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1348 [1347]

K. Edw. 6. Peter Martyrs disputation in Oxford.

MarginaliaAn. 1552. MarginaliaGregorius in Registro. Notwithstanding whether we take leauened or vnleauened bread, we are all one body of our Lord and Sauiour. &c.

¶ Argument.

Where bread leauened or vnleauened is taken, there is
substance of bread and not accidences onely.
In the Sacrament bread is receaued either leauened
or vnleauened:
Ergo, in the Sacrament is substaunce of bread and not
accidences onely.

¶ Argument.

Da- The body of Christ is named of that which is propor
tioned round, and is vnsensible in operation.
to- Accidences onely of bread haue no figure of roundnes:
co. Ergo, the body of Christ is not named of accidēces, but
of very bread substauntiall. 
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According to the metaphysics of the ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle, which became enshrined in Catholic theology through its use by St Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century, 'substance' refers to the inherent nature of an object; 'accidents' refer to the elements of an object that are not inherent. In the case of bread, for example, the shape and color are accidents of the substance of a piece of bread.

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¶ Argument.

The wordes of the Euāgelist speakyng of that which Christ tooke, blessed, brake, and gaue, do importe it to be bread, and nothyng els but bread.

Ergo, the substaunce of bread is not to be excluded out of the Sacrament.


MarginaliaChrysost. 1. Cor. 11. [illegible text]. 27. Christ in bread and wyne sayd: do this in remembraunce of me.


MarginaliaCyrill. in Ioan. lib. 4. cap. 14. He gaue to them peeces or fragmentes of bread.

Also the same Cyrill sayth: In bread we receaue his precious body, and his bloud in wyne.

Ergo, by these Doctours it remayneth bread after consecration.


Before the blessing of the heauenly wordes, it is called an other kynde of thyng. After consecration the body of Christ is signified.

¶ Argumentes of Peter Martyr disputyng with M. Chadsey vpon the first question.

The Analogie 
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St Augustine gave the traditional definition of Sacraments as visible signs ('analogy', 'similtude'of invisible grace, grace being the Holy Spirit or God's divine self at work in the world. Protestants argued that regarding the Eucharist the bread and wine are the 'analogy' that signify Christ's true but spiritual presence. Catholics argue that visible signs or analogy are the accidents of the outward signs of bread and wine after the substance of the bread and wine have been consecrated and completely transformed into the invisible but true, spiritual and corporeal body and blood of the Risen Christ.

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and resemblaunce betwene the Sacra
ment and the thyng signified must euer be kept, in all
In the Sacrament of the Lordes body, this Analo-
gie or resemblaunce can not be kept, if bread be transub
Ergo, the substaunce of bread must needes remayne in
the Sacrament of the Lordes body.

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MarginaliaAugust. Epist. ad Dardanum. The Maior 

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The 'major' of an argument is its chief point; the 'minor' is the proof ascertaining ('certaine') the major's veracity.

of this Argument is certaine by S. Austen, Lib. De catechisandis rudibus, & Epist. ad Dardan. Where hee sayth: Sacramentes must needes beare a similitude of those thynges wherof they are Sacramentes, or els they can be no Sacramentes.

The Minor is thus proued.

¶ Argument.

MarginaliaApologie or proportion betwene the outward nourishing of bread in our bodyes, and the inward nourishing of Christes bodely death in our soules.

The resemblaunce betwene the Sacramēt and the bo-
dy of Christ is this: that as the properties of bread &
wyne do nourish outwardly: so the properties of the bo
dy of Christ do nourish spiritually.
Without the substaunce of bread and wyne there is no
resemblaunce of nourishyng.
Ergo, without the substaunce of bread and wyne the
Analogie can not hold.
¶ Argument.
Agayne, an other resemblaunce and similitude or Ana-
logie of this Sacrament is this, that as one loafe of
bread, and one cuppe of wine conteyneth many cornes
and many grapes: so the mysticall congregation contei-
neth many members, and yet maketh but one body:
Without the substaūce of bread & wine, no such resem-
blaunce or similitude of coniūction can be represented:
Ergo, without the substaunce of bread and wyne, the
Analogie of this spirituall coniunction can not hold.
¶ An other Argument.
Euery Sacrament consisteth in two thynges, that is,
in the thyng signifiyng, and the thyng signified.
Without the substaunce of bread and wine, there is no-
thyng that signifieth in the Sacrament:
Ergo, the substaunce of bread & wyne in the Sacramēt
can in no wise be transubstantiate from their natures.

