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980 [980]

K. Henry. 8. The trouble and death of Tho. Man, Martyr.

Sacrament of penaunce, are naught, and that you will none of thē: And likewise that the colledge of Cardinals bee lymmes of the said Antichrist: and that all other inferiour Prelates and Priestes are the Sinagoge of Sathan. And moreouer you said that the doctours of the Churche haue subuerted the truth of holy Scripture, expoūding it after their owne mindes, and therfore their workes be naught, and they in hell: but that Wickleffe is a saint in heauen, MarginaliaWickliffes Wicket.and that the booke called his wicket, is good, for therin he sheweth the truth. Also you, did wish that there were xx. thousand of your opinion agaynst vs Scribes & Pharisies, to see what you would do for the defēce of your faith. All which heresies you did afterwardes erroneouslie affirme before the Archbishop of Canterbury, and then said that you would abide by them to dye for it: notwithstanding his earnest persuasions to the contrarie: and therefore for these premisses you be euidently relapsed, and ought to be committed vnto the secular power.

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After these Articles thus propounded, and his constāt perseueryng in the truth perceaued, D. Hed vicare

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John Stilman, who had a long heretical career behind him, had come to the attention of the authorities eleven years before he was eventually rearrested and condemned in 1518. A book owner, who moved between different areas, the charges against him included his praise of Wiclif's Wicket. He is among the early sixteenth-century Lollards whom we know about from both Foxe and official records.

general, the xxv. daye of Octob. by hys sentēce definitiue dyd condēne hym as a relapsed hereticke, and so deliuered hym the same present daye, vnto the Shriffes of London, to be openly burned in Smithfield.

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¶ Thomas Man Martyr.

MarginaliaTho. Man, Martyr.NExt to Iohn Stilman aboue mencioned, followeth in this blessed order of Martyrs, the persecution and condemnation of Thomas Man. Who the xxix. daye of Marche in the yeare of our Lord. 1518. was burned in Smithfield. 

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This detailed account of Thomas Man appears to be based on two sources that are now lost: a court book of the diocese of London recording heresy trials under Bishops Fitzjames and Tunstall, and a court book of the diocese of Lincoln, recording heresy trials under Bishops Smith and Longland. (The Lincoln courtbook probably also contained the now lost records of Longland's persecution in the Chilterns in 1521). Foxe may also have had an unnamed informant for Thomas Man's execution. Foxe's account of Man is very convincing in its circumstantial detail. There is also one piece of corroboration for it: the signification of Man's excommunication and transfer to secular authority for execution and it is dated 1 March 1518 (TNA C 85/126/28).

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This Thomas Man had likewise ben apprehended for the profession of Christes Gospell, about vi. yeares before, the xiiij. daye of August. an. 1511. 
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This would have placed Man's first arrest in 1512; Man was actually been arrested and tried in 1511.

and beyng at that tyme brought before. D. Smith Bishop of Lyncolne, was by him examined vpō diuerse and sondry Articles: the effect wherof are these 
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These articles are almost certainly taken from a lost court book from the diocese of Lincoln. C 189/12 Foxe is reconstructing the details of More's abjuration and escape from the charges made against Man in London in 1518.

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The articles of Thomas Man.
First, that he had spoken against auricular confeßion, and denied the corporall presence of Christes body in the Sacramēt of the altare.

Marginalia2.Item, that hee beleued that all holie men of his secte were onely Priestes.

Marginalia3.Item, that he had affirmed, that the father of heauen was the altare, and the second person the Sacrament, and that vpon the Ascension day the Sacrament ascended vnto the altar, and there abideth still.

Marginalia4.Item, that hee beleued not a right in the Sacrament of extreme vnction.

Marginalia5.Item, that he had called certeine Priestes meanely arayed, pilde knaues.

Marginalia6.Item, that hee had said that pulpettes were Priestes lying stooles.

Marginalia7.Item, that he beleued that Jmages ought not to be worshipped: and that he neither beleued in the Crucifix, nor yet would worship it.

Marginalia8.Item, that he had affirmed, that he heard say, the worde of God and God to be all one, and hee that worthely receaueth the worde of God, receaueth God.

