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1433 [1408]

Q. Mary. Cardinal Poole writeth to Pope Iulius the 3. Winchesters sermon.

MarginaliaAn. 1554. Nouemb. your holynesse, as I desire. From London the xxx. of Nouember. 1554.

Your holynes most humble
Sonne, the kyng. &c.

¶ Here followeth likewyse the Cardinals letter to the said Pope concerning the same matter.  
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Philip's letter to Julius III, announcing the reconciliation of England to the catholic church, was printed in all four editions (1563, pp. 1011-12; 1570, p. 1650; 1576, pp. 1407-08; 1583, p. 1478). Pole's letter to Julius III, announcing the same reconciliation, was also printed in all four editions (1563, pp. 1012-14; 1570, pp. 1650-51; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, pp. 1478-4179 [recte 1479]), although the original Latin version of the letter was printed only in the 1563 edition. The source of both letters was a contemporary tract, the Copia delle lettre del Serenissimo Re d'Inghilterra et del Reverendissimo Card. Polo Legato della S. Sede Apostolica alla Santita di N. S. Iulio Papa III sopra la reduttione di quel Regno alla unione della Santa Madre chiefa et obedienza della Sede Apostolica (Rome, 1554). Pole's letter is printed on sigs. A3v-A5r and Philip's letter, in its original Spanish, on sig. A2r-v, in an Italian translation on sigs. A2v-A3r. (Foxe states that he had the letter translated from Spanish. His willingness to go to this trouble is an indication of the importance he attached to this letter).

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MarginaliaThe Cardinalls letter to the Pope for the reclaming againe of England to hys Sea. THose thynges which I wrote vnto your holines of late, of that hope, which I trusted woulde come to passe, that in short space this realme would be reduced to the vnitie of the church and obediēce of the Apostolike sea, though I did write them not without great cause: yet neuerthelesse, I could not be voyde of all feare, not onely for that difficultie, which the myndes of our countreymen did shew, beyng so long alienated from the sea Apostolicke, and for the olde hatred, which they had borne so many yeres to that name: but much more I feared, lest the first entry into the cause it self, should be put of by some other byematter or conuention cōmyng betwixt.

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For the auoydyng wherof, I made great meanes to the kyng and Queene, which little neded, for theyr own godly forwardnes, and earnest desire to bryng the thyng to passe, farre surmounted my great and earnest expectation. This day in the euening, beyng S. Andrewes day, (who firste brought hys brother Peter to Christ) it is come to passe by the prouidence of God, that this Realme is reclaymed to geue due obedience to Peters seate and your holynesse, by whose meanes it may be conioyned to Christ the hed, & his body, which is the Church. The thing was done and concluded in parlament (the king and Queene being present) with such full consent & great reioycing, that incontinently after I had made my Oration, and geuen the Benediction with a great ioy and shout, there was diuers tymes sayd, Amen, Amen: which doth euidently declare, that that holy seede, although it hath bene long oppressed, yet was not vtterly quenched in them: which chiefly was declared in the * Marginalia* The Popes authoritie as much welcome to the Nobilitie of England, as water into the shippe. Nobilitie. Returnyng home to my house, these thinges I wrote vnto your holynes vppon the sodeyne reioysing that I had of so weighty a matter, so luckely brought to passe by the diuine prouidence, thinkyng to haue sent my letters by the kinges Post, who (as it was said) should haue departed shortly: but afterwardes chaunging my purpose, when I had determyned to send one of mine own men, I thought good to add thus much to my Letters, for the more ample gratulation and reioysing at þt good chaunce: which thinge as it was right great gladnes to me, through the euente of the same (being it selfe very great, and so holy, so profitable to the wholl Church, so healthsome to this my Countrey, which brought me forth, so honorable to the same, which receyued me) so likewise I tooke no lesse reioysing of þe Princes themselues, through whose vertue and godlinesse, the matter did take successe and perfection. Of how many, and how great thinges may the Church (which is the spouse of Christ, & our mother) make her accompt through those her children? MarginaliaOh dissimulation of a flattering Cardinall.Oh notable zeale of godlynes, Oh auncient fayth, which vndoubtedly doth so manyfestly appeare in thē both that who so seeth them, must needes (whether he will or no) say the same which the Prophet spake of, of the first children of the church: Isti sunt semen, cui benedixit Dominus. Hæc plantatio Domini ad gloriandum, That is, These are the seede which the Lord hath blessed. This is þe Lords planting to glory in. How holily did your holines with all your authority and earnest affection fauoure this mariage, which truly semeth to expresse a great similitude Marginaliawhat similitude is betwixte light and darknes, 2. Cor. 6. of þt highest king, which being heire of þe worlde, was sent downe by his father from the Regall seate, to be Spouse and Sonne of the Virgin, & by this meanes to comfort all mākinde: for euen so this king hymselfe, the greatest heire of all men which are in the earth, leauing his fathers kingdomes that are most great, is come into this litle kingdome and is beecome both the spouse, and sonne of this Virgine) for hee so behaueth himselfe as though he were a sonne, where as in deede he is an husband) that he might (as he hath in effect already performed) shew him selfe an ayder and helper to reconcile this people to Christ, & his body which is þe church. MarginaliaCardinall Poole flattereth the kyng.Which thinges seing they are so, what may not our mother the Church her selfe looke for at his handes that hath brought this to passe, to conuerte the hartes of the Fathers towardes theyr Sonnes, and the vnbeleuers to the wisedome of the righteous, which vertue truly doth wonderfully shine in hym. But the Queene, whiche at that tyme when your holinesse sent me Legate vnto her, did rise vp as a rodde of incence springing out of the trees of mirre and as Franckincence out in the desert, she I say, which a little before was forsaken of al men, how wonderfully doth she now shine? what a sauour of mirre & frāckincence doth she geue forth vnto her people? which as þe (prophet sayth,

