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747 [723]

K. Henry. 7. The history and tyranny of the Turkes.

After this victory, Solyman restyng himselfe a whole yeare, and castyng in hys mynde how to make all sure behynd hym, for feare of enemies to come vppon hys backe, thought it expedient for his purpose if he myght obtain the Iland of Rhodes: for that onely remayned yet Christian betwixt hym and Asia: 

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In the 1563 edition (TV 178/2) printed a letter purportedly from Süleyman to Phillipe Villiers de l'Isle Adam, Grand Master of the Knights of St.John. The letter is not genuine (it has Süleyman referring to Mohammad as God),and it is apparently Foxe's composition, based on details he obtained from EdwardHall, The unyon of the twoo noble and illustre families of Lancastre and York (London, 1550), STC 12723a, fos. CVIv-CVIIr.

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MarginaliaRhodes besieged. wherfore the next yeare followyng, he brought his army of 450. ships and 300. thousand men to the besiegyng therof. This Rhodes was a mightye and strong Iland, within the sea called Mare mediterraneum: The inhabitantes wherof at the first did manfully resist þe Turke, sparyng no labour nor paynes for the defence of thē selues and of all Christēdom: But afterward beyng brought to extremity, and pinched with penurie, seyng also no ayde to come from the Christians: somewhat began to languishe in themselues. The Turkes in the mean tyme casting vp two great mountaynes with strength of hand, two miles of frō the City, lyke rollyng trenches caried them before thē nere vnto the City, in the toppes wherof they planted their ordinaunce and artillary, to batter the Citie. The Maister of the Knights of the Rhodes was then one Phillippus Villadamus a Frenchman, in whom no diligence was lackyng that appertayned to the defence of the City. The Rhodiās likewyse so valiantly behaued themselues vpon the walles, that wyth their shot all the ditches about the Citie were filled with the carcases of dead Turkes.

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Besides this, such a disease of the bloudy flixe reigned in the Turkes campe, that 30. thousand of them dyed thereof: and yet for all this Solyman would not cease frō his siege begonne: who at length by vndermyners castyng downe the vamures and vttermost partes of the city, wan grounde still more and more vpon the Rhodians, and with mortary pieces so battered the houses that there was no free place almost standyng in all the Citie. And thus continued the siege for the space of fiue or sixe monethes, and yet all thys whyle came no helpe vnto them from the christians. Wherfore they beyng out of all hope, thorough the aduise of Villadamus, yelded themselues vnto the Turke vppon condition that he woulde spare them wyth lyfe and goodes, which conuention the Turke kepte with them faythfully and truely.

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MarginaliaChristian princes negligent in helping their felowes. Thus Solyman with his great glory and vtter shame to all christian princes, and also ruine of all Christendome, got the noble Ile of Rhodes, although not without great losse and detriment of his army: in so much that at one assault 20. thousand Turkes about the walles, were slayne with fire, sword, stones, and other engines. Wherby it may be coniectured what these Rhodians might or would haue done, if succour had come to them from other christian princes as they looked for. MarginaliaRhodes wonne of the turke. This city was wonne vpon Christmas day. an. 1522.

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This conquest of Rhodes obtayned, Solyman the 4. yeare after, bringeth backe his army agayne into Hungary, where he found none to resist hym but onely Ludouicke the yoūg kyng: who beyng accompanied with a small army and nothing able to matche with the Turke, yet of a hasty rashnes and vayne hope of victory, would needes set vpon hym: who if he had stayd but a little, had prospered the better. For Ioannes Vaiuoda beyng a Captayne well exercised in Turkish warres before, was not farre of, comming with a sufficient power of able souldiors. MarginaliaChristen warres agaynst the turke neuer speede well vnder the guiding of popishe prelates. But Paulus the Archbishop Colloss. a Franciscane Frier, a man more bold then wyse, with his temeritie and rashnes troubled all their doynges: For the whole summe of the army of the Hungarians, contained in all but only 24. thousand horsmen and footemen, who at length commyng vnto the battayle, & beyng compassed about with a great multitude of the turkes army were brought into great distresse. The Turkes twise shot of their pieces agaynst the Christian army: yet scarce was any Christian touched wyth the stroke therof: MarginaliaChristians were the speciall gunners to the turke. which was thought to be done of purpose, because they were christians which had the orderyng of the gunnes, for then the speciall gunners of the Turkes were Christians, whome for the same cause they spared. Then the Turkes horsmen commyng vpon the backe of the christian army, compassed them about, and by reason of their multitude, ouercharged their horsmen: MarginaliaThe rashe archbyshop slayne. Amongest whom was slayne the same tyme the Archb. Frier aforesayd, with the Bishops of Strigon and Varadine and many other nobles besides. MarginaliaKing Ludouike perished in war. Also þe kyng hymselfe beyng destitute of his necessary ayde and succour, was compelled to flye into a marishe, where he fallyng from hys horse, beyng heauy loden with his harneys, was not able to ryse againe, but there miserably perished.