Marginalia9.Item, that he had said, that the Popishe Churche was not the Churche of God, but a Synagoge: and that holy men of his secte were the true Churche of God.

For these and such like matters was hee a long tyme emprisoned, and at last, through frailtie & feare of death, was contented to abiure & yeld hym selfe vnto the iudgement of the Romishe Churche, MarginaliaTho. Man sent to the monastery of Osney.and therupon was enioyned, not onely to make his open recantation, but also frō thenceforth to remayne as prisoner within the monasterie of Oseney besides Oxford, and so to beare a fagot before the first crosse, at the next generall procession within the Vniuersitie. 

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Foxe is reconstructing the details of More’s abjuration and escape from the charges made against Man in London in 1518.

Howbeit, not long after, the Byshop hauyng nede of the poore mans helpe in his houshold busines, tooke him out of the sayd monastery, and placed hym within his owne house, vntill his busines were ended, 
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Man clearly possesed some useful skill; he may have been an artisan, or perhaps even a bailiff or steward.

and then (his turne once serued) he appointed D. Wilcockes his vicare generall, MarginaliaTho. Man sent to the monastery of Frydeswyde.that in his next iudiciall Sessiō within þe Priorie of Frideswide at Orforde, he should assigne him to remaine within the said Priorie, & not to departe thence without licence of the Prior for the tyme beyng, vpon payne of relapse: and vppon the lyke payne hee also enioyned hym to weare the signe of a Fagot vnder his vttermost garment, vntill he were dispensed with all, for the same. All whiche notwithstandyng, he (beyng belike, both sory for his offence in denying the truth, and also werye of this seruile and prisonlike bondage) bethought him selfe howe hee might best escape their cruell handes, MarginaliaTho. Man fledde out of the monastery.and therfore after a while, seyng good oportunitie offered hym, he fled the dioces and iurisdiction of Lincolne: and sekyng abroade in other countreis for woorke (thereby to susteine his poore lyfe) hee most commenly aboade, sometime in Essex, sometyme in Suffolke: where also hee associated and ioyned hym selfe vnto such godly professors of Christes gospell, as he there could heare of. But within fewe yeares after (such is the cruell rage of Sathan and his wicked members, whiche neuer suffer the godly long to cōtinue vntroubled) MarginaliaTho. Man the second tyme apprehended.he was agayne accused of relapse, by the enquest of the inquisition of London, and therupon was apprehended and brought vnto Richard Fitziames then Byshop of London, and the ix. day of February, an. 1518. he was examined by D. Hed the Byshops vicare general, within hys pallace at London: where the sayd Hed iudicially assisted with diuers of his complices, declared first vnto Man, that forasmuch as he was since his first abiuring agayne detected and accused by certein credible and honest persons, MarginaliaThe of hys martyrdome.of the same heresies which he had once before recanted: and farther, (contrarie vnto the order of penaunce enioyned hym by the late Byshop of Lyncoln) he had departed the Priorie of S. Frideswyde, and the dioces of Lyncolne, without leaue, either of the Byshop or Priour: and was now also founde within the dioces of London, and that without his badge assigned hym by þe sayd byshops vicar generall: 
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This was a badge that some people convicted of heresy were compelled to wear identifying them as penitents convicted of heresy; removing it was an offence in itself.

he therfore as Chauncelour and vicare generall vnto the Byshop of London, deputed for that purpose, did then meane to procede agaynst hym as a relapse, by order of the ecclesiasticall lawes in that behalfe prouided: Wherfore he appointed him to appeare agayne in the consistory of Paules, the xij. day of February next after, there to answer vnto such Articles, as then should be propounded agaynst hym. At whiche day and place, the Chauncelour (first recityng the causes before mencioned, why he dyd then procede agaynst hym) obiected vnto hym these Articles folowyng.

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Articles agayne obiected agaynst Thomas Man.
First that he was of the dioces of London.

Marginalia2.Item, that hee was a Christen man, and professed Christes fayth, and the determinations of holy church concerning the vij. sacramentes, and other articles of the catholique fayth.

Marginalia3.Item, that it was not lawfull for any man (especially a lay man) erroniouslye and obstinatelye to holde, teach, or defend any opinion cōtrary vnto the determinatiōs of the said church

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