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1432 [1407]

Q. Mary. Submission to the Pope. Absolution by the Cardinal.

Marginalia1554. Nouēb.fore I consider that all power, beeinge in God, yet for the conseruation of quiet and godly lyfe in the world, he hath deriued that power from aboue into two partes here in earth: MarginaliaTwo powers in earth: ecclesiastical, & Imperiall. which is into the power Imperiall and Ecclesiasticall. And these two powers, as they be seueral & distinct, so haue they two seuerall effectes and operations. For secular princes to whom the temporall sword is committed, bee ministers of God to execute vengeaunce vpon transgressors and euill liuers, and to preserue the well doers and Innocentes from iniury and violence. Which power is represented in these two most excellent persons, the king and Queenes Maiesties here present, who haue this power committed vnto them immediately from God, without any superiour in that behalfe.

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The other power is of ministration, MarginaliaThe power of the keyes clarkely declared.which is the power of the keyes, and order in the ecclesiasticall state, which is by the authority of gods word, and examples of the apostles, and of all old holy fathers from Christ hetherto, attributed and geuen to the Apostolike Sea of Rome by speciall prerogatiue. From which sea I am here deputed Legate & embassador, hauyng ful and ample commission from thence, and haue the keyes committed to my handes. MarginaliaThe popes keyes sent by the Cardinall.I confesse to you that I haue the keyes, not as myne owne keyes, but as the keyes of hym that sent me: and yet cannot open, not for wāt of power in me to geue, but for certayne impediments in you to receiue, which must be taken away before my Commission can take effect. This I protest before you, my Commission is not of preiudice to any person. I come not to destroy but to build, I come to reconcile, not to condemne, I come not to compell, but to call agayne, I am not come to call any thing in question alredy done, but my Cōmission is of grace & clemēcy, to such as wyll receyue it. For touchiug all matters that be past, they shall be as thinges cast into the sea of forgetfulnes.

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But the meane wherby you shall receyue thys benefite, is to reuoke and repeale those lawes and statutes, which be impedimentes, blockes and barres to the execution of my cōmission. MarginaliaThe popes keyes cā not worke in England, before the locke of good lawes be chaunged.For lyke as I my selfe had neyther place nor voyce to speake here among you, but was to all respectes a banished man, till suche tyme as ye had repealed those lawes, that lay in my way: euen so cannot you receiue the benefite and grace offered from the Apostolike Sea, vntill the abrogation of such lawes, wherby you haue disioyned and disseuered your selues from the vnity of Christes church.

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It remayneth therfore, that you like true christians and prouident men, for the weale of your soules and bodies, ponder what is to be done in this so weighty a cause, and so to frame your actes and procedings, as they may tende first to the glory of God, and next to the conseruation of your common wealth, surety, and quietnes.

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The next day after, the 3. Estates assembled agayne in the great chamber of the Court at Westminster: where the kyng and Queenes maiesties, and the Cardinall beyng present, they dyd exhibite (sittyng all on theyr knees) a supplication to their highnesses, the tenor wherof ensueth.

¶ The copy of the supplication and submission exhibited to the king and Quenes maiesties, by the Lordes and Commons of the Parliament. 
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Block 34: From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon

The supplication of parliament to Philip and Mary for permission to present their submission to Pole together with an account of Pole's receiving that submission are reprinted from Elder (cf. Copie of a letter, sigs. E3r-E5r with 1563, p. 1010; 1570, p. 1649; 1576, p. 1407; 1583, p. 1477).


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From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon

A comparison of Glosses points up a problem Foxe faces here. In the latter gloss it is easy for Foxe to argue against Pole that the nobility were not keen on the return of papal power, but in the former he has to satisfy himself with suggesting that the professed repentance of the Lords and Commons was only skin deep. As with the disruptions in London, the implication of discontent beneath the surface was useful, although in this case there was the danger of portraying the nobility as hypocritical: that Foxe was willing to risk this shows the strong desire to work against the idea of catholic loyalty in the nobility (perhaps a particular fear after the 1569 rebellion). Foxe also adds a procedural thrust, noting that the pope's absolution had to come via the monarchs. The historic moment of absolution is subverted by glosses which contrast the pope's absolution with Christ's. The repeated accusation of flattery hurled at Pole continues the portrayal of him as the consummate politician begun in the previous section.

