Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the Text
Names and Places on this Page
Unavailable for this Edition
738 [714]

K. Henry. 7. The history and tyranny of the Turkes.

First he set vpon the Seruians and Bulgarians, thinking to reuenge hys fathers death, MarginaliaMarcus Despota slayne of the Turke. where he gaue the ouerthrow to Marcus Despota, MarginaliaSeruia, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Phocides, Thracia, Attica, Thessalia, with other Christiã countryes cõquered of the Turkes. with all the nobilitie of the Seruians and Bulgarians, and put all those parties vnder his subiection vnto the fines and borders of the Illyrians. All Thracia moreouer he brought likewise vnder hys yoke, onely Constantinople and Pera, excepted. That done, he inuaded the residue of Grecia, preuailyng agaynst the countreyes of Thessalia, Macedonia, Phocides, and Attica, spoylyng and burnyng as he passed, without any resistance: and so returnyng with innumerable spoyle of the Christians, vnto Adrianople, MarginaliaConstantinople besieged 8. yeres by the Turkes. layd siege to Constantinople the space of viij. yeares, and had expugned the same, but that Paleologus beyng brought to extremitie, was driuen to craue aide of the Frēch men, and of Sigismund the Emperour. Who beyng accompanied with a sufficient power of Frenchmen & Germains, came down to Hungaria and toward Seruia agaynst the Turke. MarginaliaThe Christians ouerthrown of the Turkes. Baiazetes hearyng of their commyng, raysed hys siege from Constantinople, and with 60000. horsemē came to Nicopolis, where he encountring with them, ouerthrew all the Christian army, tooke Iohn the Captaine of the Frenche power prisoner: MarginaliaSigismund Emperour put to flight. Sigismundus, which before in the Councell of Constance, had burned Iohn Hus and Hierom of Prage, hardly escaped by flying. MarginaliaThe barbarous crueltie of the Turkes agaynst the Christians. Baiazetes after the victory got, caried awaye duke Iohn, with v. other in bands, into Prusia, where before his face he caused all the other christen prisoners to be cut in pieces.

[Back to Top]

Afterward the sayd Iohn beyng raunsomed wyth 200000. crownes, was deliuered. Some authors referre this story to the tyme of Calepinus, as followeth hereafter to be seene.

Baiazetes the cruel tyrant after this victory wonne and tyranny shewed vpon the Christians, returned agayne to his siege of Constantinople, fully bendyng him selfe to conquere and subdue the same. Whiche thyng no doubt he had accomplished, MarginaliaTamarlanes a Parthian stirred vp of God to reuēge the cause of the Christians. but that the prouidence of God, had founde such a meanes that Tamerlanes king of Parthia, with an 100. thousand horsemē and swarmes of footemen, like a violent flood, ouerrunnyng Asia and pressyng vpon Siria & Sebastia, MarginaliaBaiazetes sonne taken & slaine. had taken Orthobules þe sonne of Baiazetes, prisoner, & afterward slue him, MarginaliaCrueltie iustly reuenged with crueltie. exercising the like crueltie vpon his prisoners, as Baiazetes had done before vpē the Christians: In so much that he spared neither sexe nor age of the Turkishe multitude: of whom he caused xij. thousand at one tyme, to be ouerryden and troden downe vnder his horses feete. MarginaliaBaiazetes raiseth his siege frõ Constantinople. By reason whereof Baiazetes the tyraunte was enforced to rayse his siege from Constantinople and to retourn his power into Asia: where he, nere the hill called Stella, pitched his tentes there to encounter with Tamerlanes.

[Back to Top]

The fight betwene these ij. was long and great on both sides, whiche was in the yeare of our Lord. 1397 

Commentary  *  Close

The battle of Nicopolis was 25 September 1396; Bayezid was defeatedby Timur on 28 July 1402.

. and þe second yeare after the slaughter of our Christianes at Nicopolis in Pannonia: but the victorie of thys battaile fell to Tamerlanes at length. In the whiche battaile as Munsterus writeth, were slayne. 2000000. Turkes 
Commentary  *  Close

Sebastian Munster, Cosmographiae universalis (Basel, 1559), p. 959.

