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1049 [1048]

K. Henry. 8. Byshops othes to the Pope. The oth of the Clergie to the king.

succession vnto the crowne, in ratifiyng and inhablyng the heires of the kinges body and Queene Anne. In the which parliament moreouer the degrees of mariage 

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Foxe here refers to the 1534 act.

plainly & clerely were explaned and set forth, such as be expresly prohibited by gods lawes, as in this Table may appere.

A Table 
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The marriage prohibitions are found in Leviticus 18.6-18.

of degrees prohibited by Gods

law to mary.

Marginalia[illegible text]
Degrees prohibited to mary.
The sonne not to mary the mother, nor stepmother.
The brother not to mary the sister.
The father not to mary his sonnes daughter, nor hys
daughters daughter.
The sonne not to mary hys fathers daughter gotten
by his stepmother.
The sonne not to mary his aunte, beyng either his fa-
thers or hys mothers sister.
The sonne not to mary hys vncles wyfe.
The father not to mary hys sonnes wyfe.
The brother not to mary his brothers wyfe.
No man to mary his wyues daughter.
No man to mary his wyues sonnes daughter.
No man to mary his wyues daughters daughter.
No man to mary hys wyues sister.
All these degrees be prohibited by the scripture.

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All these thinges thus beyng defined and determined in this foresayde Parliament, and also beyng in the same parliament concluded, that no man of what estate degree, or condition soeuer, hath any power to dispense wyth Gods lawes, MarginaliaSeparation betwene the king and thr Ladie Catherine by acte of Parlament. it was therefore by the authoritie aforesayd agreyng with the authoritie of Gods word, assented that the mariage aforetyme solemnised betwene the kyng and the Lady Katherine, beyng before wyfe to prince Arthur the kynges brother, and carnally knowen by hym (as is aboue proued) should be absolutely demed and adiudged to be vnlawfull and against the law of God, and also reputed and taken to be of no value nor effect: and that the separation therof by Thomas Cranmer 

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This refers to the ruling (23 May 1533) of the archbishop's marriage tribunal assembled at the Priory of St Peter at Dunstable.

Archbishop of Caunterbury should stande good and effectuall to all intentes: MarginaliaThe mariage betwene the kyng and Queene Anne approued by publicke Parlament. and also that the lawfull matrimony betwene the kyng and the Lady Anne his wife shoulde be established, approued, and ratified for good & consonant to the lawes of almighty God. MarginaliaThe heyres of K. Henry and Queene Anne ratified by Parlament. And fauther also for the establishyng of this kinges lawfull succession, it was fully by the sayd parliament adiudged that the inheritaunce of the crowne should remayne to the heires of their two bodies, that is, of the kyng and queene Anne hys wyfe.

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During the tyme of this Parlament, before the Mariage of Queene Anne, there was one Temse in the Common house, which moued the Commons to sue to þe kyng, to take the Queene agayne into hys company, declaryng certayne great mischiefes like to insue thereof, as in bastarding the Lady Mary the kinges onely childe, and diuers other inconueniences: which being reported to the kynges eares, he sent immediatly to syr Tho. Audley, Speaker then of the Parlament, expressing vnto hym amongest other matters, MarginaliaThe kinges words to syr Tho. Audley speaker of the Parlament. that he merueiled much, why one of the Parlament did so openly speake of the absence of the Queene from him: which matter was not to be determined there, for it touched (sayd he) his soule and wyshed that Matrimony were good, for then had he neuer bene so vexed in conscience. But the Doctors of Vniuersities (saide he) haue determined the Mariage to be voyd, and detestable before God, which grudge of conscience (he sayd) caused him to absteine from her company, and no foolishe, nor wanton appetite. For I am (sayd he) xli. yeare olde, at which age the lust of man is not so quicke as it is in youth. And sauing in Spayne and Portugale, 

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Henry was referring to the marriages of Manuel I of Portugal (1495-1521), successively, to Catherine of Aragon's two elder sisters, Isabella and Maria (both Manuel's nieces).

it hath not ben sene, that one man hath maryed two sisters, the one being carnally knowen before: but the brother to mary the brothers wife, was so abhorred amongest all nations, that I neuer heard it, that any christian man so did, but me selfe. Wherfore ye see my conscience troubled, and so I pray you report. And so the Speaker departyng, declared to the Commons the kynges saying.

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Not long after that, 

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This is the start of the manoeuvres which would eventually produce the submission of the clergy. This famous speech, of 21 May 1532, was recorded by Hall [for which, see Edward Hall, The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancastre & York, 2 vols., ed. by H Ellis (London, 1809), ii, p.788].

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the kyng perceiuyng belyke the myndes of the Clergy not much fauoryng his cause, sent for the Speaker agayne and xij. of the Common house, hauyng with him 8. Lordes, and sayd to them: MarginaliaThe kynges wordes to certayne of the common house. Welbeloued subiects, we had thought the Clergy of our realme had bene our subiectes wholye, but now we haue well perceyued that they bee but halfe our subiectes: yea, and scarse our subiectes: MarginaliaThe spirituall men the popes subiectes more then the kinges. For all the Prelats at theyr consecration, make an othe to the pope, cleane contrary to the othe þt they make to vs, so that they seme to be his subiects and not ours: and so the king deliuering to them the copy of both the othes, required them to inuent some order that he might not thus be deluded of hys spirituall subiects.

