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743 [719]

K. Hēr. 7. The history and tyranny of the Turkes.

MarginaliaCorinthus, Mitylene, Lesbos, Lemnus subdued of the turke.in somuch that the whole Citie of Mitylene was vtterly to the grounde almost destroyed. The Iles also of Lemnus and Lesbos he wanne from the Venetians: In the which Iland of Lesbos is the Citie of Mitylene aforesayd.

Not farre from this Ile of Lesbos and Mitylene, there is a countrey in Asia toward the sea side borderyng next to Europe, called Mysia, or of some called Mœsia, wherein stode the Citie of Troye. MarginaliaThe falsehoode of the wretched turke against the prince of Mysia. This countrey Mahumete couetyng to wynne rather by policie and falsehode, then by doubtfull daunger of warre, secretly sent for the Prince therof to come to speake with him for certaine causes (as he pretended) whiche should concerne the profite and commoditie of them both. Which whē the kyng of Mysia, either for shame woulde not, or for feare durst not denye, he came to him as to conferre vpon necessary affaires in common to them appertainyng. MarginaliaThe crueltie of the turke agaynst the king of Mysia. Mahumete when hee had brought that to passe which he would, he caused the kyng to be apprehended, & cruelly to be slayne, or rather torne in peeces: and so inuadyng the land of Mysia, exercised the like tyranny vpon all his kynred and affinitie.

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Thus Mysia by fraude beyng taken and lost, Mahumete flyeth agayne toward Europe, where he assayled the Iland Euboia, otherwayes called Nigroponte, makyng a bridge of a merueilous frame ouer the Sea Eurypus, to cõuey ouer his army out of Grecia, MarginaliaThe siege of Chalcis in Euboia. and there layde his siege to the Citie Chalcis, which at length in. 30. dayes he ouercame, not without a great slaughter of his army: who in the siege therof is sayd to haue lost. 40. thousãd of the Turkes. MarginaliaThe cruell tyranny of the turke against the Citie of Chalcis. But the slaughter of the Christians was greater: for when the Citie was wonne, the tyraunt commaunded most cruelly, none to be spared within the whole Citie, but to be put to the sword, whosoeuer was aboue the age of xx. yeares. This cruelty was shewed of the barbarous tyraūt for anger and fury, because such a number of his Turkes were slayne at the siege therof, beyng rekened (as is sayd) to 40. thousand. In the fierce 

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The following anecdote is from Giovann Battisto Ramusio as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), p. 193.

siege of this Citie, it is memorable that is in storyes recorded. MarginaliaEx Ioanne Ramo de rebus Turcicis. how that the women of that Citie seyng the men to begyn to faynt, and the Citie to lye in present daunger, tooke the matter themselues in hand, MarginaliaThe noble stratageme of women in defending that Citie. and playng the men, went to the walles, and there defended the Citie with no lesse trouble to the enemy, then the men had before done, and so for a space continued, so long as any mãs strength and diligence could do any good. A great cause of the losse of this Citie and Iland, is imputed to the cowardly timiditie of the Venetians nauy: who beyng there present, and hauyng a prosperous wynd, yet durst not, or would not aduenture vpon the Turkes bridge. Whiche if they had done, the Iland of Euboia & Chalcis, had not so soone bene ouermatched of the Turkes.

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Thus all the Eastpartes of Grecia beyng subdued to the Turkish tyraunt, with all Achaia, Attica, Acarnania, & Euboia, MarginaliaPeloponesus, Achaia, Messenia, Laconia, Argolica, Archadia, Christian prouinces in Grecia subdued of the turke. shortly after folowed also Peloponesus, brought in lyke subiection to the Turke. Within this Peloponesus were these prouinces conteyned, Achia, Messenia, Laconia, Argolica, and Arcadia, &c. The Venetiãs in this Peloponesus had great possessions, and had made vp the wall agayne toward the Sea side, neare to the streites of Corinthe before mentioned, where for the more speede of the worke, they had. 30. thousand workemen to the buildyng therof. Which whē it came to the knowledge of the Turke, he brast into the countrey of Peloponesus with an army of. 80. thousand, and first wastyng the regions of the Coroneans, and Methoneans, and makyng a great slaughter of the Venetians, in shorte tyme he brought the whole dominion of Peloponesus vnder his yoke and tribute.

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Long it is and more lamentable to recite all the victories of this Mahumete gotten agaynst the Christians both by land and sea: who after he had ouercome the Ile Lesbos aboue mentioned, and had cruelly slayne Nicolaus Catalusius the Prince therof, MarginaliaCapha takē of the turke. turnyng his army toward the sea of Pontus Euxinus, got the countrey of Capha from the Genuans. Before 

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This sentence is from Giovann Battisto Ramusio as excepted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De orgine rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), p. 194.