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of the mother of Christ) brought forth before she laboured, MarginaliaScripture well applyed. before she was deliuered brought forth a man childe. Who euer heard of such a thing? and who hath seene the like of, this? shal þe earth bryng forth in one day, or shal a whole natiō be brought forth together? But shee hath now brought forth a whole nation before the tyme of that deliuery, wherof we are in most great hope.

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How great cause is geuen to vs to reioyce? How great cause haue we to geue thankes to Gods mercy, your holynes and the Emperours maiesty, which haue bene causers of so happy and so Godly a maryage, by which we beyng reconciled, are ioyned to God the father, to Christ, and to þe Church? of the which, although I can not comprehend in wordes the ioy that I haue taken, yet I can not keepe silence of it. And to thys my reioysing, thys also was ioyned (which when I had perceiued by the letters of þe reuerend Archb. of Consane, your holynes Nuncio, with the Emperours maiestie, brought me marueilous great gladnes) that your sayd holynes began to restore to þe auncient beuty, those thynges which in the Churche of Rome through the corruption of times were deformed, which truely when it shalbe finished, then in deede may we well cry out wyth þe prophet, and speake vnto your holynes with these wordes. MarginaliaThe scripture speaking of Syon and Ierusalē, vnaptly applyed to the Pope. Exue te stola luctus & vexationis, & iudue te decore, qui a deo tibi est in gloria sempiterna: nominabitur enim tibi nomen tuum a deo sempiternum, pax iustitiæ, & honor pietatis. Tum autē dicetur, circumspice & vide collectos filios tuos ab oriente sole, vsq; in occidentē, verbo sancto gaudentē. That is: Put of the stole of sorow and vexatiō, and put on comlynes, which thou hast of God in euerlastyng glory. For thy name shalbe named of God euerlasting, peace of righteousnes, and honor of godlines: and thē it shalbe saide: looke about and see thy sonnes gathered together frō the sonne rising to the goyng downe of the same, reioysing in the holy word. There is nothyng truly (to speake of thy children gathered together in þe West, which prepare thēselues to meete their mother) which they had rather see then her, apparelled (that I may vse þe words of the Prophet) in that garment of righteousnes, wherwith God adourned her in tymes past. This one thyng remayneth, that your holynes ioy, and the ioy of all þe vniuersall church may be perfited, which together wyth vs her vnworthy children, ceaseth not to pray to God for it.

