Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Censorship Proclamation 32. Our Lady' Psalter 33. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain34. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 35. Bradford's Letters 36. William Minge 37. James Trevisam 38. The Martyrdom of John Bland 39. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 40. Sheterden's Letters 41. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 42. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 43. Nicholas Hall44. Margery Polley45. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 46. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 47. John Aleworth 48. Martyrdom of James Abbes 49. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 50. Richard Hooke 51. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 52. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 53. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 54. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 55. Martyrdom of William Haile 56. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 57. William Andrew 58. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 59. Samuel's Letters 60. William Allen 61. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 62. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 63. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 64. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 65. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 66. Cornelius Bungey 67. John and William Glover 68. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 69. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 70. Ridley's Letters 71. Life of Hugh Latimer 72. Latimer's Letters 73. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed74. More Letters of Ridley 75. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 76. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 77. William Wiseman 78. James Gore 79. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 80. Philpot's Letters 81. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 82. Letters of Thomas Wittle 83. Life of Bartlett Green 84. Letters of Bartlett Green 85. Thomas Browne 86. John Tudson 87. John Went 88. Isobel Foster 89. Joan Lashford 90. Five Canterbury Martyrs 91. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 92. Letters of Cranmer 93. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 94. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 95. William Tyms, et al 96. Letters of Tyms 97. The Norfolk Supplication 98. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 99. John Hullier 100. Hullier's Letters 101. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 102. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 103. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 104. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 105. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 106. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 107. Gregory Crow 108. William Slech 109. Avington Read, et al 110. Wood and Miles 111. Adherall and Clement 112. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 113. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow114. Persecution in Lichfield 115. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 116. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 117. Examinations of John Fortune118. John Careless 119. Letters of John Careless 120. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 121. Agnes Wardall 122. Peter Moone and his wife 123. Guernsey Martyrdoms 124. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 125. Martyrdom of Thomas More126. Martyrdom of John Newman127. Examination of John Jackson128. Examination of John Newman 129. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 130. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 131. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 132. John Horne and a woman 133. William Dangerfield 134. Northampton Shoemaker 135. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 136. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1491 [1465]

Q. Mary. The Martyrdome of W. Hunter. The story of M. Higbed, & M. Causton.
Marginalia1555. March. MarginaliaThe end and Martyrdome of W. Hunter. Anno. 1555. March. 26.¶ The burnyng of William Hunter Martyr.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
This example of the small woodcuts added in 1570 (Type 2) is among those that were not put to repeated use. Allowance should be made for the possibility (as with the small cut (d) of Raulins White) that this woodcut was tailored to Foxe's account of the martyr, in this case the teenage apprentice who lifted up his hands to heaven immediately before he died.

Now, by and by after, M. Browne commaunded one old Hūt to take his brother Robert Hunter, MarginaliaRob. Hunter set in the stockes.& lay him in the Stockes till hee returned from the burnyng of Higbed at Hornden on the hill, the same day. Whiche thyng old Hunt did. Then Maister Browne ( MarginaliaRob. Hunter had before M. Browne.when Robert Hunter came before him) asked if he would do as his brother had dō. But Robert Hunter aunswered: if I do as my brother hath done, I shall haue as he hath had. Mary (quoth Maister Browne) thou mayest be sure of it.

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Then Maister Browne sayd, I maruayle, that thy brother stode so to his tacklyng: and moreouer, asked Robert if Williams Maister of London 

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This was Thomas Taylor, the silk weaver to whom William Hunter had been apprenticed. Obviously Brown suspected, rightly or wrongly, that Taylor had fostered William Hunter's evangelical convictions and he was trying to force Robert Hunter to implicate Taylor.

were not at his burnyng. But Robert sayd, that he was not there: but Maister Browne bare hym in hād that his Maister was there, and how that he dyd see him there, but Robert denyed it. MarginaliaRob. Hunter by Gods prouidence deliuered.Then Maister Browne commaunded the Constable and Robert Hunter to go their wayes home, and so had no further talke with them.

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Here followeth the history of Maister Higbed, and M. Causton, two worthy Gentlemen of Essex, whiche for the sincere confession of their fayth vnder Boner Byshop of London, were Martyred and burned in Essex. Anno. 1555. March. 26. 
Commentary  *  Close
The Martyrdoms of Causton and Higbed

The Rerum contains an account of Causton and Higbed being taken toLondon and prints the confession of faith Causton and Higbed made in Consistory Court (Rerum, pp. 426 and 428-31). This material was reprinted in the 1563 edition. Foxe also added accounts of their sessions in the Consistory Court of St Pauls, the articles presented against them with their answers and their condemnation, all drawn from Bishop Bonner's official records. A description of their condemnation may have been taken from the description of a spectator. In the second edition Foxe added nothing, but he arranged the material in chronological order. He also eliminated material from this narrative, and more unusually rewrote it. The account of Causton and Higbed remained unchanged in the third and the fourth editions.

