Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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357 [356]

K. Henry.3. Ciuill dissention betwene the kyng and the nobles.

to try their manhode agaynst the Southern part: fell both parts together in such a broyle, with their ensignes & warlike aray, that in conclusiō diuers on both sides were slayne. This heauy & bloudy cōflict duryng & increasing amōg thē, the end was this: that the Northern lads with the Welsh had the victory. After that fury and firy fiercenes had done what it could, the victorers bethinkyng at length with thēselues, partly what they had done, partly how it would be taken of the higher powers: and fearyng due punishment to fall vpō them, especially seyng the brother of Leoline prince of Wales, and sonne of Giffine, was newly dead in prison, drawyng their counsaile and helpes together: they offer to kyng Henry foure thousād Markes, to Edward his sonne iij. hundreth, and to the Queene two hundreth, to be released of their trespas. But the kyng aunsweryng thē agayne, that he set more price by the lyfe of one true subiect, then by all, which by them was offered: would in no wise receaue their money. And so the studentes without hope of peace, went home with small triumphe, learnyng what the common Prouerbe meaneth: Dulce bellū inexpertis. Notwithstandyng, the kyng beyng then occupyed in great affaires & warres, partly with Leoline and the Welshmen, partly inwrapped with discord at home with his nobles: had no leysure to attend to the correction of these Uniuersitie men, which was an. 1259. Ex Math. Parisiens. MarginaliaVariance betwene the studentes & the Friers in Paris. Variaunce betwene the vniuersitie of Oxford and Cambridge. Variannce betwene the Archb. of Cant. & the chapter of Lincolne.Likewise concernyng the discention folowyng the next yeare after, in the Uniuersitie of Paris, betwene the studentes there & the Friers: the number of whom then did somuch increase, that the cōmōs vnneth was able to susteine them with their almes. Also betwene the Uniuersities both of Oxford and Cambridge, for a certaine prisoner taken out of prison by strēgth, and brought into sanctuary the same yeare, as is testified in Mathew Paris .an. 1259. In like maner, touching the variaunce betwene the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Chapter of Lincolne. Agayne, betwene the said Archbishop of Canterbury and Chapter and Byshop of London: & how the sayd Byshop at his consecration would not make his profession to the Archbishop but with this exception, Saluis iure & libertate Ecclesiæ Lōdinēs. quæ pro posse meo defendam in omnibus. &c. MarginaliaVariaunce betwene the Archbish. of Cant. & the chapter of London.
Ex Flor. hist.
Litle peace in the popes Church.
recorded in Flores. Hist. All which wranglynges and dissentions, with innumerable other raignyng dayly in the Church at those dayes, if I had so much leasure to prosecute them, as I finde them in stories remainyng: might sufficiently induce vs to vnderstād what small peace and agrement was then ioyned with that doctrine and Religion in those dayes, during the state and raigne of Antechrist.

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These with many such other matters mo, which here might be discoursed and storied at large, beyng more foreine then Ecclesiastical, for breuitie I do purposely contract and omit, cuttyng of all such superfluities as may seeme more curious to write vpon, then necessary to be knowen.

This that foloweth concernyng the pitifull & turbulent commotion betwene the kyng and the nobles, which lasted a long season: 

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Henry III and the barons

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008). This commentary will become available in due course from the 'Late Additions and Corrections' page of the edition.

MarginaliaHistories profitable for example.because it is lamentable, and conteineth much fruitfull example, both for Princes and subiectes to behold and looke vpon, to see what mischief & inconuenience groweth in cōmon weales, where study of mutuall concorde lacketh, that is: where neither the Prince regardeth the offending of his subiectes, and where the subiectes forget the office of Christian pacience, in sufferyng their Princes iniuries, by Gods wrath inflicted for the sinnes. Wherfore, in explaning the order and story therof, I though it not vnprofitable to occupy the Reader with a litle more tariaunce in perusing the full discourse of thys so lamentable a matter, & so pernicious to the publicke weale.

