Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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351 [350]

K. Henry.3. The Popes letters for a boy to be beneficed.

tayning to other countreys: Now after this sufficient disgression, it is tyme that we returne to our own countrey agayne. Where, in folowyng the cōtinuation of tyme, & course of the Church: we will now adioyne to these good fathers and writers, MarginaliaThe story of R. Grostede Byshop of Lincolnethe history of the learned Byshop of Lincolne named Robert Grosted 

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Robert Grosseteste

The account of Robert Grosseteste can be found almost identically in Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (7 vols., London, 1872-1884), vol. 5, pp. 389-401 and in the Matthew Paris, Flores Historiarum, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (3 vols., London, 1890), vol. II, pp. 379-393, however Foxe largely claims to follow the Chronica Majora for this account with the occasional nod to the Flores Historiarum. The letter from Innocent III was taken from Chronica Majora, vol. 6, pp. 229-31 while the learning of Robert Grosseteste was taken from Nicholas Trivet, Annalium continuatio; ut et Adami Murimuthensis Chronicon (Oxford, 1722), pp. 242-3. Grosseteste is an interesting figure for Foxe to mention at this point in his account. Although generally less popular with sixteenth century reformers, Grosseteste had been celebrated by Wyclif and the Lollards in the fifteenth century as a thirteenth century predecessor to their religious views. However, this was a misinterpretation and one which papal supporters were able to easily deconstruct. Grosseteste opposed Pope Innocent IV on his abuse of his pastoral office in which men incapable of carrying out their duties were often selected. He was not anti-papal. Therefore, Foxe's use of Grosseteste as another sign that the true church remained at the time when the Antichrist had taken control of the papacy was at odds with the general trends of reformist polemic. Grosseteste is probably here because of a particular interest in Lollard texts inspired by John Bale, who had lent Foxe his collection of Lollard papers (the Fasciculi Zizaniorum). Despite the difficulties in using Grosseteste's campaign against the papacy, within the context of other complainants, persecutions and papal abuses of power, Foxe felt that it was worth reinventing the Lollard view of this thirteenth century scholar for a sixteenth century audience. For more detail see R. W. Southern, 'Grosseteste, Robert (c. 1170-1253)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press (2004) and D. A. Callus, Robert Grosseteste: Scholar and Bishop (Oxford, 1955).

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Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

, a man famously learned (as that tyme serued) in the three tounges, both Latin, Greeke, and Hebrue, also in all liberall sciences. Whose workes & Sermons, yet to this day are extant, which I haue sene in the Queenes Maiesties Library at Westminster. Wherein is one speciall Sermon written and exhibited in foure sondry skroles, to the Pope, and to other foure Cardinals, begynnyng Dominus noster Iesus Christus. &c. Nicholas Triuet in his Chronicle MarginaliaEx Nic. Triuet. Rob. Grostede a Southfolke man borne.writyng of this Byshop, affirmeth that he was borne in Suffolke, in the Dioces of Norfolke: who geuyng hym the prayse to be a man of excellent wisdome, of profound doctrine, and an exēple of all vertue: witnesseth, that he beyng maister of Arte, MarginaliaThe commēdation of R. Grostede.wrote first a Commentary in librum posteriorū of Aristotle. Also that he wrote Tractatiōs De Sphera & de arte comput. And that he set forth diuers bookes concernyng Philosophie. Afterward beyng Doctour in Diuinitie, & expertly sene in all the iij. tounges, drew out sundry treatises out of the Hebrue gloses: also translated diuers workes out of the Greeke, as namely the Testamentes of the xij. Patriarches, & the bookes of Dionisius, cōmentyng vpon the new translation with his owne glose. Hæc ille. Many other workes and volumes besides were written by the sayd Gosted, MarginaliaThe bookes and workes of R. De oculo morali, de Dotibus, De cessatione legalium, paruus Cato, Annotationes in Suidam, in Boetium, De potestate pastorali, Expositiones in Genes. in Lucam, with a nūber moe, besides diuers Epistles, Sermons, and Inuections sent to the Pope, for his vnmeasurable exactions, wherwith he ouercharged and oppressed the Church of England.

