Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the Text
Names and Places on this Page
Unavailable for this Edition
739 [715]

K. Henry. 7. The history and tyranny of the Turkes.

afflicted the Christians with sore warres within Europe, MarginaliaWallachia assaulted by Mahometes. especially the countrey called Wallachia, lying not farre from the floud Danubius, betwene Hungary and Thracia. Frõ thence he remooued into Asia, where he he recouered diuers partes in Galatia, Pontus. Cappadocia, Cilicia, which before Tamerlanes had alienated from the Turkes. MarginaliaThe Turkes seate at Adrianopolis. This Mahumetes planted hys chiefe Imperiall seate in Adrianople not farre from Constantinople, within the countrey of Thracia. In some writers the conflict betwene Sigismund, and the great Turke, wherin the christians were so discomfited, is referred rather to this Mahometes, then to Calepinus: of which conflict mention is aboue made in the story of Sigismundus, MarginaliaVid. supra. pag. 655. pag. 695. This Mahumetes reigned, as some say 14. yeares, and dyed in the yeare of our Lord, 1419. Other affirme 17. yeares 

Commentary  *  Close

Mehmed I reigned from 1413-21.

.

[Back to Top]
¶ Amurathes the second, 8. after Ottomannus.

MarginaliaAmurathes the 8. after Ottomãnus. AMurathes, as Philelphus sayth, was the sonne of Celebinus, as Laonicus Chalcõdyles testifieth, of Mahumetes 

Commentary  *  Close

Most of this account of Murad II - including the citations of the twoauthors in this passage - is taken from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg,1580), pp. 647-51. Portions of it are taken from Christophe Richer's account of the Ottomans (via Bibliander's edition of the Koran) and Johannes Cuspinian's history of the Turks.

[Back to Top]
. Whose sonne so euer he was, a wretched tyraunt he was, and permitted as a scourge of god to correct the sinnes of the Christians. In the story of Baiazetes mention was made before of Mustaphas his sonne, who was condemned to perpetuall prison by Calepinus his brother. This Mustaphas escaping out of his brothers prison, was conueyed to the Grecians, where he remayned long in custody, tyll at length they vnderstanding the purpose of Amurathes, set hym vp with sufficient habilimentes and furniture of war to fight agaynst the sayd Amurathes his nephew. MarginaliaMustaphas murthered by Amurathes his nephew. But in conclusion he beyng not able to make his partie good, came into the handes of his enemy, and had his necke broke wyth a bowstring, after the maner of the Turkish execution 
Commentary  *  Close

'Mustapha' was an imposter, supported by the Byzantine emperor, who claimed to be the son of Bayezid who was taken prisoner by Timur. After considerable initial success, he was defeated and captured in 1422. He was not strangled with a bowstring (a punishment reserved for royalty) but instead hanged as a common criminal.

[Back to Top]
.

[Back to Top]

The Grecians then terrified with this sinister aduersitie required truce of the Turke, but when that would not bee graunted, they procured vnto them Mustaphas, the other brother to Amurathes, being of the age of xiij. yeares: who likewise beyng armed of the Grecians, got þe Citie of Nice in Bithynia, from Amurathes his brother: MarginaliaThe turke murdereth his brother Albeit it was not long but he was circumuented in the same Citie, and brought to Amurathes: who caused him lykewise to tast of the same whippe, as the other Mustaphas had done before 

Commentary  *  Close

Mustapha, the younger brother of Murad II, was defeated and strangled at Bursa in 1423.

.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaAmurathes set agaynst the Greciãs. Amurathes being now out of all feare & doubt of brethren and kynsfolke to rise agaynst hym, conuerted all his power agaynst the Grecians: MarginaliaThracia subdued to the turke. and first raungyng through out Thracia, where diuers Cities yelded vnto hym, which before belonged to the Emperour of Constantinople, MarginaliaThessalonica subdued. from thence he set forward to the noble and famous Citie Thessalonica, being then vnder the league and protection of the Venetians. This Thessalonica is a Citie in Grece, bordering vpon Macedonia, to the citizens whereof S. Paule writeth, MarginaliaThe defection spokē of S. Paule declared. 2. Thess. 2. foreshewing vnto them in his 2. Epistle, of a defection to come before the comming of the day of the Lorde. 2. Thess. 2. By the which apostasie or defection, what the holy Apostle doth meane, this storye of the Turkes maye easely declare 

Commentary  *  Close

This sentence is not is not from Casper Peucer, but is Foxe repeating his exegesis of 2 Thess. 2: 1-4. In an unusual piece of exegesis, Foxe is is interpreting the 'defection' usually regarded as a reference to apostasy by exegetes, of the conversion to Islam of regions in the Middle East and North Africa that were formerly Christian.