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MarginaliaThe supplicatiō & submission of the Lords & Cōmons, to the kyng & Queenes maiesties.WE the Lordes spirituall, and temporal, and the commons of this present parliament assembled, representyng the whole body of the realme of England, and dominions of the same, in our owne names particularly, and also of the sayde body vniuersally in this supplication directed to your maiesties, with most humble suite, that it may by your gratious intercession and meane be exhibited to the most reuerende father in God, the lord Cardinall Poole Legate, sent specially hither from our most holy father Pope Iulius the third, and the Sea Apostolike of Rome, MarginaliaO great sorow & deepe declare our selues very sory and repentant for the schisme and disobedience committed in this realme and the dominiōs of the same, against the said sea Apostolike, eyther by making, agreyng or executyng any lawes, ordinaunces, or commaundementes against the supremacy of the sayd sea, or otherwyse doyng or speakyng that might impugne the same: Offring our selues, and promising by this our supplication, that for a token and knowledge of our said repentance, we be and shalbe alway redy, vnder and with the authorities of your Maiesties, to the vttermost of our power, to do that shalbe in vs, for the abrogation and repealing of the said lawes and ordinances in this present Parliament, as well for our selues, as for the whole body, whom we represent.

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Wherupon we most humbly besech your maiesties, as persons vndefiled in the offence of this body towardes the said sea, which neuerthelesse God by his prouydence hath made subiect to your maiesties: so to set forth this our most hum-

ble suite, MarginaliaThe Popes absolution can not come, but by intercession of kinges and Queenes.that we may obtayne from the sea Apostolicke, by the said most reuerend father, as well perticularly as vniuersally, Absolution, Release, and Discharge from all daunger of such Censures, & sentences, as by the lawes of the church we be fallen in: and that we may, as children repentaunt, be receiued into the bosome and vnitie of Christes church, so as this noble Realme, with all the members thereof, may in vnitie and perfect obedience to the Sea Apostolicke, and Popes for the tyme beyng, serue God and your Maiesties, to the furtheraunce and aduauncement of his honoure and glory. Amen.

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MarginaliaThe supplication geuen vp by the king and Queene to the Cardinall.The supplication being read, the king and Queene delyuered the same vnto the Cardinal, who (perceyuing the effect therof to answere his expectatiō) did receiue the same most gladly from their Maiesties: and after he had in few words geuen thankes to God, and declared what great cause hee had to reioyce aboue all others, that his comminge from Rome into England had taken most happy successe: Hee by the Popes authority, dyd geue them this absolution folowing.

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An absolutiō pronoūced by Cardinal Poole, to the whole Parliament of England, in the presence of the Kyng and Queene. 
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The description of Pole's absolution of parliament (in response to its submission) does not come from Elder. A copy of the absolution (in an English translation identical to Foxe's) survives in Foxe's papers (cf. Inner Temple Library, Petyt MS 538/47, fol. 39r with 1563, p. 1011; 1570, p. 1649; 1576, p. 1407; 1583, p. 1478). The account of the absolution being read was probably based on notes made by an eyewitness. The text of the absolution itself was probably translated from a contemporary tract, the Copia delle lettere del Serenissimo Re d'Inghilterra et del Reverendissimo Card. Polo Legato della S. Sede Apostolica alla Santita di N. S. Iulio Papa III sopra la reduttione di quel Regno alla unione della Santa Madre chiefa et obedienza della Sede Apostolica (Rome, 1554), sig. A6r-v. As was so often the case, the Latin original of the absolution was printed, along with a translation, in 1563, but was dropped from later editions.

