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740 [716]

K. Henry. 7. The history and tyranny of the Turkes.

nus inuaded the same tyme the countrey of Bithynia and Pontus in Asia: MarginaliaAmurathes seeketh truce of the Christians. was glad to take truce with Ladislaus & Huniades vpon such conditiõs as they listed to make them selues: which cõditions were these, MarginaliaThe conditions betwene Ladislaus king of Polonie, and Amurathes. that Amurathes should depart clearely from all the region of Seruia, and should remoue from thence all his garrisons, which were placed in the Castles and fortes of the same: Also he shoulde restore George Despota (which is to say) Prince of Seruia vnto his possession, and set his children free, whom he had in captiuitie, and restore them to their inheritaunces. Item, that he should make no more clayme nor title to the countrey of Moldonia aboue mētioned, nor to that part of Bulgrauia which he had lost: and that he should desist hereafter from all wronges and iniuries agaynst the Christiãs. MarginaliaTruce betwene the Christians & the turkes for x. yeares. Vpon these conditions the Turke beyng agreed, so was truce concluded on both partes for x. yeares, and with solemne othe betwene them confirmed.

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MarginaliaAmurathes returneth into Asia. This done, Amurathes the tyraunt addresseth himselfe toward Asia, to resiste the inuasion of Caramannus aforesayd 

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In fact, Murad wished to abdicate in favour of his son Mehmed.To serve that end, and ease the crisis in the Ottoman treasury caused by having towage war in both Anatolia and Europe, he made peace with Vladislav III ofHungary, George Branković, despot of Serbia and with the emir of Karaman. News of Murad's subsequent abdication led the papacy to break the treaty and launch a newcrusade against the Turks.

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. At what tyme Pope Eugenius so soone as he heard the Turke to be returned into Asia, sendeth Iulianus Cæsarianus his Cardinall (whose story is before touched 
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1583, pp. 697-700.

, pag. 676.) vnto Ladislaus the foresaid king, MarginaliaThe popes dispensatiõ & absolution abused. with full dispensation and absolution, to breake his othe and league with the Turke, promising moreouer great hope of ayde, if he would go in armes stoutly agaynst the tyraunt. MarginaliaThe popes rashe counsaile pernicious to Christēdome. ¶ Where by the way is to be noted, that as there is no truth of promise in that pestilent sea of Rome, MarginaliaNothing prospereth that is takē in hand by the popes setting on. neither was there euer any warre prospered, which was taken in hand by the Popes coūsaile: so was there neuer any counsaile of the pope, that brought with it more detriment to Christianitie, then this. But the pope belyke thought that as he might lawfully breake promise with Iohn Hus, and with other Christiãs, MarginaliaThe pope breaketh the treuce made betwene the Christians & the Turke. so also he neaded not to obserue any league or truce taken with the Turke: but it turned much otherwise then the popes blynd braynes imagined: as by the sequele is to be seene 
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This sentence in Foxe's addition to Cuspinian's account of the battleof Varna. Blaming the papacy for Ottoman successes is a favourite theme of Foxe's.

. MarginaliaThe pope moueth Ladislaus to breake truce. For Ladislaus beyng thus excited by the vnaduised and sinister instigation of Pope Eugenius, contrary to the truce stablished a litle before, set out with his armye from Seledinus, and so procedyng to Walachia and Burgaria, came to Varna, a towne of Bulgary: where he fell sicke.

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It was not long but the Turke hauyng therof intelligence, left his warres begon with Caramannus in Asia 

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Murad returned to Europe from Anatolia, but he had not been at warwith Karaman. He had been in retirement, but re-ascended the throne to deal withthis emergency.

, and with great iourneys made hast into Europe, passing ouer by the straites neare to Callipolis, MarginaliaThe false dealing of the Italian Nauie. where all the Italiã nauye still lookyng on, and whether of purpose, or whether for cowardlines, would not styrre one ore to stoppe the passage of the Turkish army 
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Actually Byzantine, Venetian and Burgundian ships tried to preventMurad's army from crossing the Bosporus but were thwarted by storms and Turkishcannon.

