She was also from Ashburne, Derbyshire, which is some distance from the city ofCoventry. The account of Goyte, however, is also from the register of Bishop Hales of Coventry. (Lichfield record Office, Register Hales, fos. 168v-169v; printed in Lollards of Coventry, 1486-1522, ed. Shannon McSheffrey and Norman P. Tanner, Camden Society, Fifth series, 23 [2003], pp. 87-94).

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that she sayd, that which the priestes lift ouer their heades at Masse, was not the true and very body of Christe: For if it were so, the priestes could not breake it so lightly into iiij. partes, and swalow it as they do: for the Lordes body hath fleshe and bones, so hath not that whiche the priestes receyue.

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Item, that priestes bying xl. cakes for a halfpeny, and shewyng them to the people and saying, that of euery of them they make the body of Christe, do nothyng but deceyue the people and enriche them selues.

Itē, seyng God in the beginnyng did create and make man, how cā it be that man should be able to make God? 

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Foxe omits two articles charged against Goyte. The first charged thatshe denied the virginity of the Virgin Mary and claimed that Christ was conceived ofJoseph. The second omitted article charged that she maintained that a child conceivedof Christian parents did not require the sacrament of baptism (Lollards of Caventry,1486-1522, ed. Shannon McSheffrey and Norman P. Tanner, Camden Society, Fifthseries, 23 [2003], p. 91).

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¶ This woman also, was constrained to recant, and so was she assoyled and did penaunce.

Thus much I thought here good to inserte, touchyng these foresayd men of Couentry, especially for this purpose, because our cauilling aduersaries be wont to obiect agaynst vs the newnes of Christes old and auncient Religiō. 

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Foxe is using the example of the Coventry Lollards to demonstrate that'true' Christianity existed before Luther and that the Protestants did not invent their doctrines. This apologetic requirement explains why Foxe purged his accounts of theCoventry Lollards of articles attributed to them that he regarded as unorthodox . This lengthy disgression, tying the prosperity of monarchs andtheir reigns to their resistance to 'papistry', is actually an attempt to goad Elizabeth and her councillors into further reforming the English Church.

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To þe entent therfore they may see this doctrine not to be so new as they reporte, I wyshe they would cōsider both the tyme and Articles here obiected agaynste these foresayd persons, as is aboue premised.

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MarginaliaPicus Mirandula Earle.I should also in þe same reigne of king Henry vij. haue induced þe history of Ioannes Picus Earle of Mirandula, the mention of whose name partely is touched before, pag. 865. 

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Although Foxe does not openly admit it, the following brief biographyof Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, the celebrated Italian Neo-Platonist and humanist, is a response to an attack by Nicholas Harpsfield. In the first edition of the A&M, Foxe had claimed that Pico della Mirandola, Lorenzo Valla and Erasmus had preparedthe way for Luther (1563, p. 402). Harpsfield responded indignantly, insisting thatPico was completely orthodox. Drawing heavily on Thomas More's translation ofGianfrancisco Pico della Mirandola's biography of his uncle, Harpsfield pointed out that the elder Pico della Mirandola flagellated himself in honour of Christ's passion and that he wished to become a friar. He dismissed passages where Pico della Mirandola denied transubstantiation as academic exercises written when the phlosopher was still an impetuous youth (Nicholas Harpsfield, Dialogi sex [1566], pp. 910-14). Foxe replies by drawing on elements in the younger Pico's biography that support his own case. The elder Pico was, in fact, a brilliant, but not sympatheticthinker, and both Harpsfield and Foxe could find aspects of his thought and writings to appropriate.

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This Picus Earle of Mirandula beyng but a young man, was so excellently wytted, and so singularly learned in all sciences, and in all tongues, both Latine, Greke, Hebrew, Chaldey, and Araby, that commyng to Rome booted & spurred, he set vp 90. conclusions, to dispute in the same with any in all Christendome, who soeuer would come agaynst hym. Of whiche conclusions diuers were touchyng the matter of the Sacramēt. &c. And when none was founde in all Rome, nor in Europe, þt openly would dispute with hym, priuely & in corners certein of the Popes clergy, prelates, lawyers, and Friers, by þe pope appointed, consulted together to inquire vpon his conclusiōs, wherupō they did articulate agaynst hym for suspicion of heresie. And thus the vnlearned clergy of Rome priuely circumuented and intangled this learned Earle in their snares of heresie, agaynst whō they neuer durst openly dispute. He dyed beyng of the age of 32. of such a witte & towardnes, as is hard to say whether euer Italie bredde vp a better. In his sickenes Charles viij. þe Frenche kyng, moued with the fame of his learnyng, came to visite him. The furniture of his bookes cost him. 7000. florenes. A litle before his death his mynde was to geue all away, & to take a coule, to go about & preache, but the Lord would not permit him. His story requireth a longer tractation: whiche if place do serue, we will not peraduenture forget. With ij. Popes, that is, with Pope Innocent, and Alexander vi. he had much vexation. 
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This is somewhat distorted. It is true that Innocent VIII ordered Pico della Mirandola's arrest for heresy, but Alexander VI absolved him.

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¶ The names of the Archbyshops of Canterbury in this sixte booke conteyned.

62Iohn Stratford.viij.
63Iohn Kempe.iij.
64Thomas Burchier.xxxiij.
65Iohn Morton.xiiij.
66Thomas Langhton. MarginaliaThis Thomas Langhton, was the elected Archb. but died before he was confirmed.
67Henry Dene.ij.
Guliel. Warham.xxviij.

Here endeth the sixte booke, and the first Tome.

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