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731 [707]

K. Hēr. 7. Hieronymus Sauonarola with 2. other friers, martyrs. Maximilianus Emp.

9. Item, that auricular confession, is not necessary.

10. Item, that he had moued the Citizens to vprore and sedition.

11. Item, that he had neglected and contemned the popes citation.

12. Item, that he had shamefully spoken against, & slaundered the pope.

13. Itē, that he had taken Christ to witnes of his naughtynes and heresie.

14. Also, that Italy must be clēsed through Gods scourge, for the manifold wickednes of the princes and clergy.

These & such other like Articles, were layd vnto them, & read before them. Then they demaunded of the sayd Hierome and his companions, whether they would recant and geue ouer their opinions. Whereunto they aunswered, that through Gods helpe, they would stedfastly continue in the manifest truth, and not depart from the same. Then were they disgraded one after an other, by the byshop of Vasion, and so deliuered ouer to the secular rulers of Florence, with straight commaundement, to cary them forth, & handle them as obstinate and stifnecked heretickes. MarginaliaHierome with his ij. companions hanged and brent for the Gospelles truth.

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¶ The Martyrdome of Hierome and his two companions.

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The burning and hanging of Savonarola, together with two other friars, on 23 May 1498, was represented in a small, evidently custom-made image that recalls that of the Lollards in 1414, likewise condemned for secular and spiritual transgression. While they are clearly distinguished by their dress from those earlier offenders, the illustrator has avoided portraying these religious with the characteristics (tonsure, fat girth etc) commonly assigned to members of religious orders. All three were too be seen as godly reformers. The scene is very different from the great display in the piazza in Florence as portrayed in Italy, showing the burning taking place in the civic centre on an impressive specially constructed platform. Note that this is the second illustration to depict the martyrs as apparently deceased (they all have their eyes closed), rather than at the point of suffering or prior to it. CUL: All three men are in white have brown hair and beards. WREN: the same details appear in this copy.

Thus, was the worthy witnesse of Christ, with the other two aforesayd, first hanged vp openly in the market place, and afterward burnt to ashes, and the ashes gathered vp, and cast into the Riuer of Arum, the xxiij. day of May in the yeare of our Lord. 1499. Ex Catal. testium. Illyrici.

MarginaliaThe prophecies of Hierome Sauonarola. This man foreshewed many thynges to come, 

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The statement that Savanorola prophesied the destruction of Florence and Rome and also the renewal of the Church comes from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Basel, 1562), p. 565; the claim that he prophesied thatthe Turks would convert to Christianity and that Charles VIII would cross the Alpsand conquer Italy comes from Philippe de Commynes, De Carlo Octavo…et belloNeapolitano Commentarii {Paris, 1561], pp. 106-7.

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as the destruction of Florence and Rome, and the renuyng of the Church: which three things, haue happened in these times, within our remembraunce. Also he foreshewed that the Turkes and Mores in the latter dayes, should be conuerted vnto Christ. He also declared that one should passe the Alpes into Italy, like vnto Cyrus, which should subuert and destroy all Italy. Whereupō 
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The description of the learned men who hailed Savanorola as a prophet, including Commynes, is translated word-for-word from Matthias Flacius,Catalogus testium veritatis (Basel, 1562), p. 565.

Iohānes Franciscus Picus, Earle of Mirandula, called him a holy prophet, and defended him by his writings against the pope. MarginaliaEx Ioans Francisc. Mirandula. Many other learned men also, do defend the innocencie of the sayd Sauonarola. Marsilius Ficinus also, in a certaine Epistle doth attribute vnto him the spirite of prophecie, greatly commendyng and praysing him. MarginaliaEx Marsilio Ficino. In lyke maner Philippus Comineas a French historiographer, whiche had conference with hym, witnesseth that he was a holy man, and full of the spirite of prophecie, for somuch as he had foreshewed vnto him so many thynges, which the euent had proued true.

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MarginaliaEx Philip. Cominea. There were besides these, many other, not to be passed ouer or forgotten 

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This brief mention of Philip Norice is based either on Bale's mentionof Norrice in his Catalogus (p. 608) or Bale's note on Norice in Bodley library MS e Musaeo 86, fo. 63v.

