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451 [427]

K. Richard. 2. The history of Iohn Wickliffe.

MarginaliaCertayne conclusions of Iohn Wickliffe. all hys ofspring should politikely rule ouer the world for euer.

2 God cannot geue to any man for him and his heires any ciuill dominion for euer.

3 All writings inuented by men, as touchyng perpetuall heritage, are impossible. 

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This conclusion is a slap at the notorious Donation of Constantine; it is not saying that it is a forgery, it is saying that it lacks legal or moral validity.

4 Euery man being in grace iustifiyng, hath not only right vnto the thyng, but also for his tyme hath right in dede aboue all the good things of God.

5 A man can but onely ministratoriously geue any temporall or continuall gift, eyther as well to hys naturall sonne, as to his sonne by imitation.

6 If God be, the temporall Lordes may lawfully and meritoriously take away the riches from the church whē they do offend, habitualiter.

7 We know that Christes Vicar cannot, neither is able by his Buls, neyther by his owne will and consent, neither by the consent of his colledge, eyther make able or disable any man.

8 A man cannot be excommunicated to his hurt or vndoyng, except he be first and principally excommunicate by hymselfe.

9 No man ought, but in Gods cause alone, to excommunicate, suspend, or forbid, or otherwyse to procede to reuenge by any ecclesiasticall censure.

10 A curse or excommunication doth not simply bynd, but in case it be pronounced and geuen out agaynst the aduersary of Gods law.

11 There is no power geuen by any example, eyther by Christ or hys Apostle, to excommunicate any subiect, specially for the denying of any temporalities, but rather contrariwyse.

12 The disciples of Christ haue no power to exact by any ciuill authority, temporalities by censures.

13 It is not possible by the absolute power of God, that if the Pope or any other Christian, doe pretende by any meanes to bynde or to loose, that therby he doth so bynde and loose.

14 We ought to beleue that the Vicar of Christ, doth at such tymes onely bynd and loose, when as he worketh conformably by the law and ordinaunce of Christ.

15 This ought vniuersally to be beleued that euery priest rightly and duly ordred, according vnto the law of grace, hath power accordyng to his vocation, wherby he may minister the sacramentes, and consequently absolue any man confessing hys faulte, beyng contrite and penitent for the same.

16 It is lawful for kings (in causes licensed by the law) to take away the temporalties frō the spiritualty, sinning habitualiter that is, which continue in the custome of sinne, & will not amend.

17 Whether they be temporall Lordes or any other men whatsoeuer they be, which haue endowed any Churche with temporalities: It is lawfull for them to take away the same temporalities, as it were by way of medicine, for to auoyde sinne, notwithstanding any excommunication or other ecclesiasticall censure, for so much as they are not geuē but vnder a condition.

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28 An ecclesiastical minister, and also the bishop of Rome may lawfully be rebuked of hys subiectes, and for the profite of the Churche, be accused either of the Cleargy or of the Laitie.

These letters 

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The following account, of Wiclif being summoned to Lambeth and of Sir Lewis Clifford's orders - Foxe does not say so, but Clifford was sent by Joan of Kent, the mother of the king - that Wiclif not be sentenced come from Arundel 7. (See Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, Rolls Series 28, 2 vols. [London, 1863-4], I, p. 356).

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with the articles inclosed beyng thus receyued from the Pope, the bishops toke no little hart, thinkyng and fully determyning with themselues and that in open profession, before their prouinciall Councell, that all maner respectes of feare or fauour set apart, no person neither high nor low should let them, neither would they be seduced by the entreaty of any man, nor by any threatninges or rewards, but that in this cause they would execute most surely vpright iustice and equity: yea albeit present danger of lyfe should follow therupon. MarginaliaThe stout brags of the Byshops ouerthrowne. But these so fierce brags, & stout promise, with the subtile practises of these Byshops, which thought them so sure before: the Lord (against whō no determination of mans counsaile can preuaile) by a small occasion, did lightly confound and ouerthrow. MarginaliaWickliffe agayne called before the Byshops.
Lewes Clifford.
For the day of examination beyng come: a certayne personage of the princes court, and yet of no great noble birth, named Lewes Clifford, entring in among the Bishops: commaunded them that they should not proceede with any diffinitiue sentence agaynst Iohn Wickliffe. With which wordes all they were so amased, and their combes so cut, that (as in the story is mentioned) they became so mute and speachlesse, as men hauyng not one word in their mouth to aunswer. And MarginaliaIohn Wickliffe againe deliuered frō the byshops. thus by the wonderous worke of God hys prouidence, escaped Iohn Wickliffe the second tyme out of the Bishops handes, and was by them clearely dismissed vpon hys declaration made of his articles as anone shall follow.