[Back to Top]
. After Thessalonica was subdued, Phocis with all the countrey about Athens, Beotia likewyse, Aetolia, Acarnania, with all the region beyond Peloponesus, vnto the coast of Corinth, to whom S. Paul also wrote other two epistles, were brought in bondage and slauery vnto the Turke.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaIoannes Castriotus In Epirus and in that quarter that adioyneth to Macedonia, named Albania, reigned then one Ioannes Castriotus who perceauing hym selfe to weake to matche with the Turkes power, made with the Turke this cõuention, MarginaliaCroia geuen to the turke. that he should haue Croia, a famous Citie in Grecia, MarginaliaThe 3. sõnes of Castriotus, hostages with the turke. and also gaue to him his. iij. sonnes for hostages, to wytte Constãtinus, Reposius, and Georgius.

[Back to Top]

In this George such towardnes of noble courage, such vigour of mynd, and strength of body singularly did appeare, that the Turke caused hym more frely to be instructed after the Turkish religion and maner in his owne court: MarginaliaGeorgius Scanderbeius. Alexãder the great. Where he beyng traded vp, dyd so shoote vp as wel in feates of actiuitie, as in strēgth of body, that he excelled all hys equals in so much that he was named Scanderbeius, which soundeth as much as Alexander Magnus.

[Back to Top]

After this Alexander was grown vp to mature ripenes of age, and was well trayned vp in feates of warre, he was sent out by the Turke, to warre against Caramannus of Cilicia, the Turkes enemy. MarginaliaThe valiant Actes of Georgius Scãderbeius. In which expedition he spedde hymselfe most manfully, fightyng hand to hand, first wyth a footeman of Scythia, then with an horseman of Persia, beyng chalenged by them both to encounter, first with the one, after with the other: whõ he so valiantly ouerthrew, that he wan great renoun with þe Turk: In so much þt he trusting to the Turkes fauour, when he heard of the decease of his father, durst aske of the Turke the graunt of his fathers dominion to be geuen vnto hym. Which request although Amurathes the Turke did not denie him: yet notwithstãdyng he perceauing the matter to be dalied out wyth fayre wordes, by subtill meanes and policie * Marginalia* Georgius Scãderbeius stealeth away from the turke to hys countrey. slypt out of the Turkes court, and came to Epirus his owne inheritaõce: MarginaliaCroaia recouered. where first by forged letters he recouered Croia. The other Cities of their voluntarie minde yelded themselues vnto hym. MarginaliaEpyrus & Macedonia recouered from the turke. Who then gathering vnto him the people of Epirus and Macedonia (which were not so many in number, as with good willyng mindes they stucke vnto him) MarginaliaThe valiant actes of Georgius Scãderbeius, against the turkes. so manfully and valiauntly behaued himselfe, that agaynst all the puissance both of Amurathes, and also of Mahumete, he maynteined hys owne, repulsed their violence, and put to flight their armies, many yeares together. But to returne againe to the course of Amurathes victories, after he had thus preuailed (as is before signified) agaynst the East partes of Europa and Grecia, and had conuented thus for the dominion of Epirus, MarginaliaIllyria, or Sclauonia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Istria, Liburnia, Albania, Bosna, spoyled & wasted by the turke. he inuaded Illiricum, (otherwise called now Sclauonia) conteyning in it Dalmatia, Croacia, Istria and Liburnia: which countryes after he had spoyled and wasted, he continued his course to Albania, and Bosna. In which regions when he had subdued a great part, and had led away an innumerable multitude of captiues, he moued further to Walachia & Seruia, vpon hope to conquere all Pannonia.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaGeorgius Despota prince of Seruia. There reigned at the same time in Seruia a certayne prince named Georgius Despota, who made great sute to the turke for truce and peace, promising to geue his daughter to mariage: MarginaliaAn vngodly graūt of a Christen father to mary his daughter to the turke. for by the turkes law they may marry as many wiues, as they lust. It was not long after Amurathes had maryed the daughter of Despota, but he contrary to his league and promise, made warre vpon Despota hys father in law, & expelled hym out of his kingdom, MarginaliaNouomonte, Mysia, subdued of the turke. taking frõ him diuers Cities, as Scopia, Nouomonte, Sophia & all Mysia. MarginaliaGeorgius Despota fled into Hungary. Georgius himself fled into Hungary, leauing behind him his sõne to defēd þe town of Synderonia 

Commentary  *  Close

Up to this point, Foxe's account of Murad II is taken almost entirelyfrom Peucer. Here he adds an atrocity story taken from Christophe Richer's historyof the Turks, which was printed along with Bibliander's edition of the Koran (Theodore Bibliander, Machumetis Saracenorum principis…Alcoran [Basel, 1550], III, p. 203).