: as Philip Norice an Irishman, profes sour 
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John Bale, Foxe's source for his account of Norice, did not say that Norice was a professor or even that he taught at Oxford.

at Oxford, who albeit he was not burned, (yet as it is sayd) he was long tyme vexed and troubled by the religious route. But would to God, that such as haue occupied themselues in writing of historyes, and haue so diligently committed vnto memory all other thinges done in foreine common wealthes, had bestowed the lyke diligence and labour, in notyng and writing those thinges, which pertaine vnto the affaires of the church: wherby the posterity might haue had fuller and more perfect vnderstanding and knowledge of them.

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This Sauonarola aboue mencioned, suffred vnder pope Alexander the 6. of which pope, more leysure and oportunitie shall serue hereafter (Christ willing) to entreat, after that we shall first make a litle degression to entreate of certayne cases and complaintes of the Germaines, incident in the meane tyme: which as they are not to be ouerpast in silence, so can they haue no place nor tyme more conuenient to be inferred. What complayntes of the Germaines were made and moued vnto the Emperour Fridericke agaynst the Popes suppressions and exactions, mencion was made before pag. 699. where also was declared, how the sayde Germaines at that time, were twise put backe and forsakē of the Emperour: wherby they continued in the same yoke and bondage, vntill the tyme of Luther. MarginaliaThe complaintes of the Germains against the popes greuaunces, renued. Wherefore it commeth now to hand, and we thinke it also good, here briefly to declare, how the sayd Germaines, in the tyme of Maximilian the Emperour, renuing their complaintes agayne, deliuered vnto the Emperour, x. principall greuaunces, wherby þe Germaines haue bene long time oppressed: shewing also the remedies agaynst the same, wyth certaine aduisementes vnto the Emperours maiestie, how he might wythstand and resist the popes subtilties and craftes: The order and tenour whereof here ensueth. 

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This list of grievances is translated from Matthias Flacius, Catalogustestium veritatis (Basel, 1562), pp. 321-22.

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¶ The x. greuaunces of the Germaines.

MarginaliaTen greuaunces complayned of by the Germaines. 1. THat the Byshops of Rome, successours one vnto an other, do not thinke themselues bounde to obserue and keepe the bulles, couenauntes, priuilegies, and letters, graunted by their predecessours, without all derogation: but by often dispensation, suspension & reuocation, euen at the instaunce of euery vile person, they do gainsay and withstand the same.

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2. That the elections of prelats are oftētimes put backe.

3. That the elections of Presidentships are withstand, which the chapterhouses of many churches haue obtayned with great coste and expense as the Church of Spyre and Hasell doe well know: whose bull, touching the election of their president, is made frustrate, he being yet aliue which graunted the same.

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4. That benefices and the greatest ecclesiasticall dignities, are reserued for Cardinalles and head notaries.

5. That expectatiue graces, called vowsons, 

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Advowson is the English term - inserted by Foxe - for an expective grace, a lien or claim upon a particular benefice

are graunted without number, and many oftētimes vnto one mā: Wherupon continuall contentions doe rise, and much money is spent, both that which is layde out for the Bulles of those vowsons which neuer take effecte, and also that which is consumed in going to law. Wherupō this prouerbe is risen, whosoeuer will gette a vowson from Rome, must haue C. or CC. peeces of golde layde vp in hys chest, for the obtayning of the same, which he shall haue neede of, to prosecute the lawe withall.

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6. That Annates 

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First fruits are an English term for an annate, which is a tax of the entire first year's income upon the incoming holder of a benefice. But in England, first fruits were paid to the Crown, in Germany annates were paid to the Papacy.

or yearely reuenewes, are exacted wtout delay or mercy, euen of byshops lately dead, and oftentimes more extorted then ought to be, through new offices and new seruaunts, as by the example of the churches of Mentz and Strausburgh, may be seene.

7. That the rule of the churches are geuen at Rome vnto those that are not worthy, which were more fit to keepe and feede Mules, then to haue the rule and gouernaunce of men.

8. That new indulgences and pardons, with the suspension and reuocation of the olde, are graunted to gather and scrape money tegether.

9. That tenthes are exacted vnder the pretence of making warre agaynst the Turke, when as no expedition doth follow therupon.

10. That the causes which might be determined in Germanie, whereas there are both learned and iust iudges, are indistinctly caryed vnto the court of Rome: which thyng Saint Bernard, writing to pope Eugenius, seemeth wonderfully to reproue.

¶ Here ensueth the remedy agaynst the sayd greuaunces.
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