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MarginaliaThe occasiōs of commotiō betwene the kyng and the nobles.And first to declare the occasions and first begynnynges of this tumult, here is to be vnderstode, which before was signified: how kyng Henry maried with Alinor daughter of the Earle of Prouince, a straunger, which was about the yeare of our Lord. 1234. Whereupō, a great doore was opened for straungers, not onely to enter the land, but also to replenish the court: to whom the kyng seemed more to incline his fauour, aduauncing them to more preferment, then hys own naturall English Lordes: which thyng was to them no litle greuance. Moreouer, before was declared, how the kyng by Isabell his mother who was a straunger, had diuers brethren: Whom he nourished vp with great lyuinges and possessions, and large pensions of money, which was an other hartes sore to diuers, and also an hindraunce. Ouer and beside hath also bene declared, what vnreasonable collectiōs of money from tyme to time, as quindecims, subsidies, tenthes, mersementes, fines, paymentes, lones and taxes: haue bene leuied by the kyng, as well of the spiritualty, as of the lay sort, partly for maintayning the kyngs warres agaynst Wales, agaynst Scotland, and Fraunce, to recouer Normandy: partly for helpyng the kynges debtes, viagies and other expenses: partly for the kingdome of Apulia, which was promised the kynges sonne by the Pope: partly for moneyng and supporting the Pope in his warres agaynst the Emperour. By reason of all which sundry and importable collections, the common wealth of the Realme was vtterly excoriate, to the great impouerishmēt of poore English men. Neyther did it a litle vexe the people to see the kyng call in so many Legates from Rome euery yeare, which did nothyng els but transport the Englishe money vnto the Popes cofers. Beside all thys, what variaunce and altercation hath bene betwene the kyng and his subiectes about the liberties of Magna charta, and de foresta, graunted by kyng Iohn, and after confirmed by thys king in the former councell holden at Oxford, hath bene afore declared.

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Perhaps this might be also some peece of a cause, that the kyng considering and bearing in mynde the olde iniuries done of the Lordes and Barons to hys father kyng Iohn before hym: did beare some grudge therfore, or some priuy hatred vnto the nobilitie, to reuenge hys fathers quarell. But of thinges vncertayne I haue nothyng certaynly to affirme. MarginaliaAn .1260.This is certayne, by truth of history, that the yeare next ensuing, which was 1260. thus writeth Nicho. Triuet, that the kynges Iustices called Itinerarii, beyng sent thether to execute their office, were from thence repelled: the cause beyng alledged for that they were agaynst the kyng, in proceedyng and enterprising against the forme of the prouisions enacted and stablished a litle before at the towne of Oxford.

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MarginaliaStraungers hauing all the wealth of the realme vnder the kyng.It befell moreouer the same yeare, aboue other tymes (as Gualt. Hemingford writeth) that a great number of aliens comming out of Fraunce and other prouinces, resorted into England: and had here the doing of al principall matters of the realme vnder the kyng. MarginaliaEx Gualt. GisburnensiVnto whom the rewardes and reliefes, and other emoluments of þe land did most chiefly redound, which thyng to see did not a litle trouble and vexe the nobilitie and baronage of Englād. In so much, that Simon Montfort Earle of Leycester, offering to stand to death for the liberties and wealth of the Realme, conferred together with other Lordes and Barons vpon the matter. Who then comming to the kyng after an humble sort of petition, MarginaliaThe words of the nobles to the k.declared to him how all the doinges of hys Realme and his owne affayres, were altogether disposed by the handes and after the willes of straūgers, neyther profitable to hym, nor to the weale publicke: for so much as his treasures beyng wasted and consumed, he was ingreat debt, neyther was able to satisfie the prouision of hys owne house, but driuen to tale for hys owne cates, to no small dishonour to hys owne state. And now therefore sayd they, pleaseth your highnes to be informed by our aduise, and to commit your house to the guiding and gouernment of your owne faythful and naturall subiects. And we will take vpon vs to discharge your whole debt within one yeare, of our owne proper goods and reueneues, so that we within. v. yeares may cleare our selues agayne. Neyther will we diminish your family, but rather increase it wyth a much greater retinue. Prouiding so for the safety and seyng to the custody of your royall person, as your highnes shal finde and vnderstand our diligence most trusty and faythfull vnto you in the end.

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MarginaliaThe king graunteth to his lordsTo these wordes so louingly declared, so humbly pretensed, so hartely and freely offred, the kyng as willingly condescended: assigning to them both day and place, where to conferre and to deliberate farther vpon þe matter, which should be at Oxford, the. xv. day after Easter. MarginaliaA Sitting of the king and Lordes at OxfordAt which day and place, all the states and Lordes, wyth the bishops of the realme were summoned to appeare at the said towne of Oxford, for the behalfe of the kyng, and the Realme conuented together. MarginaliaThe prouisions or lawes made at Oxford.Where first of the kyng hymselfe, then of the Lordes an oth was taken: that what decrees or lawes in the sayd assembly should be prouided to the profite of the kyng and of the realme, the same vniuersally should be kept and obserued to the honour of God, & vtilitie of his church, and wealth of the Realme. MarginaliaThe kyng sueareth to the prouisions made at Oxford.Besides these Lords and the kyng, were also ix. Bishops, which swearing to the same, dyd excommunicate all such as should gaynstand the sayde prouisions there made, the kyng holding a burnyng taper in his hand, and the Lordes openly protesting, to rise wyth all their force, agaynst all them that shall stand agaynst the same.

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MarginaliaThe kynges brethren agaynst the prouisions of Oxford.There were at that present in the Realme, foure brethren of the kynges (most part of them by the mothers side) which would in no case agree hereunto, but in anger departed priuely vnto Wint. The nobles hearing thereof, in all speedy wise pursued them, fearing least they should take

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