Thematic Divisions in Book 12
1. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife2. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent3. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury4. The 'Bloody Commission'5. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester6. Five Burnt at Smithfield7. Stephen Gratwick and others8. Edmund Allen and other martyrs9. Alice Benden and other martyrs10. Examinations of Matthew Plaise11. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs12. Ambrose13. Richard Lush14. Edmund Allen15. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper16. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs17. John Thurston18. George Eagles19. Richard Crashfield20. Fryer and George Eagles' sister21. Joyce Lewes22. Rafe Allerton and others23. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston24. John Kurde25. John Noyes26. Cicelye Ormes27. Persecution at Lichfield28. Persecution at Chichester29. Thomas Spurdance30. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson31. John Rough and Margaret Mearing32. Cuthbert Simson33. William Nicholl34. Seaman, Carman and Hudson35. Three at Colchester36. A Royal Proclamation37. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs38. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs39. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw40. Scourging of John Milles41. Richard Yeoman42. John Alcocke43. Thomas Benbridge44. Four at St Edmondsbury45. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver46. Three at Bury47. A Poor Woman of Exeter48. Priest's Wife of Exeter49. The Final Five Martyrs50. John Hunt and Richard White51. John Fetty52. Nicholas Burton53. John Fronton54. Another Martyrdom in Spain55. Baker and Burgate56. Burges and Hoker57. The Scourged: Introduction58. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax59. Thomas Greene60. Bartlett Greene and Cotton61. Steven Cotton's Letter62. James Harris63. Robert Williams64. Bonner's Beating of Boys65. A Beggar of Salisbury66. Providences: Introduction67. The Miraculously Preserved68. William Living69. Edward Grew70. William Browne71. Elizabeth Young72. Elizabeth Lawson73. Christenmas and Wattes74. John Glover75. Dabney76. Alexander Wimshurst77. Bosom's wife78. Lady Knevet79. Mistress Roberts80. Anne Lacy81. Crosman's wife82. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk83. Congregation of London84. Edward Benet85. Jeffrey Hurst86. William Wood87. Simon Grinaeus88. The Duchess of Suffolk89. Thomas Horton 90. Thomas Sprat91. John Cornet92. Thomas Bryce93. Gertrude Crockhey94. William Mauldon95. Robert Horneby96. Mistress Sandes97. John Kempe98. Thomas Rose99. Complaint against the Ipswich Gospellers100. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth101. The Unprosperous Queen Mary102. Punishments of Persecutors103. Foreign Examples104. A Letter to Henry II of France105. The Death of Henry II and others106. Justice Nine-Holes107. John Whiteman108. Admonition to the Reader109. Hales' Oration110. Cautions to the Reader111. Snel112. Laremouth113. William Hunter's Letter
Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the Text
Names and Places on this Page
Unavailable for this Edition
1930 [1903]

Q. Mary. Crashfield, Friar, and a woman, Ioyce Lewes, Martyrs.

Marginalia1557. August.I answeared and said: Iudge not, least ye be iudged: condemne not, least ye be condemned.

And he said: Lo, we shall haue a traytor as wel as an heretike: for he wyl disallow the kings iudgement.

I said, No: I doo not disallow the kings iudgement, but yours I doo disallow. For I pray you tel me, how came you by this iudgement?

He answered and said: By the Church: for the Church hath power to saue and condemne, for if you be condemned by the Churche, be ye sure that you be damned both bodye and soule.

Then I answeared: If you haue this power, I am sore deceiued. For I beleue that Christ shal be our Iudge. MarginaliaThe Popes Church taketh Christes office out of his hand.But now I perceiue, you wyll doo much for hym, that you wil not put hym to the paine.

Then he said: stand nearer countreyman: why stand ye so farre of?

I said, I am neare enough, and a litle to neare.

Then he said: Did not Christ say: Is not my flesh meat and my bloud drinke in deede?

I said: To whom spake Christ those words?

He said: To his disciples.

I (intending to rehearse the text) said: whereat did Christes disciples murmur inwardly?

He said: No, they did not murmur, but they were the Infidels (said he:) for the disciples wer satisfied with those wordes.

I said: Did not Christ say thus, as he taught at Capernaum? wheras his disciples murmured, saying: This is an hard saying. Who can abide the hearing of it? Iesus perceiuyng their thoughtes: said: Doth this offend you?

