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172 [171]

King Edward the elder. King Edward the elder.

Rome, and to returne againe to our countrey of England, where we last left before.

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Edward the Elder to Edgar

Foxe's sources for the history of Anglo-Saxon England after the death of Alfred the Great remained something of the same mix as they had for the earlier sections of book 3 in the 1570 edition (which is the first edition in which he treats these matters in detail). He continued to rely on Fabian's Chronicle (R. Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559]) and John Brompton's Chronicle (J. Brompton, 'Chronicon Johannis Brompton Abbatis Jornalensis.' In Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores X. [....], ed. by Roger Twysden (London, 1652)) as his baseline source-textsm, supplementing them with other chronicles in a way that suggests a continuing diligence in comparing the various extant accounts open to him. In one respect, however, his diligence was less than complete. Foxe continued to use John Brompton as his source for the Anglo-Saxon law-codes, even though his own printer, John Day had published in 1568 the edition of them prepared in translations directly from Old English by William Lambarde (William Lambarde, Archaionomia [London: 1568]). Foxe certainly used this source for his argument against the Six Articles later on, but he does not seem to have had access to it whilst he was revising the earlier parts of the Acts and Monuments (books 1-2) and here he seems only to have used it in respect of the Epistle to King Lucius, which may have been abstracted for him by someone in Archbishop Matthew Parker's household, or passed on by Nowell or Lambarde himself.

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Matthew Phillpott and Mark Greengrass
University of Sheffield

¶ King Edward the elder.

MarginaliaKing Edward the elder. 

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Foxe's use of his sources here was quite rich. In addition to Brompton's Chronicle (J. Brompton, 'Chronicon Johannis Brompton Abbatis Jornalensis.' In Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores X. [....], ed. by Roger Twysden [London, 1652], p. 831), the first few sentences come directly from William of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum (J. S. Brewer, and C. T. Martin, 'William of Malmesbury: Gesta Regum.' In Reigistrum Malmesburiense. The Registor of Malmesbury Abbey, ed. by J.S. Brewer and C.T. Martin (London: Rolls Series, 1869-1880), book 2, ch. 125). He also may have cross-referenced to Matthew Paris' Flores (H. R. Luard, ed. Matthew Paris. Flores Historiarum 3 vols [London: Rolls Series, 1890], 1, p. 478) and Henry Huntingdon's Chronicle (T. Arnold, ed. Henry of Huntingdon. Henrici Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum, the History of the English, by Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, from B. C. 55 to A. D. 1154 [London: Rolls Series, 1879], book 5, ch. 14).

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AFter the reign of the famous king Alfred, His sonne Edward succeded, surnamed the elder. Where first is to be noted, that before the conquest of the Normandes, there were in England 3. Edwardes, MarginaliaThe Edwardes before the conquest.first this Edward the elder. 2. Edward the martyr. 3. Edward the confessor. Wherof hereafter (by the grace of Christ) shall follow in order, as place shall geue to be declared. This Edward began his reigne, the yeare of our Lord. 901. and gouerned the land right valiantly and noblie. 24. yeares. MarginaliaA comparison betwene Alfrede, and his sonne EdwardeIn knowledge of good letters and learning, he was not to bee compared to his father. Otherwise, in princely renowne, in ciuile gouernment, and such lyke martiall prowesse, he was nothing inferiour, but rather excelled him. Through whose valiaunt actes first the princedome of Wales, and kingdom of Scotland, with Constantine king therof were to hym subdued. He adioyned moreouer to his dominion the countrey of Eastanglia, that is, of Norfolke, Suffolke and Essex. All Merceland also he recouered and Northumberland out of the handes of the Danes. In all his warres he neuer lightly went without victory. MarginaliaVse and long exercise of thinges maketh perfectnes.The subiectes of his prouinces and dominions were so inured, and hardened in continuall practise and feates of warre: that when they hearde of any enemies comming (neuer taryeng for any biddyng from the king, or from his dukes) straight wayes they encountred with them: both in number, and in knowledge of the order of warre excelling alwayes their aduersaries. Guliel. de Regi. Ita hostes militibus contemptui, Regi risui erant. To meane, So was the comming and assaulting of their enemies to the people and common souldioures but a trifle, to the king but a ridicle. Among other aduersaries which were busie rather then wise, in assailing this kyng: was one called MarginaliaClyto Ethelwold rebelleth agaynst king Edward.
An. 904.
Clyto Ethelwoldus a yong man, king Edwardes vncles sonne. Who first occupying the towne of Wimborne (takyng thence a Nonne with hym, whom thē he had maried) fledde by night to Northumberland, to adioyne himselfe vnto the Danes, who was made chief king and captaine ouer them. Then chased from thence, he fled ouer into Fraunce, but shortly returnyng againe into England, landed in Eastengland, where the sayd Clyto with a company of Danes of that countrey gathered vnto hym, destroyed and pilled much of the countrey about Crekinford and Crikeland. And so passing ouer Thamis after he had spoyled the lande there to Bradenestocke: returned agayne to Norfolke and Suffolke, where he meting with a bushment of Kentish men, which dragged & taried after the maine hoste of Edward, contrary to his commaundement, inclosed them in, and slew the most part of thē. Sone after the two hostes meeting together, betwene the two ditches of S. Edmundes land, after a long fight Clyto with many of the Danes were slaine, and the remnante were constrained to seeke for peace, which vpon certaine conditions, and vnder a tribute was to them graunted.