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Moreouer here is not to be passed ouer, how at þe same tyme, and in the sayd chappell of the Archb.p at Lamheth, where the bishops were sitting vpon Iohn Wickliffe, the story writing of the doyng therof, addeth these wordes, saying: Non dico ciues tantum Londinenses, sed viles ipsius ciuitatis se impudenter ingerere præsumpserunt in eandem capellam, & verba facere pro eodem, & istud negocium impedire, consisi, vt reor, de ipsorum præmissa negligentia prælatorum. &c. That is, I say 

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This passage was added in 1570; it comes from Arundel 7 (see Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, Rolls Series 28, 2 vols. [London, 1863-4], I, p. 356).

not only, that the citizens of Lōdon, but also the vile abiectes of the city, presumed to be so bold in the same chapell at Lamheth, where the Bishops were sitting vpon I Wickliffe: both to entreat for him, and also to let and stoppe the same matter, trustyng as I suppose, vpon the negligence which they saw before in the Bishops. &c.

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Ouer and beside, here is not to be forgotten, how þe said Iohn Wickliffe, the same tyme of hys examination, offered and exhibited vnto the Bishops, in writyng a protestation, with a declaration or exposition of hys owne mynde, vpon the said his articles, the effect wherof here followeth.

The protestation of Iohn Wickliffe.

MarginaliaThe protestatiō of Iohn Wickliffe. FIrst 

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Wiclif's protestation is actually a preamble to his commentary on the articles attributed to him. Foxe had access to two sources that contained both the protestation and the commentary. These were Arundel 7 and the Fasciculi Zizaniorum. Foxe followed the longer version of the protestation in Arundel 7 (see Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, Rolls Series 28, 2 vols. [London, 1863-4], I, p. 357), although he gave the version of the commentary found in the Fasciculi Zizaniorum.

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I protest (as I haue often tofore done) that I doe mynde and intend with my whole hart (by the grace of God) to be a true Christian, and as long as breath shall remayne in me, to professe and defend the law of Christ. And if it shall happen that through ignoraunce or otherwise, I shall faile therin, I desire my Lord God of pardon and forgeuenes. And now agayne as before also, I do reuoke and make retractation, most humbly submitting my selfe, vnder the correction of our holy mother þe church. And for so much as the sentence of my fayth, which I haue holden in the scholes and els where, is reported euen by children, & more ouer, it is caried by children euen vnto Rome: Therefore lest my deare beloued brethren should take any offence by me, I will set forth in writyng the sentence and Articles, for the whiche I am now accused and impeached: the which also euen vnto the death I will defend. As I beleue all christians ought to do, and specially the Byshop of Rome, and all other priestes and ministers of the Church. For I do vnderstand the conclusions after the sense & maner of speaking of the Scriptures and holy doctours, the which I am ready to expounde: And if they shall be found contrary vnto the fayth, I am ready to reuoke and speedily to call them backe agayne.

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¶ An exposition vpon the conclusions of Iohn Wickliffe, exhibited by hym to the Bishops. 
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Foxe's source for Wiclif's commentary on the articles attributed to him is the Fasciculi Zizaniorum (see Bodley Library MS, Musaeo 86, fos. 64v-66v). Foxe's version is an accurate reproduction of what is in the Fasciculi Zizaniorum.

MarginaliaExposition of Iohn Wickliffe vpon his conclusions. 1. ALl the race of mankinde, here in earth beside Christ, hath no power simply to ordaine, that Peter. &c.

This conclusion of it selfe is euident, for as much as it is not in mans power to stop the comming of Christ to hys finall iudgement, but he must needes come, according to the article of our Creede, to iudge both the quicke and dead. And then (as the Scripture teacheth) shall surcease all ciuill and politicke rule here, I vnderstand the temporall and secular dominion, pertayning to men here dwelling in thys mortall lyfe. For so do the philosophers speake of ciuill dominion. And although the thyng which is terminable, and hath an ende, is called sometymes perpetuall: yet because in holy Scripture, and in vse of the Church, and in þe bookes of Philosophers most commonly that is taken to be perpetuall, which hath no ende of tyme hereafter to come: accordyng to the which sense, the Church singeth Gloria patri, &c nunc & in perpetuum. I also after the same signification do take here this word (perpetually) and so is this cōclusion consonant to the principles of the Scripture, that it is not in mans power to ordayne the course and viage of the Church, here perpetually to last.

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2. God can not geue to any man. &c.

MarginaliaExpositiō of the second conclusiō. ☞ To the second conclusion I aunswere, vnderstāding ciuill dominion, as in the conclusion before. And so I holde, that God, first by his ordinate power cannot geue to any person ciuill dominion here for euer: Secondly, by his absolute power it is not probable for him so to doe. For so much as he cannot euer detayne hys spouse in perpetuall prison of thys lyfe, nor alwayes differ the finall beatitude of hys Church.

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