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The Minor is thus to be proued.

There is no signification in any Sacrament without
the element.
The substaunce of bread and wyne is the element of
this Sacrament:
Ergo, without the substance of bread and wyne there
is no similitude nor signification in this Sacrament.

And for somuch as the aduersaryes grounde their transubstantiation so much vppon these wordes of Christ: This is my body: 

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Matt. 26: 26; Mark 14: 22; Luke 22: 19 - the Gospel narratives of the institution of the Eucharist at the Last Supper. Martyr claimed that Catholics read this phrase only according to the literal sense of interpreting the Bible, not the analogical, figurative or 'spiritual' sense. Catholics claim they understand this Biblical text in both the literal and spiritual senses.

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which they expounde onely after þe literal sense, without trope 
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'Trope': metaphor; in this case a visible object signifying Christ's Eucharistic presence. A sacrament could not exist without the visible sign of invisible grace, and Martyr claimed that the Catholic Eucharist did not have one, since the substance was completely transformed. Catholics maintained that the accidents of bread and wine - the outward signs of the transubstantiated elements - served as the trope or figure of Christ's corporeal body and blood, and so could be called 'bread' and 'wine'.

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or figure: now that this their exposition is false, and that the sayd wordes are to be taken figuratiuely and spiritually, by three causes it is to be proued: 1. First by the wordes of the Scripture: 2. By the nature of a Sacrament: 3. By the testimonies of the fathers.

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MarginaliaThree causes prouyng that these wordes of Christ, Hoc est corpus meū, are not to be taken literally but spiritually.
Places of scripture making agaynst transubstantiation.
1. First by these wordes of the Scripture, where he sayth: Do this in remembraunce of me: for so much as remembraunce properly serueth not for thinges corporally present, but for thinges rather beyng absent. 

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Luke 22: 19; I Corinthians 11: 23-26 (the institution narrative as given by St. Paul). Martyr held that Christ is spiritually present in the bread and wine, not literally, for otherwise there would be no need to remember Christ, since one remembers only that which is not there. Catholics state that the Eucharist is a memorial that makes truly but mystically present Christ's one sacrifice on the cross, as well as making his body and blood corporeally present.

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2. Secondly, where he sayth: Vntill I come. Which wordes were vayne, if he were already come by consecration.

3. Thirdly, where Saint Paule sayth: The breaking of bread, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? 

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I Corinthians 10: 16-17. Catholics claim that Christ's one death upon the cross, where he body was broken, becomes truly, mystically present in the Mass. They also receive Christ's true, corporeal, risen, glorified body and blood, which can no longer be broken as it was upon the cross, but Christ's one body can be given to people whenever and wherever they receive the Eucharist.

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Which wordes of breakyng in no case can be verified vpon the body of Christ, which for the glory therof is vnpossible.

4. Furthermore where as the Lord byddeth them to take and eate, it is euident, that the same can not be vnderstand simply of the body of Christ without a trope, forsomuch as he can not be eaten and chawed with teeth, as we vse properly in eatyng other meates to do. 

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A common objection to Catholic Eucharistic doctrine at the time. Catholics claim that Christ's risen, glorified body is not susceptible to whatever befalls any other kind of food, including chewing.

5. The wordes moreouer of Luke and Paul spoken of the cuppe, do argue likewise that the other wordes spoken of the bread must needes be taken mystically. As where it is sayd: This cup is the new Testament: which wordes must needes be expounded, thus: this cuppe doth signifie the new Testament. 

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Luke 22: 19 and I Corinthians 11: 25. Catholics maintain that Christ's body and blood both represent Christ's New Testament or covenant: his promise to be with his Church always, including in the sacrament of the Eucharist, in contrast to the Hebrew covenant in which God's presence and protection was dependent upon Jewish adherence to the Law of Moses. It is unclear whether Martyr means the Eucharist represents the New Testament as only meaning the Christian scriptures.