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The Speaker thus departed & caused the othes to be read in the Common house, the very tenor wherof here ensueth.

The othe of the Clergy to the Pope.

MarginaliaThe othe which [illegible text] Pope. I Iohn Bishop or Abbot of A. from this houre forward, shall be faythful & obedient to S. Peter, and to the holy church of Rome, and to my lord the Pope, and his successours Canonically entryng. I shall not be of counsaile nor consent, that they shall loose eyther lyfe or member, or shall be taken or suffer any violence, or any wrong, by any meanes. Their counsaile to me credited by them, their messengers or letters, I shall not willingly discouer to any person. The Popedome of Rome, the rules of the holy fathers, and the regalities of S. Peter I shall helpe and retayne, and defende agaynst all men. The legate of the sea Apostolicke going & comming, I shall honourably entreat. The rightes, honours, priuiledges, authorities of the Church of Rome, and of the Pope and hys successors, I shal cause to be conserued, defended, augmented, and promoted. I shall not be in counsell, treaty, or any acte, in the whiche any thyng shall be imagined against hym or the church of Rome, their rightes, states, honours, or powers: and if I know any such to be moued or compassed, I shall resist it to my power, and as soone as I can, I shal aduertise him, or such as may geue him knowledge. The rules of the holy fathers, the decrees, ordinances, sentences, dispositions, reseruations, prouisions and commaundementes Apostolike, to my power I shal kepe and cause to be kept of other. Heretikes, schismatickes, and rebels to our holy father and his successors, I shall resist and persecute to my power. I shall come to the Synode when I am called, except I be letted by a Canonicall impediment. The lightes of the Apostles I shall visite personally or by my deputie. I shall not aliene nor sell my possessions, without the Popes councell, so God me helpe and the holy Euangelists.

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¶ This othe of the Clergie men, which they were wont to make to the Byshop of Rome MarginaliaPope Quondam (nowe Pope quondam) was abolished and made voyde by statute, and a new othe ministred and cōfirmed for the same, wherin they acknowledged the kyng to bee the supreme head vnder Christe in this Church of England, as by tenour therof may appeare here vnder ensuing.

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The othe of the Clergy to the kyng.

MarginaliaThe othe of the Clergie to the kyng. I Iohn bishop of A. vtterly renounce and clerely forsake all such clauses, wordes, sentences, and graunts, which I haue or shall haue hereafter of the Popes holynes, of and for the bishoprike of A. that in any wise hath bene, is, or hereafter may be hurtfull or preiudicial to your highnes, your heires, successors, dignitie priuiledge or estate royall: and also I do sweare that I shall be faythfull and true: and fayth and truth I shal beare to you my soueraigne Lord, and to your heyres kyngs of the same, of lyfe and limme, and earthly worshyp aboue all creatures, for to lyue and die with you and yours against all people, and diligently I shalbe attendaunt to all your nedes and busines, after my wit and power, & your coūsell I shall kepe and hold, knowledging my self to hold my bishopricke of you onely, beseechyng you of restitution of the temporalties of the same, promising (as before) that I shalbe faythfull, true, and obedient subiect to your said highnes, heires, and successours during my lyfe, and the seruices and other thynges due to your hyghnes, for the restitution of the temporalties of the same Byshopricke, I shall truely doe and obediently performe, so God me helpe and all Saintes.

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These othes thus beyng recited and opened to the people were the occasion that the Pope loste all his interest & iurisdiction here in England, within short while after. Vpon þe occasion and reason wherof, the matter fallyng out more & more agaynst the Pope, MarginaliaSyr Tho. More. Syr Thomas More, 

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More resigned the chancellorship on 16 May 1532, citing illness and chest pains.

of whom mention is made before beyng a great maintainer of the Pope, and a heauy troubler of Christes people, and nowe not lykyng well of this othe, by Gods good worke was enforced to resigne vp his Chauncelorshyp, and to deliuer vp the great seale of England into the kynges handes. MarginaliaTho. Audley made L. Chauncellour. After whom succeded Syr Thomas Audley, Keper of the great seale, a man in eloquence and giftes of tongue no lesse incomparable, then also for hys godly disposed mynde, and fauorable inclynatiō to Christes Religion, worthy of much commendation.

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MarginaliaThe mariage of Queene Anne. These thynges beyng done in the parlament, the kyng within short tyme after, proceded to the Mariage of the foresaid lady Anne Bullen, 

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Famously, Henry and Anne were married twice. A secret ceremony took place on 14 November 1532 (when Anne was found to be pregnant) and a public ceremony on 25 January 1533. [For discussion and speculation over these dates, cf. David Starkey, Six Wives: The Queens of Henry VIII (London, 2004), pp.462-4 and Eric Ives, The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn (Oxford, 2004), pp.170-1].

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mother to our most noble Queene now, 
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Elizabeth I.

who wtout all controuersie was a speciall comforter & aider of all the professours of Christes Gospell, as well of þe lear-

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