. MarginaliaBaiazetes ouercome of Tamerlanes, kyng of Parthians. Among whom Baiazetes the tyraunte, hauing his horse slayne vnder him, was taken prisoner, and to make a spectacle of his wretched fortune, was bounde in golden MarginaliaThe iust hand of God vpon a cruell persecutour. fetters, and so beyng enclosed in an iron grate (whome before all Grecia could not holde) was ledde about and shewed throughe all Asia, to be skorned and laught at: and moreouer was vsed in steade of a footestoole to Tamerlanes, MarginaliaBaiazetes made for a blocke for Tamerlanes to get vpõ his horse. or a blocke, as often as he mounted vpon his horse. Some adde also, þt he was made lyke a dogge to feade vnder Tamerlanes table. The tyranny of which Baiazetes agaynst the Christians, as it was not much vnlike to þe crueltie of Valeriannus the Romaine Emperour MarginaliaVid. supra. pag. 75. aboue mentioned. 75. so neither was the example of his punishmēt much discrepant. For as Sapores kyng of the Persians did then with Valerianus in tyme of the viij. persecution of the primatiue church: so likewise was Baiazetes this persecutor worthely handled by Tamerlanes K. of the Parthians, as in maner aboue sayd.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaThe great victories of Tamerlanes in Asia. Tamerlanes after this conquest, passed with hys army into Mesopotamia, to Egypt, and all Syria, where he victoriously subduyng the Cities & munitions of the Turkes, at length also conquered Damascus In his sieges his maner was, the first day to go all in white attire, the second day in red, the third day in blacke: signifying therby mercy the first day to them that yelded, the second day the sword, the third day fier and ashes. At last after great victories and spoyles gotten of the Turkes, he returned into his countrey agayne, and there dyed. an. 1402.

[Back to Top]

Seb. Munsterus writyng of this Tamerlanes 

Commentary  *  Close

The passages on the numbers in Timur's army, on his conquests, andon his sons losing what their father had conquered, are taken from Sebastian Munster,Cosmographiae universalis (Basel, 1559), pp. 959-60.

, MarginaliaEx Seb. Mūstero. lib. 4. Cosmograph. recordeth that he had in his armye. 200. thousand men: and that he ouercame the Parthians, Scythians, Hiberians, Albans Persians, Medes, and conquered al Mesopotamia: and af ter he had also subdued Armenia, passing ouer þe riuer Euphrates with. 600. thousand footemen, and 4000000. horsemen, he inuaded all Asia Minor. conqueryng and subduyng from the floode Tanais vnto Nilus in Egypt, MarginaliaTanais is the vttermost floud in the North side: & Nilus the vttermost floud in the South side of Asia. & was called terror orbis, the terror of the worlde. He left behinde him ij. sonnes, who fallyng in discord for their possessions, lost all agayne, that their father gotte.

[Back to Top]

In the mean tyme Baiazetes in the second yeare of his captiuitie 

Commentary  *  Close

Actually Bayezid died on 9 March 1403, less than seven months after his defeat.

, dyed, leauyng behynde him diuers sonnes, Iesus or Iosua the eldest, Mulsumanes, Moses, Celebinus, or Calepinus, Iesus the yonger, Mustaphas, and Hali, MarginaliaA generatiõ of Vipers. Of whome first Iesus the eldest was ouercome and slayne of Mulsumanes: Whiche Mulsumanes afterwarde was deliuered to Moses his brother, and by him was slayne likewise. Which Moses had also the like end by hys brother Calepinus, hauing his necke broken with a bowe strynge, which was then the vsuall maner among the Turkes in killing their brethren. The same Calepinus sparing onely the life of Mustaphas his other brother, condemned hym to perpetuall prison. Iesus the yonger was baptised, & shortly after departed at Constantinople 
Commentary  *  Close

These passages are taken from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis(Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 645-6 and they make a confused situation even more confusing. Bayezid's sons were: Süleyman (Calepine), Isa (Jesus; pace Peucer and Foxe there was only one son with this name), Mehmed, Musa (Moses) and Mustapha. There was no son named Hälil (or Hali). There was no son named 'Musulman'; if this is meant to be Mehmed, then the account in Peucer and Foxe is inaccurate from beginning to end. After Timur's victory, the Ottoman terriories were divided. Süleyman, the eldest, ruled the European territories, Mehmed, the youngest, ruled what is now northeastern Turkey. Isa ruled western Turkey. Musa and Mustapha had been taken prisoner along with Bayezid. Musa eventually fell into the hands of his brother Mehmed. Mustapha presumably died in Timur's custody. In 1403, Mehmed defeated Isa, seized his lands and drove him into exile. Isa secured Byzantine aid and re-invaded his former territories in 1404. Mehmed defeated him again, and Isa fled and disappeared from history. Later that year Süleyman invaded Turkey and occupied Isa's lands, driving Mehmed back into northeastern Turkey. In 1409, Mehmed took revenge against Süleyman by releasing their brother Musa and sending him against Süleyman. Musa entered into a marriage alliance with the Voyvode of Wallachia and, with troops supplied by his father-in-law, invaded Süleyman's teritories. Süleyman withdrew his armies from Turkey to deal with the threat and Mehmed overran these territories.