. When Amurathes was come to Adrianopolis in Thracia, vsing such celeritie as no mã looked for, within viij. dayes he was in Burgaria, and there encamped himselfe agaynst Ladislaus. The day of battaile beyng set, the armyes ioined on both sides. Huniades was himselfe there present, but all the matter was ruled by Iulianus the Cardinal, and the popes Clergy. MarginaliaThe battaile of Varna, betwene Ladislaus king of Polonie, and Amurathes. The fight continued three dayes and three nightes together, with great courage and much bloudshed on ech side: in somuch that the field did stand with lakes of bloud. They seemed at the first to incline to the Christians, by breakyng the first rankes of the Turkes. MarginaliaThe popishe prelates were the cause of losing the field. But the Priestes and Prelates which were at the field (which had bene more fite to haue bene in the Church) seyng the Turkes to begyn to flye, vnskilfully left their array to pursue the enemy, so that they leauyng the other standyngs of the Christians naked, gaue great aduaūtage to the Turkes, with their dartes and shot to disturbe the Christian rankes. By the which occasion Amurathes inclosing þe Christiãs with his army round about, obteined the victory. In the which field Ladislaus the young king of Polonie, hauing his horse first killed vnder hym was strooken downe, and slayne. The Popes Byshops MarginaliaA iust punishmēt vpon the popishe prelates for their vniust dealing. flying to saue themselues, fell into the marishes, and there were destroyed, susteinyng a durtey death condigne to their filthy falsehode and vntruth 
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The comment about a dirty death being suitable for the pope's bishopsis Foxe's insertion into Cuspinian's accout.

. MarginaliaIulianus the Cardinall slaine in the warre and spoyled. Iulianus the Cardinal, which with the pope was the chief doer in breakyng the league 
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The description of Julian's death is from Johannes Cuspinian, DeTurcorum origine (Antwerp, 1541), fo. 25v, but Foxe adds the comment blaming Julian for the defeat.

, in the way was found dead, beyng full of woundes and spoyled to his naked skinne. Of the rest of the army that escaped by flying, part was drowned in the marishes, some perished miserably for hūger, some for cold, watchyng & wandering in the woods. MarginaliaHuniades escapeth. Huniades hardly escaped the daunger by the mercyfull prouidence of God, beyng reserued to the further profite and commoditie of Christendome.

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MarginaliaThe worthy cõmendation of Iohn Huniades. This Iohn Huniades 

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This encomium of Hunyadi is Foxe's addition to the text.

the worthy warrier was borne in Walachia, beyng Earle of Bistrice, of all Captaines that euer went agaynst the Turkes, most famous and singular, prudent in witte, discret in counsaile, expert and politike in warre, prompt of hand, circumspect before he attempted, quicke in expedition: in whom wanted almost no good propertie requisite in a warlyke Captaine. Agaynst two most mighty and fierce tyraūtes, Amurathes and Mahumetes, through the Lordes might, he defended all Pannonia, and therfore was called þe thūderbolt and terrour of the turkes. Like as Achilles was vnto the Grecians, so was he set vp to God to be as a wall or bulwarke of all Europe agaynst þe cruell Turkes and enemyes of Christ, and of his Christians. Neither was there any Kyng or Prince that euer achiued such noble victories, either so many in number, or so profitable for the publique vtilitie of all Europe, as dyd he, and that not onely in the dayes of this Amurathes, but also of Mahumetes his successor, as hereafter remaineth further to be sene. This battaile of Amurathes agaynst the Christians at Varna in Bulgaria, was fought in the yeare of our Lord. 1404.

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MarginaliaAmurathes taketh hys viage against the Greciãs. Amurathes 

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Foxe draws the reminder of his account of Murad's reign from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 649-51.

by reason of this victorious ouerthrow agaynst the Christians surpressed with no small pride, directed his iourney incontinent toward the Grecians, where Castriotus was, otherwise called Scanderbeius. And first commyng to Peloponesus, and breakyng downe the wall about the straites of Corinthe, encountred with the brother of the Emperour of Constantinople, whom with his sodeine comming he oppressed, with all the Greekes army, ere they were prouided. Paleologus the Emperour, after that, did builde vp the wall agayne: but at the Turkes byddyng he was compelled to vndoe it againe: which wall afterward the Venetiãs did repayre. MarginaliaPeloponesus, Sycione, Patris, with all the partes of Thessalia & Achaia, brought vnder the turke. After the demolition of the wall, Amurathes entryng into Peloponesus, tooke diuers townes and Cities, as Sycione, & Patris, and moreouer made all the parts of Thessalia and Achaia tributaries vnto hym.