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Higbed and Causton

Starting with a gloss recording the date of their martyrdoms (as appears to be Foxe's standard practice at the beginning of the lives of his martyrs), the glosses in this section serve the usual purpose of marking the events leading up to execution: interrogation, imprisonment, preparation for the end. The gloss 'Also sir Edmund Boner priest before the death of Cromwell, seemed to be of the opinion and was sworne twise agaynst the Pope' makes the point that Bonner's conduct under an earlier monarch cannot be reconciled with his actions under Mary, sustaining the all-important charge of hypocrisy. Foxe parodies the form of the article in calling Bonner 'sir Edmund Boner priest'. The glosses 'M. Causton and M. Higbed constant to death in their confession' and 'The constāt Martirdome of M. Thomas Caustō, and Maister Higbed Martyrs' emphasise the constancy of the martyrs, a virtue as important to the portrayal of the martyrs as hypocrisy was to that of their persecutors. The glosses relating to the confession of faith illustrate a common difference between 1563 and later editions. 1563 uses the most perfunctory form of annotation (numbers) while the later editions include the numbers in the text and have full glosses. The restrained, factual tone of the gloss 'M. Causton appealeth to the Cardinall' probably reflects Foxe feeling torn between the desire to expose procedural injustice with the tacit endorsement of Pole's, and therefore the pope's, authority that such an appeal implied. Several of the glosses (especially at the start of the 'confession' section) are badly placed, no more commonly in one edition than another.

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MarginaliaMarch. 26. The story of M. Higbed and M. Causton, Martyrs.ALthough the condemnation of Maister Higbed and Maister Causton followed after the condemnyng of those other. foure Martyrs which were condemned with Tomkyns and Hunter aboue mentioned, yet because the tyme of their execution was before the burnyng of the foresayd foure Martyrs, for so much as they suffered the same day that William Hunter did, which was the. 26. of March, I thought therefore next after the story of the sayd William Hunter, followyng the order of tyme, here to place the same.

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This Maister Higbed and Maister Causton, two worshypfull Gentlemen in the County of Essex, 

Commentary  *  Close

Praise of Essex as the county most fruitful in producing martyrs follows in the 1563 edition. This was dropped in subsequent editions, probably because Foxe became more aware of the contributions of the counties of Kent and Sussex. (Kent has the dubious distinction of being the countywith the most martyrs executed).

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the one at Hornden of the hill, the other of the parish of Thunderst, beyng zealous and religious in the true seruice of God, as they could not dissemble with the Lord their God, nor flatter with the world, so in tyme of blynd superstition & wretched Idolatry, they could not long lye hyd and obscure in such a number of malignaūt aduersaries, accusers, and seruantes of this world, but at length they were perceaued and detected to the foresayd Edmund Boner Byshop of London, MarginaliaM. Higbed and M. Causton detected to B. Boner. peraduenture not without the same organe whiche sent vp William Hunter, as is aboue declared.  
Commentary  *  Close

In effect, Foxe is saying that he does not know how Causton and Higbed came to be arrested. Despite their relative social prominence, the backgrounds of Causton and Higbed remain surprisingly obscure.

By reason wherof, by commaundement they were committed to the officers of Colchester to be safely kept, and with them also a seruaunt of Thomas Causton,  
Commentary  *  Close

This was Henry Wye, who would later be martyred himself.

who in this prayse of Chri-

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stian godlynes, was nothing inferiour to his Maister.

Boner the foresayd bishop, perceiuyng these. ii. Gentlemē to be of worshypfull estate, and of great estimatiō in that countrey, lest any tumult should thereby aryse, came thether himselfe, MarginaliaB. Boner commeth himselfe to Colchester. accompanyed with M. Fecknam and certaine other, thinking to reclayme them to his faction and fashion:  

Commentary  *  Close

A description of Feckenham trying to convert Higbed and Causton was printed in the 1563 edition and subsequently dropped. It does appear that Foxe was trying to shorten this narrative in the 1570 edition; perhaps this concern was related to a shortage of paper for this edition (see Evenden and Freeman, pp.37-39).