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The almighty God preserue your holynes long to continue in health, for the profite of hys Church. From Londō the last of Nouember. 1554.

Your most humble seruaunt
Reginald Poole Cardinall.


Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555

As occurs with other sections of text containing the words of the catholic enemy, these glosses contest and subvert the text. Thus Gardiner's 'dreaming' sermon is mocked with the implication that it is ungrounded in reason and a product of fancy. There are also examples of reworked points from the text. The finishing of Gardiner's Latin sentence in a derogatory way is unusually stark and unfounded in its criticism. The ongoing campaign to deride failed catholic prophecies continues .

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Vpon the MarginaliaDecemb. 2.Sonday folowing, beyng the. ij. of December, the byshop of Winchester Lord Chauncelour of England preached at Paules Crosse, at which Sermon was present the Kyng and Cardinall Poole. MarginaliaA Sermon of Steuen Gardiner preached at Paules Crosse.He tooke for his Theame this part of the Epistle of S. Paule to the Romaines the. 13. chapt. This also we know the season (brethren) that we should now awake out of sleepe, for now is our saluation nearer, then when we beleued. &c.

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Some notes whereof as they came to my hands faithfully gathered, as it appeareth by sundry copyes) I haue here thought good to set forth. 

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Block 35: From Gardiner's Cross sermon to 1555

Even his almost innumerable enemies conceded Stephen Gardiner's mastery of rhetoric and the Paul's Cross sermon of 2 December 1554 was one of his masterpieces. The impact of the sermon is indicated by its rapid dissemination. A detailed précis of this sermon appears in John Elder, A copie of a letter sente unto Scotlande (London, 1556), STC 7552, sigs. E6r-F1r, and the sermon was also translated into Latin: Concio reveren. Stephani episcopi Wintonien. Angliae cancellari, habita domenica prima adventus, praesentibus sereniss. rege et reverendiss. legato apost. in maxima populi (Rome, 1555). Neither was Foxe's source. Elder does not record many important details in Foxe's version; conversely Foxe does not have details in the Latin translation, especially its discussion of the queen's pregnancy. (Admittedly, this omission could be due to censorship on Foxe's part, although the reason for such censorship is obscure). Most importantly, Foxe states that his version was based on 'Some notes whereof as they came to my hands faithfully gathered (as it appeareth by sundry copyes)' (1563, p. 1018; 1570, p. 1651; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

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MarginaliaA dreaming sermon of the B. of winchester.First, he shewed how the saying of S. Paule was verified vpon the Gentiles, who had a long tyme slept in darke ignoraunce not knowyng God: therfore S. Paul (quoth he) to stirre vp their heauy dulnes, willed them to awake out of their long sleep, because their saluatiō was nearer, then whē they beleued. In amplyfiyng thys matter, and cōparing our tymes with theirs: he tooke occasion to declare what difference the Iewish sacramentes had, from those of the Christians, wherein he vsed these wordes:

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Euen as the Sacramentes of the Iewes did declare Christ to come, so do our sacramentes declare Christ to be already come: but Christ to come, and Christ to be come is not all one. For now that he is come, the Iewes sacramēts be done away, and ours onely remaine, which declare that he is already come, and is nearer vs, thē he was to the fathers of þe olde lawe: for they had hym but in signes, but we haue hym in the Sacrament of the aultar, euen hys very bodye. Wherfore now also it is tyme that we awake out of our sleepe, who haue slept, or rather dreamed these xx. yeares past, as shall more easely appeare by declaring at large some of the properties and effectes of a sleepe or dreame. And first, as men intending to sleepe, do seperate them selues frō company, and desire to be alone: euen so haue we seperated our selues from the sea Apostolicke of Rome, and haue bene alone, no realme in Christendome like vs.

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Secondly, as in sleepe men dreame sometime of killyng, sometyme of mayming, sometime of drowning or burnyng, MarginaliaWinchester. very expert (as it appeareth) in ghostly dreames.sometyme of such beastlynes as I will not name, but wyll spare your eares: so haue we in thys our sleepe, not onely

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