[Back to Top]
. Amurathes vnderstanding of the flight of Despota his father in law, compassed the Citie of Synderonia, with a strong siege, which whē he in few dayes had expugned, MarginaliaThe cruelty of the turke vpon his wiues brother. he tooke hys wiues brother, sonne of Despota, and without regarde of all mercy and affinitie, after the barbarous tyranny of the Turkes, put out hys eyes, with a basen red hoat set before his eyes, and after that led him about with him, in derision and despite of his cowardly father. Ex Christof. Rhicherio Gallo. & Gasp. Peuc. & alijs.

[Back to Top]

Seruia beyng thus wonne and gotten, Amurathes thinkyng to go further into Hungarie, MarginaliaBelgradum besieged of the turke. besieged the Citie called Belgradum, and no doubt, had also suppressed the same, had not the prouidence of God founde a meanes, that partly through slaughter of hys mē, partly for lacke of victuall and other forage, he was compelled to raise his siege and retire.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaIoannes Huniades, Vaiuoda. In the meane time Ioannes Huniades (of whom mētion was made before, pag. 695.) had got great victories agaynst the turkish power, and had recouered part of Seruia, and all Muldauia: agaynst whom Amurathes the Turke, wyth a mighty armye, moued into Pannonia. But Huniades with the power and aide of Ladislaus king of Polonia (but specially by þe power of the Lord) did soone infringe the puissance of the Turke, and gaue hym the ouerthrow, recouering vnto the Christians the greatest part of Seruia and Bulgaria.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaFiue victories of Ioan. Huniades agaynst the turke gottē in one day. In thys battaile Huniades had 

Commentary  *  Close

This account of the 'winter war' of 1443 and events through thebattle of Varna is taken from Johannes Cuspinian, De Turcorum origine (Antwerp,1541), fos. 22v-25v.

fiue sundry conflictes with the turkes vpon one day, and with fiue victoryes put them to the worse, MarginaliaThe great Bassa or duke of the turkes ouerthrowen by Huniades. and toward night did so discomfite and ouerthrow the great captayne of Amurathes, called Bassa, the Duke of Anatolia (which is otherwise named Asia Minor) that he slue of the turkes that day, to the number of 30. thousand. Amurathes, although he was not a little thereat discouraged, yet dissembling his feare, wyth stout countenaūce sent for Carambeius his principall stay & captaine, with a new power brought out of Asia, to assist hym in his warres. MarginaliaThe victory of Huniades agaynst Carambeius the great captaine of the Turkes. This Carambeius, in the downes of Trãsyluania, Ladislaus the foresayd king of Polonie (the Lord so working) through the industrie of Ioannes Huniades, so receaued & with such celeritie oppressed him vnprouided that all hys stout & sturdy armie either was slayne downe right, or els put to flight and disparcled, Carambeius the captaine beyng himselfe taken prisoner in the same fielde 
Commentary  *  Close

These victories were won in the 'winter war' of 1443. Although Vladislav III and Hunyadi won several victories, the weather forced them to retreat.Their campaign was, however, hailed as a success in Europe.

.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaThe great turke brought to a great distresse. These victories of Huniades stroocke no litle terrour to Amurathes, in so much þt for distresse of minde he was ready to destroye himself (as some do write) but being cõfirmed by Halibeus Bassa his coūsailer, he kept himselfe within þe streites of þe moūt Rhodope. Who thē hearing þt Caraman-

[Back to Top]
nus
QQ.iiij.
Go To Modern Page No:  
Click on this link to switch between the Modern pagination for this edition and Foxe's original pagination when searching for a page number. Note that the pagination displayed in the transcription is the modern pagination with Foxe's original pagination in square brackets.
Find:
Type a keyword and then restrict it to a particular edition using the dropdown menu. You can search for single words or phrases. When searching for single words, the search engine automatically imposes a wildcard at the end of the keyword in order to retrieve both whole and part words. For example, a search for "queen" will retrieve "queen", "queene" and "queenes" etc.
in:  
Humanities Research Institute  *  HRI Online  *  Feedback
Version 2.0 © 2011 The University of Sheffield