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MarginaliaAn. 913.In processe, aboute the 12. yeare his reigne, the Danes repenting them of their couenants, and minding to breake the same: assēbled an host and met with the king in Staffordshire at a place called Totenhall, & soone after at Wodnesfield: at which two places the kyng slew two kynges, ij. erles, & many thousand of Danes, that occupied the countrey of Northumberland.

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Thus the importune rage of the Danes beyng asswaged, kyng Edward hauing nowe some leysure geuen from warres to other studies: gaue hys minde to the buildyng, or repayring of cities, townes, and castles, that by the Danes were rased, shatred, and broken. MarginaliaChester repayred and enlarged.As first of Chester, which city he double enlarged to that it was before: compassing the castle within the walles of the same, which before stood without. That done, MarginaliaThe castle of Herford builded.the kyng builded a strong castle at Herford in the edge of Wales. MarginaliaCastles builded vpon the riuer of Auene, and of Owse.Also for the strengthning of the countrey, he made a castle at the mouth of the water of Auene, and an other castle at Buckingham, and the third fast thereby vpon the riuer of Owse. MarginaliaThe townes of Towserout and Wigmore builded.Moreouer he builded or reedified the townes of Towsetour, and Wigmore, and destroyed the castle that þe Danes had made at Demesford. Likewise, vpon the riuer of Trent agaynst the old towne of Nottingham, MarginaliaThe new towne of Nottingham builded.he builded a new towne on the southside, and made a bridge ouer the riuer, betwene the said two townes. Also by the riuer of Merce, MarginaliaThilwalde.
Manchester repayred.
he builded a citie or towne, in the North ende of Mercia, and named it Thilwall and after repaired the citie of Manchester, that sore was defaced with warre of the Danes.

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MarginaliaElfleda.In this renuyng and buildyng of townes and castels for the more fortefieng of hys realme: hys sister Elfleda, daughter of kyng Alfrede, and maried to the duke of Mercia (as is afore mentioned) was no small helper. Of thys Elfleda it is firmely of writers affirmed, that she beyng as is said maried to Ethelrede duke of Mercia, after she had once assayed the paynes of women in trauelyng with her childe: somuch she abhorred euer after the embracing of her husband, that it semed to her (she sayd) not seemely for a noble womā to vse such fleshly liking wherof so great sorrow and trauaile should ensue. And yet notwithstādyng the same Elfleda, for all her delicate tendernesse in eschewing the naturall passion, which necessitie geueth to womē: so hardy she was in warlike daungers, which nature geueth not to women, that fighting agaynst the Danes, so venturous she was of stomacke, that foure of her nexte knights, which were gardeins of her body, were slaine fast by her. MarginaliaCities, townes and castles builded by Elfleda.This Elfleda among her other noble actes, wherby she deserued praise, was a great helper & stirer vp of her brother Edward: who builded and newly repaired many castels & townes, as Tomworth, beside Lichfield, Stafforde, Warwike, Shrowesbury, Watrisbury, Eldisbury, besides Chester in the forest now destroyed. Also in the North ende of Mercia, vpon the riuer of Merce, a castle called Rimcorne, also a bridge ouer Seuern named Brimmisbury bridge.