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MarginaliaAbsolution from the pope geuē to the Realme of England.OVr Lord Iesus Christ which with hys most precious bloud hath redemed and washed vs from all our sinnes and iniquities, that he might purchase vnto hymselfe a glorious Spouse without spot or wrinckle, and whom the father hath appointed hed ouer all hys Church: he by his mercy absolue you. MarginaliaChristes absolution not sufficient, without the Popes be ioyned withal.And we by Apostolike authoritie geuen vnto vs by the most holy lord Pope Iulius the 3. (hys Vicegerent in earth) do absolue and deliuer you, and euery of you, wyth the whole Realme and the Dominions thereof, from all Heresie and Schisme, and from all and euery iudegment, Censures, and paynes, for that cause incurred: and also we do restore you agayne, vnto the vnitie of our Mother the holy Church: as in our Letters more plainely it shall appeare: In the name of the Father, of the sonne, and of the holy Ghost.

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MarginaliaEnglād brought from Gods blessing into the warme sunne.When all this was done, they went into the Chappell, and there singyng Te Deum, with great solemnity, declared the ioy and gladnesse that for this reconciliation was pretended.

The reporte of this was with great speede sent vnto Rome, as well by the kyng and Cardinals letters, whiche hereafter follow: as also otherwyse. MarginaliaGreat ioy at Rome for the conuersion of England.Wherupon the pope caused there at Rome, Processions to be made, and thankes to be geuen to God with great ioy, for the conuersion of England to his Church: and therfore praysing the Cardinals diligence, and the deuotion of the Kyng and Queene, on Christmas euen, by hys Buls he set forth a generall pardon to all such as did truly reioyce for the same.

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¶ A copy of king Philips letter, written wyth his owne hand to Pope Iulius, touching the restoring of the realme of England. 
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Philip's letter to Julius III, announcing the reconciliation of England to the catholic church, was printed in all four editions (1563, pp. 1011-12; 1570, p. 1650; 1576, pp. 1407-08; 1583, p. 1478). Pole's letter to Julius III, announcing the same reconciliation, was also printed in all four editions (1563, pp. 1012-14; 1570, pp. 1650-51; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, pp. 1478-4179 [recte 1479]), although the original Latin version of the letter was printed only in the 1563 edition. The source of both letters was a contemporary tract, the Copia delle lettre del Serenissimo Re d'Inghilterra et del Reverendissimo Card. Polo Legato della S. Sede Apostolica alla Santita di N. S. Iulio Papa III sopra la reduttione di quel Regno alla unione della Santa Madre chiefa et obedienza della Sede Apostolica (Rome, 1554). Pole's letter is printed on sigs. A3v-A5r and Philip's letter, in its original Spanish, on sig. A2r-v, in an Italian translation on sigs. A2v-A3r. (Foxe states that he had the letter translated from Spanish. His willingness to go to this trouble is an indication of the importance he attached to this letter).

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Nouemb. 30.
K. Phillips letter to the Pope, translated out of Spanish into English.
MOst holy Father, I wrote yesterday vnto Don Iohn Maurique, that he should declare by worde of mouth, or els write to your holynes, in what good state the matter of religion stoode in thys Realme, and of the submission to your holines, as to the chiefe. As this day, which is the feast of S. Andrew, late in the euening, we haue done God that seruice, (to whose onely goodnes we must inpute it, and to your holynesse, who haue taken so great payne to gayne these soules) that this realme with full and generall consent of al them that represent the state, being very penitent for that was past, and well bent to that they come to doe, submitted themselues to your holynes, and to that holy Sea, whom, at the request of the Queene and me, your Legate dyd absolue. And forasmuch as the said Don Iohn shal signifie vnto your holynes, all that passed in this matter, I wyll write no more therof, but onely that the Queene and I, as most faythful & deuout children of your holynes, haue receyued the greatest ioy and comfort hereof, that may be expressed with tonge: Considering, that besides the seruice done to God hereby, it hath chaunced in the tyme of your holynesse, to place as it were in the lappe of the holy and Catholike Church, such a kingdome as this is. And therefore I thinke I can not bee thankefull enough for that is done this day. And I trust in hym, that your holynesse shall alway vnderstande, that the holy Sea hath not had a more obedient Sonne then I, nor more desirous to preserue and encrease the authoritie of the same. God guide and prosper the most holy personage of

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