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This godly and learned Byshop after diuers conflictes and agonyes susteined agaynst the Byshop of Rome: after the exāple of Fridericke: of Guliel, de sācto amore, of Nico. Gallus and other after minded: Marginalia1253.
The death of R. Grosted.
at lēgth after great labours and trauailes of lyfe, finished his course, and departed at Buckdone in the moneth of Octob. an. 1253. Of his decease thus writeth Mat. Parisiens. pag. 278. Out of the prison and banishment of this world (whiche he neuer loued) was takē the holy bishop of Lincolne Robert, at his maner of Buckdune, in the euen of s. Dionyse: who was an open reprouer of the Pope and of the Kyng: a rebuker of the prelates, a corrector of the Monkes, director of the Priestes, instructor of the Clerkes, fautor of scholers, a preacher to the people, persecutor to the incontinent, a diligent searcher of the Scriptures. A maulle to the Romanes, and a contemner of their doynges. &c. MarginaliaMalleus Romanorum Grosthedus.Hæc Mat. What a maulle he was to the Romaines, in the sequel hereof (Christ willyng) shall better appeare. The story is this.

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MarginaliaThe troubles of R. Grost. wyth the Pope.It so befell, among other dayly and intolerable exactions wherein Pope Innocent was greuous and iniurious (manifold wayes) to the Realme of England: he had a certaine cosin or nephew (so Popes were wont to call their sonnes) named Fridericke, being yet yoūg & vnder yeares: whom the sayd Innocent the Pope would needes preferre to be a Cannon or prebendare in the Church of Lyncolne, in this tyme of Robert Byshop of the sayde Church. And vpō the same, directed downe letters to certaine his factors here in England for the executiō therof. The copy of which letter, by chaunce, yea not by chaunce, but by the oportune sendyng of God, came to my hādes, as I was penning this present story, written in the end of an old parchment booke, and otherwise rare I suppose to be found. As is this.

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MarginaliaAn vnreasonable letter of the Pope.Dilectis filijs Archidiacono Cant. & magistro Innocent. scriptori nostro in Anglia commoranti: salutem & Apostolicam benedict. Cum dilectus filius noster G. Sanct. Eustachij diaconus Cardinalis dilecto Marginalia* Recte dictum formaßis filio.* filio Friderico de Lauania, clerico nepotio nostro, de speciali mandato nostro Canonicatum Lincolniens. cum plenitudine iuris canonici duxerit conferendum, ipsum per suum anulum corporaliter, & presentialit, inuestiens de eodem, vt extunc canonie. Lyncolniensis existit, & plenum nomen & ius Canonici consequatur ibidem, ac præbendam, si qua vacauerit in Ecclesia Lincol. a tempore quo dudum litere nostræ super receptione, ac prouisione facienda sibi in Eccles. eadem, de præmissis venerab. fratri nostro Episcopo Lincoln. præsentatæ fuerunt: alioqui post vacaturam conferendam sibi donationi Apostolicæ reseruarit: decernendo irritum & inane: si quid præbenda huiusmodia quoq̃ fuerit acceptata: nec non & in contradictores & rebelles excommunicationis sententiam vbique promulgando, prout in literis eiusdem exinde de * Marginalia* cōfectisconstitutis plenis continetur. Nos ipsius Frederici deuotis supplicationibus inclina-ti, quod ab eodem Cardin. factum est super hoc & ratum & gratum habentes, idem autorit, Apostolic. duximus confirmandam. Quo circa Discretioni vestræ per Apostolica scripta mandamus, quatenus eundem Fridericum, vel procuratorem suum eius nomine in corporalem possessionē predictorum Canonicatus & prebēdæ, autoritate nostra inducatis, & defendatis inductum: contradictores per censuram Ecclesiasticam appellatione postposita compescendo. Non obstantibus aliquibus consuetudinibus vel statutis, iuramentis vel confirmationibus sedis Apostolicæ, seu quacūq:̀ alia infirmitate roboratis: vel quod dictus Frider. præsens non fuerit ad præstandum iuramentum de obseruandis consuetudinib. eiusdem Eccles. consuetis. Siue si prædicto Episcop. vel Capitulo ipsius Ecclesiæ communiter vel singulatim: seu alijs quibuscunque personis a dicta sede indultum existat, quod ad receptionem, vel prouisionem alicuius compelli nequeant, siue quod nullus alius in eorum Ecclsia nemini prouidere valeat: vel quod interdici, suspendi, aut excommunicari non possint, per literas apost. sub quacunque forma verborū obtentas, vel obtinendas, etiamsi totus tenor indulgēriarum huiusmodi de verbo in verbum in ijsdem literis sit inserrus: Siue quibus alijs indulgentijs quibuscunque personis, dignitati, vel loco, sub quacunque forma verborum concessis a sede apost. vel etiam concedendis: per quas effectus huiusmodi prouisionis posset impediri aliquatenus vel differri: Tamen yolumus ea de certa scientia, quantum ad proutsionem sictam & faciendam Friderico praedicto in Eclesi Lincoln. visibus omnino carere. Corteum si aliqui pradico Friderico, vel procuratori super p. amissis, vol aliquo pramissorum, aliquatenus duxerit appenendum: Illos ex paite nostra citari curetis, vt peremptorie infra duorum mensium spacium post citationem vestram personaliter compareant coram nobis, eidem Friderico super præmissis legitime responsuri. Non obstantibus priuilegijs, siue quibuslibet indulgentijs personis regni Angliæ generaliter vel cuiuis alij personæ, vel dignitati, vel loco specialiter a prædicta sede sub quacunque forma verborum concessis: Quod non possunt vltra mare, seu extra ciuitatem vel Diocesin suam in iudicium euocari per literas apost. sub quacunque forma verborum obtentas, quod priuilegium & indulgētias eisdē personis de certa scientia nullatenus volumus suffragari, & de constitutione ædita de duabus dictis in cōcilio generali non obstāte. Diem autem citationis & formam nobis, vestris literis tenorem presentium continētibus fideliter intimetis. Quod si non ambo his exequendis interesse poteritis alter vestrū nihilominus exequatur. Datum perus. 7. Cal Febr. Pontificat. nostri anno decimo.