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6. Item, these wordes of S. Iohn chap. 6. My wordes be spirite and life. The flesh profiteth nothyng. &c. 

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John 6: 63. The beginning of the conclusion of Jesus' 'The Bread of Life Discourse' in John 6. Catholics would remind those who denied Christ's corporeal presence in the Eucharist, that such a reading of John 6: 63 seemed to deny that 'The Word became Flesh and dwelt among us' (John 1: 14): God became incarnate in the person of Jesus Christ.

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7. Item, where in the same place of S. Iohn, Christ, to refell the carnall vnderstanding of the Caparnaites of eating hys body, maketh mention of hys Ascension. &c. 

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John 6: 62. Perhaps the chief Protestant argument against Christ's corporeal presence in the Eucharist at the time was that Jesus had ascended into heaven and told his disciples he would not return until the end of time. Jesus 'refells' (refutes) the 'Capernaites' (people of Capernaum, though actually he is addressing his disciples) who find Jesus' self-description as 'the bread of life' that must be eaten for salvation difficult to accept. Jesus counters by asking if they would believe if they see him doing something else impossible: ascending into heaven (which seems to imply that they will, though no mention of it is given in John's Gospel, but see Luke 24: 51 and Acts 1: 9). Catholics state that Christ is personally present in heaven and is also corporeally present in the Eucharist, for nothing is impossible for God.

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MarginaliaThe second cause, the nature of a sacrament. The second cause why the wordes of Christ: This is my body, can not be litterally expounded without trope, is the nature of a Sacrament: whose nature and propertie is to beare a signe or signification of a thyng, to be remembred, which thing after the substanciall and reall presence, is absent. As touching which nature of a Sacrament sufficiently hath bene sayd before.

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MarginaliaThe thyrd cause, the testimonye of the fathers. The third cause, why the wordes of consecration are figuratiuely to be taken, is the testimonye of the auncient Doctours.


This is my body: that is to say, this is a figure of my body. MarginaliaTertullianus Contra Martionem. Lib. 4.

August. Psal. 3.

Christ gaue a figure of hys body. MarginaliaAugustinus, Psal. 3.

August. contra Admantum Manicheum.

He did not doubt to say: This is my body, when he gaue a signe of his body. MarginaliaAugust. contra Adamantum. Chap. 12.

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Hieronimus is Saint Jerome.

Christ represented vnto vs hys body. MarginaliaHieronimus.


Austen in his booke De Doctrina Christiana declareth expressely that this speach of eating the body of Christ, is a figuratiue speach. MarginaliaAugust. De Doctrinæ stiana Lib.


As thou hast receaued the similitude of his death: so thou drinkest the similitude of his precious bloud. MarginaliaAmbros de Sacram. Lib. 4. cap. 4.

¶ Argument.

The death of Christ is not present really in the Sa-
crament but by similitude.
The precious bloud of Christ is present, in the Sacra
ment as his death is present:
Ergo, the precious bloud of Christ is not present really
in the Sacrament.
The Minor of this Argument is proued before by the wordes of Ambrose.
MarginaliaThe second conclusion.The second question. Whether the body and bloud of Christ be in the bread and wyne, or vnder the formes of bread and wyne carnally and corporally.
¶ Argument. 
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The second argument has already been alluded to. Catholics claim that Christ is both present in heaven and in the Eucharist on earth.

The true naturall body of Christ is placed in heauē.
The true naturall body of man can be but in one place
at once, where he is:
Ergo, the true natural body of Christ can be in no place
at once, but in heauen where he is.

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The Maior is playne by these Scriptures: Iesus was takē vp to heauen, and sitteth at the right hand of God. Math. 26.  

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Matthew 26: 64.

MarginaliaMath. 26. The poore ye haue alwayes with you, but me you shall not alwayes haue. Ioh. 12. 
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John 12: 8.

MarginaliaIohn. 12. I leaue the world and go to my father. Ioh. 16. 
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John 16: 28.

MarginaliaIohn. 16. Many shall say in that day: Lo, here is Christ, and there is Christ, beleue thē not. Math. 24. 
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Matthew 24: 23.

MarginaliaMath. 24. Whō the

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