[Back to Top]
. In these such discordes and diuisions amonge the Turkes, what occasions were geuen to thee Christians to haue recouered agayne of the Turkes that they had lost, if they had not ben either negligent, or in their owne priuate warres otherwise occupied with them selues?

[Back to Top]
Calepinus the 5. after Ottomannus.

MarginaliaCalepinus the fift after Ottomãnus. CAlepinus, or Celebinus was the sonne of Baiazetes 

Commentary  *  Close

The account of Süleyman (Calepine) is taken largely from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 645-6 with some material from Cuspinian. Despite Foxe's hailing him as an Ottoman emperor, Süleyman, is not generally considered one as he never ruled over the entire empire.

, and of iiij. brethren, the eldest: who beyng all taken captiues of the Parthians 
Commentary  *  Close

The Partians were actually a nomadic people who created an empireextending from the Euphrates, which flourished from the second century BCE tothe the third century AD. Peucer and Foxe are using a classical term to describeTimur's armies.

, he onely escaped and obteyned his fathers kingdom 
Commentary  *  Close

Actually Süleyman (Calepine) and his brother Mehmed retreated fromthe battle and abandoned their father. Neither brother was captured.

, This Calepinus encouraged by the sloth and uegligence of the princes of Europe, and by the discord of the Grecians amongest them selues & other nations nere about them, lõge troubled and vexed the Bulgarians, Seruians, and Macedonians, euen to the tyme of Sigimundus. Whiche Sigismundus seyng now Baiazetes to be ouercome and taken of Tamerlane, and the power of the Turkes weakened in Europe, and hauyng such occasion offered him, as it were from heauen, to destroy and vtterly to roote out, not onely out of Asia but also all Europe, that barbarous nation, and cruell enemies to the name and Religion of Christ: MarginaliaVide supra. pag. 695. and also to reuenge the great slaughter and discomfiture of his armye fightyng before with Baiazetes at Nicopolis a Citie in Mysia: with great power made warre agaynst Calepinus at Columbatiū a towne in Seruia, as is also before mencioned, pag. 695. but as vnluckely and with as litle successe as he did before agaynst Baiazetes hys father 
Commentary  *  Close

Foxe is taking his account from Johannes Cuspinian, De Turcorumorigine (Antwerp, 1541), fos. 14v-16v. Actually there was no such battle; it is probably a confused version of Sigismund's defeat at Nicopolis. Cuspinian admitsthat he does not know whether this battle took place in Murad's reign. This is from Johannes Cuspinian, De Turcorum origine (Antwerp, 1541), fo. 16v .

[Back to Top]
: MarginaliaThe ouerthrow of Sigismūd fighting agaynst the turkes. For in that battaile were slayne of the Christians to the number of xx. thousand, and the rest vtterly discomfited, the kyng hymselfe escapyng so hardely, that he entred not agayne into hys kyngdome for the space of 18. monthes after. Some write that this was done vnder Baiazetes, MarginaliaSome stories recorde this conflicte to be after the time of this turke. other some referre this battayle to Amurathes, but howsoeuer it was, most pernicious was it to the Christians 
Commentary  *  Close

This is from Johannes Cuspinian, De Turcorum origine (Antwerp, 1541), fo. 16v.

. He reigned but sixe yeares and dyed very young, an. 1404 
Commentary  *  Close

Musa (see C 177/35) caught Süleyman by surprise and defeated him. Musa's troops caught up with Süleyman as he was fleeing and killed him. This was in 1411, not 1410.

.

[Back to Top]
Orchanes and Moses his vncle the 6i. after Ottomannus.