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Which letter to be Englished is this.

MarginaliaThe popes vnreasonable letter.Vnto our welbeloued sonnes the Archdeacon of Cant. and to maister Innocent our scribe abidyng in England: gretyng and Apostolicall benediction. For so much as our welbeloued sonne G. of S. Eustace Deacon Cardinal, vpō our speciall cōmaundement hath giuen and graunted to our welbeloued sonne Fridericke de Lauania (a Clarke & our nephew) a Chanonshyp in the Church of Lincolne with full power and graunt of the same: Inuestyng him also corporally, and presently with his owne ryng in the sayd Chanonship to be from henceforth Canon of Lincolne, & to haue full power of the sayd Chanonshyp in the Church & a prebend when any shall fall in the Church of Lincolne: From that tyme, since which our former letters of late, concerning this receiuyng and prouision to be giuen to hym in the sayd Church were presented and exhibited to our reuerend brother Byshop of Lincolne: or els after the next auoydyng the sayd prebendshyp to be reserued to the Apostolicall donation & to be giuen to hym, makyng it voyde and frustrate if the sayd prebendshyp shall be geuen to any other man beside, and also denouncyng the sentence of excommunication agaynst all them that shall rebell and gaynsay the same as in the letters of the sayd Cardinall is more fully contained.

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We therfore gratiously inclined by the deuoute supplication of the sayd Fredericke, ratifieng and gratfully approuyng that which hath bene done by the sayd Cardinals in the premisses haue thought good by the authoritie Apostolicall to confirme. Wherfore we geue in commaundement by our letters Apostolicall to your wisedomes, that you will see the sayd Fridericke (or his proctour in his behalfe) to be really & corporally possessed in the sayd chanonshyp or prebend by our authoritie, and also defend the sayd partie being therin possessed, MarginaliaExcommunication abused.denouncyng the sentence of excommunicatiō agaynst all such as shal withstand the same: All maner of customes, or statutes to the contrary notwithstandyng, corroborated either with othe, or confirmatiōs of the sea Apostolike, or by what stay or let soeuer: Or whether þe the said Fridericke be not present to take þe oth accustomed to be ge

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