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As touchyng the lawes & statutes of this Edward, as also of hys father Alfrede made before hym, I omit here to record them for length of matter and wast of tyme: yet notwithstanding, this admonition by the way I thinke good to note: that in those dayes of these auncient kinges reigning in Englande, MarginaliaThe lawes of kyng Alfred & kyng Edward.the authoritie then both of conferryng bishoprickes, and spirituall promotions, and also of prescribyng lawes as well to the church men, as to the laitie, and of orderyng and intermedling in matters mere spirituall, was then in the handes of kings, rulyng in the lande, and not onely in the hand of the Pope, as appeareth by these lawes of Alfred.

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Si quis fornicetur cum vxore aliena, &c.
Si quis in quadragesima sanctum velum in publico vel in
lecto. &c.
Vt Christiani Deum diligant & paganismo renūcient. &c.
Si quis Christianitatem mutet. &c.
Si quis ordinatus sacris furetur. &c.
Si præsbyter ad rectum terminum sanctum Chrisma. &c.
Si duo fratres, vel cognati cum vna aliqua fornicentur. &c.

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MarginaliaNote howe kynges of England in times past had autoritie in spiritual causes.By these and other such lyke constitutions of king Alfred, it may appeare: how the gouernaunce and direction of the church in those dayes, depended not vppon monsieur le Pope of Rome: but vpon the kyngs which here in their tyme (vnder the Lord) dyd gouerne the land. To this also the example of king Edwardes tyme geueth testimony: which Edward with Pleimundus (aboue mentioned) Archbishop of Canterbury, and with other bishops in a sinode assembled: assigned and elected 7. bishops, in 7. Metropolitane churches of the realme. Which were, 1. Fridestane. 2. Adelstane. 3. Werstane. 4. Adelelme. 5. Edulfus. 6. Dernegus. 7. Kenulphus. In which election the kynges authoritie semed then alone to be sufficient. &c.

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This Edward (as in the beginnyng was sayd) reigned 24. yeres. Who had 3. wiues, Egwine, Elfled, & Ethelwide. MarginaliaThe children of king Edward the elder.Of Egwine he had his eldest sonne Adelstane, Who next succeded in the kingdome, & a daughter maried after to the duke of Northūberland. Of Elflede, he receiued two sonnes, and vi. daughters, to witte Ethelward & Edwine. MarginaliaPrince Ethelward excellent in learning.Ethelward was excellently well seene in all knowledge of learnyng: much resembling both in countenaunce, and conditions his grandfather Alfrede, and dyed soone after hys father. Of his vj. daughters, two of them. 1. Elflede, and Ethelhilda, were made nonnes. The other 4. were maried. Edgina to Charles the French kyng, in his fathers tyme. Ethilda by king Ethelstane was maried to Hugo, the sonne of duke Robert. Edgitha and Algina, were both sent to Henricus prince of Almains. Of which two sisters the second, the said Henricus, maried to his sonne Otho, who was the first Emperor of the Almains. The other sister which was Edgitha, the foresayd Henricus, maried to a certaine duke about the borders of the Alpes, in Italy. Of hys third wife Ethelwide, he receiued two sonnes Edmund, and Edred: which both reigned after Adelstane. And two daughters, Egburga whom he made a Nonne, and Eadguina who was maried to Ludouicus, prince of Aquitania in Fraunce. These sonnes and daughters king Edward thus brought vp. His daughters he set to spin-

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