MarginaliaOrchanes and Moses hys vncle. AFter the captiuitie 

Commentary  *  Close

Foxe took this very garbled account of Orhan and Musa from CasperPeucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 646-7.

of Baiazetes aboue mentioned, histories diuersly do dissent. MarginaliaDiuersitie in histories. The Greke writers makyng no mention at all of Calepinus, onely make mention of þe sonnes of Baiazetes, and of the contention among them, vntill the tyme of Mahumetes. The Latin storyes writing of þe children of Baiazetes and of their succession, do not therin agre, some affirmyng that Baiazetes had two sonnes, Orchanes surnamed Calepinus, and Mahumetes hys brother, which within two yeares slew the sayd Calepinus, and entred his dominion. Other attribute to Baiazetes mo sonnes, as is aboue rehearsed 
Commentary  *  Close

These passages are taken from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis(Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 645-6 and they make a confused situation even more confusing. Bayezid's sons were: Süleyman (Calepine), Isa (Jesus; pace Peucer and Foxe there was only one son with this name), Mehmed, Musa (Moses) and Mustapha. There was no son named Hälil (or Hali). There was no son named 'Musulman'; if this is meant to be Mehmed, then the account in Peucer and Foxe, is inaccurate from beginning to end. After Timur's victory, the Ottoman terriories were divided. Süleyman, the eldest, ruled the European territories, Mehmed, the youngest, ruled what is now northeastern Turkey. Isa ruled western Turkey. Musa and Mustapha had been taken prisoner along with Bayezid. Musa eventually fell into the hands of his brother Mehmed. Mustapha presumably died in Timur's custody. In 1403, Mehmed defeated Isa, seized his lands and drove him into exile. Isa secured Byzantine aid and re-invaded his former territories in 1404. Mehmed defeated him again, and Isa fled and disappeared from history. Later that year Süleyman invaded Turkey and occupied Isa's lands, driving Mehmed back into northeastern Turkey. In 1409, Mehmed took revenge against Süleyman by releasing their brother Musa and sending him against Süleyman. Musa entered into a marriage alliance with the Voyvode of Wallachia and, with troops supplied by his father-in-law, invaded Süleyman's teritories. Süleyman withdrew his armies from Turkey to deal with the threat and Mehmed overran these territories.

[Back to Top]
. Some agayne doe geue to Baiazetes onelye these two sonnes Celebinus and Mustaphas: and hold that Calepinus or Celebinus had two sonnes, to wit, Orchanes and Mahumetes, MarginaliaTiranny betwene vncle and nephew. and adde moreouer that the sayd Orchanes beyng somewhat yong, was slayne of his vncle Moses, who gouerned but two yeres: MarginaliaMurther reuenged with murther. For Mahumetes to reuenge his brothers death slew Moses, and inuaded his dominion 
Commentary  *  Close

Orhan was the eldest son of Süleyman (Calepine), the eldest son of Bayezid. Musa (Moses) was Süleyman's brother, who defeated and killed him. After Süleyman's death, the Byzantine emperor, who had Orhan in custody, released him to make war on Musa. Musa retalitated by un-successfully besieging Constantinople in 1411. The same year he also defeated his brother Mehmed. In 1413, however, Mehmed defeated Musa and killed him. Mehmed then defeated Orhan, captured him and had him blinded.

[Back to Top]
. The Greke stories make no mention at all of Orchanes.

[Back to Top]
Mahumetes the 7. after Ottomannus.

MarginaliaMahometes the vii. after Ottomannus. THis Mahumetes 

Commentary  *  Close

This account of Mehmed I is taken from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Frankfurt, 1594), p. 1205.

, whether he was the sonne of Baiazetes, or els of Calepinus 
Commentary  *  Close

Mehmed was the youngest son of Bayezid, Süleyman (Calepine) was his elder brother.

, conuerted to hymselfe alone the kingdome, or tiranny rather, of the murdering Turkes. Who

afflic-
Go To Modern Page No:  
Click on this link to switch between the Modern pagination for this edition and Foxe's original pagination when searching for a page number. Note that the pagination displayed in the transcription is the modern pagination with Foxe's original pagination in square brackets.
Find:
Type a keyword and then restrict it to a particular edition using the dropdown menu. You can search for single words or phrases. When searching for single words, the search engine automatically imposes a wildcard at the end of the keyword in order to retrieve both whole and part words. For example, a search for "queen" will retrieve "queen", "queene" and "queenes" etc.
in:  
Humanities Research Institute  *  HRI Online  *  Feedback
Version 2.0 © 2011 The University of Sheffield