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1349 [1348]

K. Edw. 6. Peter Martyrs disputations in Oxforde.

MarginaliaAnno. 1552. heauens must receaue for a tyme vntill the restitution of all. Actes. 3. 

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Acts 3: 21.

MarginaliaActes. 3. Seeke those thynges that are aboue, where Christ is sittyng at the right hand of God. &c. Col. 3. 
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Col. 3: 1.

MarginaliaCol. 3.

The Minor likewise is euident by S. Austen, who speakyng of the glorified body of Christ, affirmeth the same to be in one certaine place, Propter veri corporis modum, MarginaliaAugust. ad Dardanum. that is, for the maner of a true body.

¶ Argument.

Euery true natural body requireth one certaine place.
rj-Christes body is a true naturall body:
j.Ergo, Christes body requireth one certaine place.

¶ Argument.

MarginaliaComparatio a maiori.
Austen giueth not to þe soule of Christ to be in mo places at once, but one. August. ad Dardandum.
Ergo, much lesse is it to be giuen to the body of Christ to be in mo places at once, but in one.

¶ Argument.

MarginaliaComparison betwene Aungels and the body of Christ.
The nature of the Aungels is not to be in diuers places, but they are limited to occupy one certaine place at once. Basilius de spirit. sanct. cap. 22
Ergo, the body of Christ, beyng the true naturall body of a man, can not fill diuers places at one time.

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¶ Argument.

Whatsoeuer is in many & diuers places at once is God.
ro-The body of Christ is not God but a creature:
Ergo, the body of Christ, can not be in moe places to-

¶ Argument.

We must not so defende the Diuinitie of Christ, that we destroy his humanitie. August.
If we assigne to the body of Christ pluralitie of places, we destroy his humanitie:
Ergo, we must not assigne to the body of Christ plurali-
tie of places. 
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Catholics would counter Martyr's use of the Fathers here by stating that transubstantiation does not destroy Christ's humanity: in his risen body it is possible for Christ to be in many places at once, for his risen body possesses the property of 'agility' or ease of movement, and so he passes through locked doors in John 20: 19.

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¶ Argument.

Whatsoeuer thyng is circumscribed, that is to say, con
teined in the limites of any peculiar place, can not be di-
spersed in mo places at once.
ti-The body of Christ is a thyng circumscribed:
Ergo, the body of Christ is not dispersed in mo places
at one tyme.

¶ Argument.

Euery quantitie, that is, euery body hauyng magni-
tude, length, and other dimensions, is circumscribed in
one peculiar place:
The body of Christ hath his dimensions and is a quā
j.Ergo, the body of Christ is circumscribed.


The Maior is proued by Cirillus. What so euer is vnderstanded to be a body, the same is verely in a place, and in magnitude, & in quantitie. And if it be in quātitie, it cānot auoyde circumscription, MarginaliaCyrillus De trinit. Lib. 2. pag. 245. that is, to haue his place.

¶ Argument.

If Christ had giuen his body substauntially and car-
nally in the Supper, then was that body either passi-
ble, or impassible. 
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The risen body is also 'impassible': immune from all suffering. Martyr argues that Christ's body was not immune from suffering at the institution of the Eucharist, therefore Christ's corporeal body cannot be received in the sacrament. Catholics would counter that it is the risen body of Christ which they receive, which is still also the same body that was born of the Virgin Mary and also died on the cross. See St Paul's discussion of the resurrected body in I Corinthians 16: 35-57.

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But neither can you say that body to be passible, or im-
passible, which he gaue at Supper:
Ergo, he dyd not giue his body substauntially and car-
nally at Supper.


The Minor is proued thus. For if ye say it was passible, Austen is agaynst it, which sayth: Ye shall not eate this body which you see, nor drinke the same bloud which they shall shed, that shall crucifie me, &c. MarginaliaAugust. in Psal. 98. And if ye say, it was impassible, that may not be admitted by the wordes of the Euangelist, which say: Eate, this is my body which shall be giuen for you: So that that body was passible & not impassible, wherein Christ was giuen.

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One creature can not receaue in it selfe ij. contrary or diuers thynges together But these two thynges be diuers and farre vnlike, that is to say, to be conteined in a place, and to be euery where. For the word is euery where, but the flesh is not euery where. 

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The risen body possesses the quality of 'subtlety': in contrast to its former finitude, the risen body has infinite capabilities such that it cannot be hindered by any created object.

MarginaliaVigilius contra Eutichen Lib. 4.

¶ Argument.

Fe-Bodyes organicall without quantitie be no bodyes.
The Popes doctrine maketh the body of Christ in
the Sacrament to be without quantitie:
Ergo, the Popes doctrine maketh the body of Christ in
the Sacrament to be no body.

¶ Argument.

Da-All thynges which may be diuided, haue quantitie.
The body in the Popes Sacrament is diuided in iij.

Ergo, the body in the Popes Sacrament hath quanti
tie, which is agaynst their owne doctrine.  
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'[T]he Popes doctrine' and 'the Pope's sacrament': if Foxe's record of the debate is accurate, than Martyr is attempting to associate the doctrine of transubstantiation with the papacy, which has been unremittingly vilified in England since the break with Rome in 1534, and in Edward's reign became equated with Antichrist, the servant of Satan on earth.