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so that great labour & diligence was takē therein, as wel by terrours and threatnynges, as by large promises and flatteryng, and all fayre meanes, to reduce them agayne to the vnitie (as they termed it) of the mother church.

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In fine, when nothyng could preuayle to make them assent to their doynges, at length they came to this poynt, that they required certaine respite to consulte with themselues what were best to do. Whiche tyme of deliberation beyng expired, and they remayning still constant and vnmoueable in their professed doctrine, and settyng out also their confessiō in writyng, the Byshop seyng no Good to be done in tarying any longer there, MarginaliaM. Higbed and M. Caustō caryed to London.departed thence and caried them both with him to London, 

Commentary  *  Close

The accounts of the sessions in Consistory Court, together with the articles charged againt Causton and Higbed, and their answers, are taken from Bishop Bonner's official records, probably a court book which has now been lost.

and with them certaine other prisoners also, whiche about the same tyme in those quarters were apprehended.

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Commentary  *  Close

The accounts of the sessions in Consistory Court, together with the articles charged againt Causton and Higbed, and their answers, are taken from Bishop Bonner's official records, probably a court book which has now been lost.

It was not long after this, but these prisoners beyng at London committed to straite prison, and there attempted sundry wise by the Byshop and his Chapleins to reuoke their opiniōs: at length, when no perswasions would serue, they were brought forth to open examination at the Consistory in Paules, the. xvij. day of February, an. 1555. MarginaliaThe first dayes Session.Where they were demaunded aswell by the sayd Bishop, as also by the Byshop of Bath & others, whether they would recant their errours & peruerse doctrine (as they termed it) and so come to the vnitie of the Popish Church. Which whē they refused to doe, the Byshop assigned them likewise the next day to appeare agayne, beyng the xviij. of February.

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MarginaliaThe secōd dayes Session.On the whiche day, among many other thynges there sayd and passed, he read vnto them seuerally certaine articles and gaue them respite vntill the next day, to aunswere vnto the same, and so cōmitted them agayne to prison. The copy of which Articles here vnder foloweth.

¶ Articles obiected and ministred by Boner B. of Lond. seuerally agaynst Tho. Causton, and Thomas Higbed of Essex.

MarginaliaArticles layd by B. Boner to M. Higbed and M. Causton.FIrst, that thou Thomas Causton (or Thomas Higbed) hast bene and art of the Dioces of London, and also of the iurisdiction now of me Edmund Byshop of London.

Item, that thou was in tyme past, accordyng to the order of the Church of England, baptised and christened.

Item, that thou haddest Godfathers and Godmother, accordyng to the sayd order.

Item, that the sayd Godfathers and Godmother dyd thē promise for thee, and in thy name, the fayth and religiō, that then was vsed in the Realme of England.

Item, that that fayth and Religion, which they did professe, and make for thee, was accompted and taken to be the faith and Religion of the Church, and of the Christen people: and so it was in very deede.

Item, thou commyng to the age of discretion, that is to say, to the age of xiiij. yeares, diddest not mislyke nor disallow that fayth, that Religion, or promise then vsed and approued, and promised by the sayd Godfathers and Godmother, but for a tyme diddest continue in it, as other (takyng themselues for Christen people) did likewise.

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Item, that at that tyme, and also before, it was taken for a doctrine of the Churche, Catholicke and true, and euery where in Christēdome thē allowed for Catholicke & true, and to be the profession of a Christen mā, to beleue that in the Sacrament of the aulter, vnder the formes of bread and wyne, after the cōsecration, there was and is, by the omnipotent power and wil of almighty God, and his word, without any substaunce of bread and wine there remayning, MarginaliaThe reall presence.the true and naturall body and bloud of our Sauiour Iesus Christ in substaunce, which was borne of the virgin Mary, and suffered vpon the Crosse, really, truely, and in very deede.

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Item, that at that tyme thy father and mother, all thyne aūcestors, all thy kindred, acquaintaūce and frendes, and thy sayd Godfathers and Godmother did then so beleue, and thinke in all the same, as the sayd Church did therin beleue.

Item, that thy selfe had no iust cause or lawfull grounde, to departe or swarue from the sayd Religion or fayth, nor no occasiō at all, except thou wilt follow and beleue the erroneous opinion or belief, that hath bene agaynst the common order of the Churche, brought in by certaine disordred persons of late, and at the vttermost within these xxx. or xl. yeares last past.

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Item, that thou doest know, or credibly hast heard and doest beleue, that D. Robert Barnes, Iohn Frith, Tho. Garrerd, Hierome, Lassels, Anne Askew, Iohn Hooper, late Bi-

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