Then he raged and said: Oh, thou wrastest the text for thine owne purpose. MarginaliaNote here the ignorance of these Catholicke men, in the Scriptures.For the disciples dyd neuer murmur, but the vnbeleuers, aa thou art.

I said: Yes, but I perceiue you know not the text.

Then said he with much raging: I wyll laye my head theron, it is not so.

Then said I: I haue done with you.

Then said he: What shall I tell my Lord of you?

If you haue nothing to tel hym, your errand shalbe the sooner done, said I. And so we departed.

MarginaliaAn other examination of Rich. Crashfield.Then on Friday I was brought forth to receiue iudgement. Then the Chancellor said vnto me: Are you a new man, or are you not?

I answered and said: I trust I am a new man borne of God.

God geue grace you be so, said he. So he rehearsed all my examination, and said: How say you, are not these your wordes?

I said, Yes: I wyl not deny them.

Then he said to Doctour Pore, standing by: I pray you talke with him. Then he alledging to me many fayre flattering wordes, saide: Take, eate, this is my body. Howe say you to this? Doo you not beleue that it is Christes body? speake.

I said: Haue you not my mind? Why doo you trouble me?

He said: What dyd Christ geue? was it bread, or was it not?

I said: Christ tooke bread and gaue thankes, and gaue it, and they tooke bread, and did eate. And Saint Paul maketh it more manifest, where he saith: Marginalia1. Cor. 10.So oft as ye shall eate of this bread, and drinke of this cuppe, ye shall shewe forth the Lordes death vntyll he come. Saint Paul saith not here, as you say: for he saith: So oft as you shall eate of this bread. He doth not say, body. So they intending that I should go no further in the text, said: Tush, you go about the bushe. Answere me to the first question. Let vs make an end of that.

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What say you to the bread that Christe gaue? Let me haue your mind in that.

I answered: I haue said my mind in it.

Thē the Chancellor said: No, we wil haue your mind in that.

I answered: I haue said my mind in it.

Then the Chauncellor: No, we wil haue your mynd more plainly: For we intend not to haue many words with you.

I said: My faith is fully grounded and stablished, that Christ Iesus the Easter Lambe hath offred his blessed body a sacrifice to God the father, the price of my redemption. For by that onely sacrifice are all faithfull sanctified, and he is our only aduocate and mediatour, and he hath made perfect our redemption. This hath he don alone, without any of your daily oblations.

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Then Doctour Brigges starte vp, and said: Truth, your woordes are true in deede. You take well the lite-

rall sense: but this you muste vnderstande, that like as you saide that Christe offered his bodye vppon the Crosse, which was a bloudy sacrifice, and a visible sacrifice: MarginaliaVnbloudye sacrifice of the likewise we daily offer the selfe same body that was offred vppon the crosse, but not bloudy and visible, but inuisible, vnto God the father.

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Doo you offer Christes body, I said? Why then Christes sacrifice was not perfect. But Christ is true, when al men shalbe lyers.

Then he said: Thou shalt not feare hym that hath power to kyl the body: but thou shalt feare hym that hath power to kyl both body and soule.

I answered & said: It is not so. But the text is thus: Thou shalt not feare them that haue power to kyll the body, and then haue done what they can. But thou shalt feare him that hath power to kyll both body and soule, and caste them both into hel fire, and not them.

He answered and said: Yes, for it is the church.

I aunsweared and said: Why, Christ saith: I geue my life for the redemption of the worlde. No man taketh my life from me (saith he) but I geue it of myne own power, and so I haue power to take it againe. Therefore Christ the sonne of God did offer his blessed body once for al. And if you wyll presume to offer his body daily, then your power is aboue Christes power. With that he chafed, and saide: What, shall we haue doctrine? Ye are not hereto appoynted.

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Then the Chauncellor stood vp, and said: wyl ye turne frō this wicked error, and be an example of goodnes, as you haue bene an example of euyll (for by your wicked reading you haue perswaded simple women to be in this errour) and ye shal haue mercy.

And I said: it is of God that I doo craue mercy, whō I haue offended and not of you.

Then said the Chauncelour: When were you at your parish church? These two yeares and more you haue stand excommunicate. MarginaliaCrashfield condemned.Wherefore you are condemned. And so I was condemned.

