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660 [636]

K. Henry. 6. William Taylour Priest and Martyr.

quæ non fallit, & ex consona ratione. &c. And moreouer he inferreth the example of Moses, who prayed vnto God, alleadging the merites of Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob, which were dead. &c: And furthermore passing from the testimony of Hierome, and alledgyng the example of Steuen, sayth: Quod nūc magis exauditur pro veneratorib9 suis, quā tūc exauditus est pro lapidatoribus. And at length he cōmeth to this conclusion, prouyng by S. Austē, in this maner: Ne igitur cum impijs & idolatris in veteri testamento, in circuitu ambulemus, nunquā deueniēdo ad centrū, sanū est quod faciamus secundū consiliū Apostoli sic dicentis: Accedamus cū fiducia ad thronū gratiæ eius, vt misericordiā cōsequamur & gratiam inueniamus in auxilio oportuno. &c. MarginaliaAug. super Psal. 21. That is. And therfore lest we runne about in circles with the wicked, & with the idolaters of the old Testamēt, and neuer come to the center, therfore it is wholesome & good coūsaile, that we folow the mynde, of the Apostle, saying: Let vs resorte with boldnes vnto the throne of his grace, that we may obteyne mercy, and finde grace in time of oportune helpe. &c.

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Thus much out of the foresayd writing of Williā Taylour I haue excerped, to the intent that the indifferent reader, vsing his iudgement herein, may see how litle matter was in this, wherfore he should be condemned by the Papistes. And yet notwithstādyng the same writing beyng deliuered by the Archbyshop, to the foure orders of Friers of London to be examined, was found erroneous and hereticall in these pointes. Marginalia4. articles by the 4. orders of Friers layd agaynst W. Taylour.

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1. First, that euery prayer, which is a petition of some supernaturall gift or free gift, is to be directed only to god.

2. Item, that prayer is to be directed to God alone.

3. Item, to pray to any creature is to commit idolatry.

4. Also an other opiniō there was much lyke to the other, to make vp the fourth, so that although all these opinions agreed in one, yet to make vp a number euery order of the foure sortes of Friers, thought to finde out some matter to offer vp to the Archbyshop agaynst him, lest one order should seeme more cunnyng or pregnant in findyng out more, then could an other: or els perchaūce lest any of thē should seeme to fauour the partie, in bryngyng nothyng agaynst hym, as the rest had done.

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When the Saterday was come, which was the xx. day of February, vpō the which day the foure orders were appointed to declare their censure vppon the Articles in the chapiter house of Paules, first appeareth Frier Tylle, for the Blacke Friers, then Frier Winchelsey: then Frier Low: After Frier Ashewel, ech Frier for his order seuerally bringyng his heresie, as is aboue specified.

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¶ The burning of Williā Taylour, Priest.

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In Foxe's first edition the story of William Tayler (or Taylor) opens the 'The thirde part or section of this Ecclesiasticall history'. William Taylor, 'a persistent and, in the end at least, fearless follower of Lollard views', was burned for heresy after a long heretical career. We know about his opinions not only from the record of proceedings against him in Archbishop Chichele's register and reports in Thomas Netter's Doctrinale, but also (unusually) from the survival of one of his sermons. Taylor was a native of Worcestershire and sometime principal of St Edmund's Hall, Oxford, who was cited and arrested for heresy on several occasions, the first being for a sermon he preached at Paul's Cross in 1406. He admitted in 1420, when arrested in Bristol, that he had been excommunicate for about fourteen yerars. His long, persistent careeer of heretical sympathies was finally terminated in March 1423, when he was burned at Smithfield as a relapsed heretic. It was his writings that incriminated him, the authorship of which he neither confessed nor denied to be in his own handwriting when examined. Foxe stated that his writings were so 'indifferent' that he deemed them not worthy of such a severe judgement against the man. In 1563 Taylor was represented by one of the vivid group of woodcuts that proved problematical because of their size. It showed a martyr chained to the stake with raised arms and the words 'Lord help me and forgeve them' in a bandarole. In and after 1570 he was illustrated by one of the new small woodcuts. . CUL copy: the martyr is depicted as wearing a white shroud. Although balding, his hair and beard are coloured in light brown. WREN copy: in this copy Tailor's hair and beard are greying slightly.