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¶ Argument.

No naturall body can receaue in it selfe, and at one tyme,
contrary or diuers qualities. Vigilius.
To be in one place locall, and in an other place not lo-
call in one place with quantitie, in an other place with
out quātitie, in one place circumscript, in an other place
incircumscript, is for a naturall body to receaue contra
ry qualities:
Ergo, the body of Christ can not be in one place locall,
and in an other not locall, in one place withquantitie,
and in an other without quantitie, as our aduersaryes do affirme.

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¶ Argument.

Fe-The wicked receaue not the body of Christ.
The wicked do receaue the body of Christ, if transub-
stantiation be graunted:
Ergo, transubstantiation is not to be graunted in
the Sacrament.

¶ Argument for probation of the Maior.

To eate Christ, is for a man to haue Christ dwellyng
and abydyng in him. Augustine.
mes-The wicked haue not Christ dwellyng in them:
tres.Ergo, the wicked eate not the body of the Lord.  
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Martyr argues that sinful Christians and non-Christians cannot eat the body of Christ: for Christ is only truly, spiritually present to those who receive the Eucharist with faith. Using I Corinthians 11: 27-30, Catholics argue that St Paul states that those who receive the Eucharist unworthily or without belief, cannot harm Christ's risen body but rather condemn themselves, and not only in the Last Judgment. Even in this life they suffer the consequences of their sin or lack of faith, as seen, according to Paul, by those who become ill or die after eating without repentance for their sins or without faith in Christ's presence in the Eucharist.

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Cyprianus de Cœna Domini. The eatyng of Christ, is our abydyng in hym. MarginaliaCyprian. De Cœna Domini.

¶ Argument.

The holy Ghost could not come if the body of Christ
were really present.
car-That the holy Ghost is come it is most certaine:
Ergo, it can not be that Christ hymselfe should be here
really present.

For proufe of the Maior. Iohn. 16. Vnlesse I go from you, the holy Ghost shall not come. It is expedient for you, that I go hence. 

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John 16: 7.

MarginaliaIohn 16.

¶ Argument of Peter Martyr.

If the wicked and infidelles do receaue the body of
Christ they receaue him either with sense or reason or
with fayth.
But they receaue him neither with sense, reason nor
with fayth:
Ergo, wicked men and infidels receaue in no wise the
body of Christ.

MarginaliaDeclaration of the Maior. For declaration of the Maior: if ye say, they receaue him with sense, that is agaynst their owne lore, for the body of Christ in the blessed Sacrament (say they) is not sensible, nor to bee perceaued by any sense, neither with reason can they receaue hym, by their owne learnyng, for somuch as this Sacrament excedeth all reason. Nec fides habet meritum, vbi ratio præbet experimentum. And if ye say, that they receaue him with fayth, how can that be, seyng infidels haue no fayth?

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MarginaliaWhat is to eate the bodye of Christ by the Papistes. What is to eate the body of Christ, the teaching of the Papistes herein is straunge, and differeth from the old Doctours. 

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As with the phrase, 'the Popes doctrine', Martyr describes belief in transubstantiation as a belief created by the papacy, an institution despised and even demonized in Edwardian England.

For where the Papistes do teach, that wicked persons and infidels, albeit they receaue not the effect of the Sacrament, yet the matter of the Sacrament, which is the very body of Christ, they receaue with their mouth, and with their sense the accidences of bread, and thus imagine a certaine body of Christ, such as euill mē and infidels may eate, & yet beyng eaten, it giueth thē no nourishmēt, nor lyfe, nor maketh them no partakers of his spirite and grace: both Scripture and the aūcient expositors of the Scripture do teach much otherwise. MarginaliaWhat is to eate the body of Christ by Scripture and Doctors. For the Scripture knoweth no such kynde of eatyng Christes body, but onely that which is fruitefull, wholesome, and effectual. He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my bloud, abydeth in me and I in hym. &c. Ioh. 6. 
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John 6: 56. Martyr does not refer to I Corinthians: 27-30, in which St Paul describe those who receive the Eucharist without faith or repentance for their sins and so condemn themselves.

And therfore it may appeare, that the Scripture meaneth by eatyng Christes fleshe, to beleue in Christes Passion, which none can do but onely the faythfull. And to the same sense sound all the old Doctours.

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De caena domini was in fact a medieval work that was erroneously attributed to St Cyprian of Carthage by both Catholics and Protestants in this period. Both Catholics and Protestants found it a useful source of proof texts for their various views of the Eucharist.

That we should know, that eatyng is our dwellyng in hym, and our drinkyng is, as it were, a certaine incorporation in hym. Marginalia[illegible text]

MarginaliaThe wicked and infidels do not eate the body of Christ. Item, the same Cyprian: The eatyng therefore of his flesh is a certaine desire to abyde in hym: and saith moreouer, that none eateth of this Lambe, but such as be true Israelites, that is, true Christen men without colour or dissimulation.

And agayne hee sayth: That as meate is to the fleshe, the same is fayth to the soule, the same is the worde to the spirite. &c.

Moreouer: And therefore (sayth he) doyng this we

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