was declared how truce was taken betwene Georgius Scanderbeius, and the Turke for ten yeares: which truce beyng expired, Mahumete leaueth no tyme vnspent, no diligence vnsought, but maketh all hys power to Epyrus and Albania, which he after long fatigation of siege, at length ouercame and subdued. In the which tract also he wanne from the Venetians, Scodra, Lysson and Dinastrum. Notwithstandyng when Scanderbeius the valiaunt Captaine had done agaynst the Turke what in mans strength dyd lye, yet being ouermatched with power and multitude, seyng no possibilitie to make his partie good, was forced to depart his countrey as an exile, & went to Italy, and there beyng sent for by the Popes letters, MarginaliaThe counsaile of Scãderbeius, how to fight agaynst the turke. openly declared not to be possible otherwise to resist þe furious rage of the barbarous Turkes by the strength of any one kyng or prince, vnlesse all Europe, with one cõsent should ioyne their power and force together. And thus Georgius Scanderbeius a man of puisaunt courage, beyng driuē out of hys countrey, continued hys age in exile. MarginaliaA notable example of singular courage in a Captayne. Whose courage and vehemencie is reported to haue bene such, that in fightyng agaynst the barbarous enemy, for very egernes of spirite, hys bloud was seene to burste out of hys lippes. It is testified also of hym, that beyng prouoked, he neuer denied to fight, and in hys fightyng neuer turned his backe, neyther yet was euer wounded, but onely once wyth a lyght shaft in hys foote, neither euer set against the Turke with moe then 6000. horsemen and 3000. footemen: MarginaliaThe commendation of Scanderbeius agaynst the Turkes. who is sayd with his owne hand to haue slayne aboue 2000. turkes, whom wyth such violence he did stricke, that many of them he did cleaue a sunder from the head to the middle.

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Neyther yet was the vnsatiable gredines of thys turkishe helhounde wyth all thys satisfied, but still he conceiued greater thynges in hys mynde, thynking to conquere the whole worlde, and so passing forward towardes Europe, subdued all Illyria, slaying Stephanus the king of Bosna, about the yeare of our Lorde 1463. MarginaliaMathias the sonne of Huniades. But afterward Mathias Coruinus þe sonne of Huniades afore mētioned, recouered againe the sayd kingdome of Bosna with many other Cities neare vnto Croacia and Dalmatia, and moreouer repulsed Mahumete the Turke in hys second siege of Iaiza, takyng hys tentes and munitions left behynde hym.

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Moreouer, the sayd Mahumete passing vnto Walachia, set vpon Dracula the prince thereof, by which Dracula although he had no great power of souldiours, yet he so inclosed and enuironed the Turke, that he had almost lost his whole armye, of whom a great part notwithstanding was destroyed, and many of hys ensignes taken. MarginaliaStiria, Carinthia, taken of the turks. Into Dalmatia was sent two captaynes of the Turke, who fightyng agaynst the prouinces of the Venetians, made great spoile and waste about the regions of Stiria & Carinthia: where also the Venetian power was discomfited, & Hieronimus Nouell their captayne slayne. At length truce was taken betwen the Turke & the Venetians, vpon thys condition that Scodra, Tenarus and Lemnus should be yelded vnto hym, and that they shoulde pay to hym yearely 8. thousand duckettes for the free passage of their marchauntes.

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MarginaliaRhodes besieged. After thys peace concluded wyth the Venetians, Mahumete hym selfe sayleth ouer into Asia, sending two of his great captaynes abroad to sundry places: of whom Mesithes was sent agaynst þe Rhodes, wt a mighty nauie. The other called Acomates Bassa was sent into Italie to take Rome and all the West Empyre. Concernyng the viage of which two captaynes, thys was the euent: that Mesithes after hys great trauayle and bloudy siege against the Rhodians, was fayne to retyre at length with great shame and losse. The other captayne Acomates (as is sayd) was sent into Italie, with a nauie of a hundreth shippes and 15. thousand men. MarginaliaLeucadia. Chephalania. Zacinthus, Fauelona, taken of the turke. Who by the way in hys sayling gotte Leucadia (which now they call S. Maure) Cephalenia, and Zacynthus, and sayling by Fauelona, arriued in Apulia, & so passing a long by the sea side, spoyled & wasted diuers partes by the coast, MarginaliaHydruntū taken. tyll at length he came to Hidruntum, a Citie of Calabria in Italie, which after long siege he ouercame and subdued, and brought such a terrour into all Italy, MarginaliaThe pope flyeth for feare of the turke. that the Pope forgetting all other thynges, yet myndfull of hymselfe, wyth all hast fled out of Rome. After the Citie of Hydruntum was taken, and the Turkes placed in the same, which was the yeare of our Lord 1481. Mathias Coruinus Huniades sonne was sent for by þe Italians to set vpon the sayde Citie: vnto the rescue whereof, when Acomates was about to make his returne with 25. thousand Turkes, in the meane tyme newes came þt Mahumete the great Turke was dead: by reason whereof the siege brake vp, and the Citie was deliuered to the Italiãs agayne, and so was Italy deliuered at that time, out of that present perill and daunger. Thys 

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These last sentences are from Giovann Battisto Ramusio as excepted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), p.194.

Mahumete wanne from the Christians 200. Cities, and 12. kyngdomes: And two Empires, which he ioyned both together. MarginaliaThese two Empires were Constantinople and Trapezunce. He dyed in the yeare aboue sayd, an. 1481.

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¶ Baiazetes second, the 10. after Ottomannus.

MAhumetes aforesayd 

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This account of Bayezid II's reign is largely taken from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 657-63 although the narrative of Selim's accession to the throne is taken from Giovann Battisto Ramosio's history, as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum. One detail (of Bayezid's payment to the Master of the Knights of St John) came from Johannes Cuspinian, De Turcorum origine.

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had three sonnes. Of the which, Mustapha the eldest, through voluptuousnes and carnall luste, dyed before hys father. The other two were Baiazetes and Demes, otherwise called Zizimus. About whom great controuersie rose amõgest the turkes, which of them should succeede in their fathers kyngdome: For neyther of them was present at Constantinople whē Ma-

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