Thus the verdict of these. iiij. orders being geuen vp to MarginaliaW. Taylour disgraded. the Archb. & seuerally, ech order cōming in with his heresie, which was the. xx. day of February, William Taylour vpon the same was forthwith cōdēned as a relapse, first to be disgraded, & after to be burned, & so was cōmitted to the seculare power. Who then beyng had to Smithfield, the first day of March, MarginaliaW. Taylour Martyr burned in Smithfield. with Christian constancy, after long imprisonmēt, there did consummate his Martyrdome. 1422.

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MarginaliaThe popes maner of degradation The maner of his disgradyng was all one with the disgradyng of Iohn Hus before: for the Papistes vse but one forme, for all men. First disgradyng them from Priesthode, by taking from them the Chalice and Patine. From Deaconship, by takyng from them the Gospell booke and Tunicle. From Subdeaconshyp, by takyng from them the Epistle booke and Tunicle. From Accoluteshyp, by takyng frō them the Cruet and Candlesticke. From an Exorciste, by takyng away the booke of Exorcismes or Graduall. From the Sextonshyp, by takyng away the Churchdoore key and surplis. And likewise from Benet, in takyng away the surplis, and first tonsure. &c. All which they orderly accomplished vpon this godly Martyr, before his burnyng.

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¶ Iohn Florence a Turner.

MarginaliaIohn Florence a Turner. IHon Florence a Turner, dwellyng in Shelton, in the Dioces of Norwich, was attached for that he held and taught these heresies here vnder writtē (as they called them) cōtrary to the determination of the Church of Rome.

In primis that the Pope and Cardinals haue no power to make or constitute any lawes.

Item, that there is no day to be kept holy, but onely the Sonday which God hath halowed.

Item, that men ought to fast no other tyme, but of the Quatuor temporum.

Item, that Images are not to be worshypped, neither that the people ought to set vp any lightes before them in the Churches, neither to go on pilgrimage, neither to offer for the dead, or with women that are purified.

Item, that Curates should not take the tithes of their parishioners, MarginaliaHe meaneth they should not claime such tithes by any exaction. but that such tithes should be deuided amōgst the poore parishoners.

Item, that all such as sweare by their life or power, shal be damned, except they repent.

¶ The displyng of Iohn Florence.

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As recorded by Foxe, John Florence was a turner of Shelton in the Norwich diocese,who denied the authority of the Pope, and held controversial views on saints' days. After examination he had to do penance in Norwich Cathedral. This case is among the examples that show how Foxe's record supplements the extant evidence of the Norwich Heresy Trials 1428-31 edited by Norman Tanner. Florence's name does not appear in these proceedings, but as Foxe includes information that is not otherwise known (for instance about Hugh Pye) it seems that he had access to records now no longer extant. The name 'Boner' on the scourger holding the flail points to this small cut being prepared with an eye more on Marian prosecutions than the punishment of Wycliffites. This woodcut was later reused . It is possible that the decision to reuse it ensured that its banderole remained blank. (For example, compare 1570, p.782 and p.786 with 1576, p. 636 and p. 640.) CUL copy: Florence is depicted naked, save for a white sheet about his midriff. Note that there are flecks of pinkish red on his back, displaying detail not provided by the original illustration. The empty scroll in the top left of the image is edged with purple. Note that, although black ink is used to add detail to the picture where the paint might have obscured it, the word 'So[m]ner' is not detailed with ink, despite its being somewhat obscured by the blue colour of the man's garments. WREN copy: provides the same detail, although the blank scroll is covered over with blue, in an attempt to erase it. Note that the marginal note accompanying the description of 'the displaying' states that the rod used was white yet there is no effort made to ensure that the rod depicted is indeed white in either the CUL or WREN copy.

Marginalia1424. Vpon Wensday, beyng the second day of August in the yeare of our Lord. 1424. the said Iohn Florence personally appeared before William Bernam, Chauncelour to William Byshop of Norwich, where as he procedyng agaynst hym, obiected the first Article touchyng the power of the

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