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The next yeare after this battaile of Amurathes fought agaynst the Christians at Varna, the Turke beyng now about the partes of Grecia, purposed to bend all his force & mayne agaynst the countrey of Epyrus belonging to Georgius Castriotus Scamderbeius. MarginaliaThe memorable actes of Scanderbeius against Amurathes. Of this Scanderbeius mention was made before, how he was brought vp in the Turkes court, from whence we declared also how subtiltie he conueyd himselfe, and came to the possession of his owne patrimony of Epyrus. MarginaliaThys Epyrus is a countrey in Grecia bordering neare to the partes of Macedonia. Which Epyrus this noble and victorious Scãderbeius (whom the Lord also had raysed vp the same tyme with Huniades, to bridle the fury of the Turkes) valiauntly defended agaynst all the power of Amurathes: MarginaliaVij. captaynes of the turkes ouercome by Castriotus Scãderbeius. In so much that he discomfited and vanquished vij. of the most expert Bassas or Dukes of the Ottoman Emperour, one after an other, with all their armyes of most pyked and chosē souldiours, dislodged them of their tentes, and expulsed thē vtterly out of all Epyrus. Also when Amurathes himselfe with his whole puissance, had enuironed about the Citie of Croia, with cruell siege & ordinaunce out of measure, yet notwithstandyng the sayd Scãderbeius (through the power and blessing of the Lord) 

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The material in round brackets is Foxe's insertion into Peucer's account.

beate him out of the fielde, and repulsed him from his siege.

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MarginaliaAmurathes renounced his dominion, & made himselfe a turkishe monke. After this discomfiture, the saying is that Amurathes, to keepe his vow made before, after his victory at Varna, gaue himselfe into a religious order, liuyng a contemplatiue life with certaine other Priestes ioyned vnto him, in the forest of Bithynia, renoūcyng the gouernement of his realme to the hands of Haly one of his Princes (for thou must vnderstãd, good Reader, that the Turkes also be not without their sondry sectes of Religion, no more then we Christiãs are without our Friers and Monkes.)

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MarginaliaTwo Christian warriers in Europe stirred vp of God to vanquishe the turkes. In the meane tyme while Amurathes this Turkishe tyranne was cloistered vp in his monkish Religion 

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After the battle of Varna, Murad had retired again to an asceticlife, only to re-ascend the throne in 1446. The reason for Murad's return, however,was to deal with a revolt of the Janissaries and not because of Hunyadi.

, Ioannes Huniades in the kyngdome of Hungary, and Castriotus Scanderbeius in Grecia, kepe great styrre agaynst the Turkes. By reason whereof Amurathes was taken agayne from his Monkish vow and profession, and brought agayne into the field: For first Huniades MarginaliaThis Iohn Huniades is reported of xx. battailes wyth the turke, to lose but two. had rescued the whole countrey of Hūgary: and had propulsed moreouer all the might of the Turkes farre frõ Seruia. And although the peuish practise of Georgius Prince of Seruia, had oft tymes disclosed his counsayles vnto the Turkes, whereby twise he was brought in daunger, yet notwithstãding (thorough the Lordes gracious protection) he was preserued, and deliuered by the sayd George vnto the Hungarians agayne, and after that manfully vanquished the Turkes, so that they had no restyng place about those partes of Seruia and Bulgaria, so long as he lyued.

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MarginaliaEpyrus and Macedonia, defended by Scanderbeius. On the other side in Grecia, Castriotus Scanderbeius so foyled the Turke in defence of his countrey Epyrus and Macedonia, and kept Amurathes so short, that not onely he was not able to wynne any great towne in all Epyrus: but also commyng from Epyrus in the straites, was so in-

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