Thus haste thou, gentle Reader, the examinations of this godly young man, set foorth and written with his owne hande, who not long after his condemnation, was by the Sheriffes & Officers there, MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Richard Crashfield. Anno. 1557. August. 5.brought to the Stake, where with muche pacience and constancie he entred his blessed Martyrdome. At the burnyng of which Christian Martyr, one Thomas Carman the same tyme was apprehended, by what occasion, it is not yet to vs fully certaine, whether it was for words, or for praying with hym, or for pledgyng hym at his burnyng: concernyng whiche Thomas Carman, his story here after foloweth in his order & place, further to be seene. 

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See 1563, p. 1655; 1570, p. 2232; 1576, p. 1927 and 1583, p. 2037 for Carman's martyrdom.

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¶ One Fryar and a certayne godly woman burned at Rochester, who was the sister of George Eagles. 
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Robert Frier and Eagles' Sister

Foxe's accounts of martyrs condemned in the diocese of Rochester earlier in Mary's reign were based on extracts from the diocesan registers. The accounts of Frier and of Eagles' sister, however, were not based on official records, and are in fact, quite vague. The identity of one of these martyrs is clear and verifiable: a notice of the excommunication and condemnation of Robert Frier of Tunbridge, dated 11 June 1557, survives (PRO C/85/144/36). But the notice also states that Robert Stevenson of Stowe was excommunicated and condemned at the same time and place; yet Foxe never mentions Stevenson. It is possible that Stevenson died in prison or escaped or (less likely) was pardoned before execution, yet the accounts of two other English martyrologists leave room for doubt. Robert Crowley, writing in 1559, stated that Robert Frier was burned at Rochester on 20 August 1557 along with another man and two other women (Robert Crowley, An epitome of chronicles[London, 1559], STC 15217.5, unpaginated). Thomas Brice, also writing in 1559, declared that Frier was burned, along with two women, on 20 July - this date is clearly an error - 1557 (A compendious regester in metre? [London, 1559], STC 3726, sig. D2v). It is impossible to be sure how many martyrs died in Rochester in August 1557, but it is likely that Stevenson was one of them and certain that Robert Frier was.

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Foxe's account of these martyrs was unchanged in subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments.

MarginaliaAugust. 20.
One Friar, and the sister of George Eagles, burned at Rochester.
ABout the same tyme and Moneth, one named Fryar, 

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We know from official documents that Frier's name was Robert and that he was from Tunbridge, Kent.

with a woman accompanying hym, who was the sister of George Eagles in the like cause of righteousnes, suffred the like martyrdome by the vnrighteous papists, whose tyrannie the Lord of his mercy abate and cut short, turnyng that wicked generation, if it be his wyl to a better mynd.

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¶ The apprehension and death of Maistresse Ioyce Lewes, wyfe to thomas Lewes of Manceter, most constantly sufferyng for Gods woorde, at Lichfielde. 
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Joyce Lewes

The entire account of Lewes' martyrdom appears in the 1563 edition. It is based on the testimony of an informant or informants; perhaps one of the Glovers, perhaps Augustine Bernher or perhaps someone else. It was unchanged in subsequent editions. It is worth noting that although Foxe had copies of some of the official documents of Lewes' case, he made no use of them.

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MarginaliaThe story of Misteres Ioyce Lewes, Martyr.MAistresse Ioyce Lewes, a gentlewoman borne, was delicately brought vp in the pleasures of the world, hauing delight in gay apparel & such like foolishnes, with the which follyes, the most part of the gentlefolkes of England were then and are yet infected: who was maryed first to one called Appelby, afterward to Thomas Lewes of Manceter. In the beginnyng of queene Maryes time, shee went to the church and heard Masse as others did, but whē shee heard of the burnyng of that most godly and learned, M. Laurēce Saunders, who suffered in Couentrie, she began to take more heede to the matter, and inquired earnestly of such as shee knew feared God, þe cause of his death: & when shee perceyued it was because he refused to receyue the Masse, shee began to be troubled in conscience, and waxed very vnquiet, & because her house was euen hard by M. Iohn Glouers house, of whom mention was made before. pag. 1614. and 1620. MarginaliaOf M. Iohn Glouer read afore pag. 1614 and 1620. (a man of blessed memorie, and of a singular example for his vnfayned godlynes and manyfold troubles which he suffered for the Gospel) shee dyd oftentymes resort to hym, & desired him to tel her the faultes that were in the Masse,

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