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Solyman the Turke marueiled at the foolishnesse of Ludouike the Kyng, who with so small an armye woulde presume to encounter wyth such a great hoste of two hundreth thousand. This battayle in Hungarie was fought, an. 1526. 

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This was the overwhelming Ottoman victory at Mohács on 29 August1526.

MarginaliaFerdinandus king of Hūgary. After the deceasse 

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From here through the siege of Vienna, Foxe is taking his detailednarrative of events from Giovann Battisto Ramusio's history as excerpted inLaonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), pp.199-208. Foxe abridged a great deal of the detail in the account, particularly thedescription of the Ottoman army and the topography of Vienna.

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of Ludouike, Ferdinandus succeded in the kyngdome, beyng Duke of Austria and kynge of Hungarie. Then Solyman settyng contentiō betwixt Ioannes Vaiuoda & Ferdinandus for the kyngdome of Hungarie, MarginaliaBuda, Varadinum and the citie called [illegible text] taken of the turke. spedde his viage to the Citie of Buda, whiche also in short tyme he made to be yelded vnto him vpō conditiō that they should escape with their lyues and goods: which condition some say he kept, and some say he did not. Besides Buda diuers places and munitiōs the sayd Turke, contrary to his league made before, did spoyle and waste, as Varadinum, Quinque Ecclesias, and other fortes and munitions moe, borderyng about the coastes of Hungary.

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MarginaliaContention betwene Ferdinandus, & Vaiuoda. In the yeare of our Lord. 1529.  

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In the 1563 edition, Foxe prints an account of Süleyman's1529 campaign in Hungary and the siege of Vienna. Foxe based this account on Edward Hall, The unyon of the twoo noble and illustre families of Lancastre andYork (London, 1550), STC 12723a, fos. CXLIv-CXLIIr.

Ferdinandus kyng of Hungarie aforesayd, recouered diuers holdes gotten of the Turke before, and also warryng agaynst Ioannes Vaiuoda his enemy, with whom he had variaunce (as ye heard before) expulsed him out of his kingdome. MarginaliaVaiuoda flieth to the Turke. Wherupon Vaiuoda flying to the Turke, desired his ayde. The Turke glad to take that occasion, with great preparation addressed him selfe to returne into Hungary, where he recoueryng agayne the Citie of Buda, whiche Ferdinandus had gotten from him a litle before, remoued his army into Austria spoylyng and destroyeng by the way all that came to his handes, shewyng many examples of great cruelite and tyranny most lamentable to here and vnderstand, MarginaliaHorrible examples of the turkes crueltie. For of some he put out theyr eyes, of some he cut of their handes, of some their eares and noses, and of their children he cut of their priuie members. The maydens he corrupted. the matrones had theyr brestes cut of, and such as were with child, were ripte and their children cast into the fire. And these examples of horrible and barbarous tyranny, this wretched Turke perpetrated by the way comming toward Vienna a noble Citie in Austria, besides the captiues which he tooke by the way, and ledde into seruitude most miserable, mounting to the number of 30. thousand.

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Among other holdes by the way as the Turke came, there was a castle called Altenburch strongly by nature situated, and by arte defenced, which castle the Turke entendyng not to ouerpasse because he would make all thynges sure behynd hym, beganne to make his assault and laye hys ordinaunce agaynst it. MarginaliaThe effiminate cowerdlynes of the souldiours in Altenburch. The warders and kepers of the Castle, so soone as the Turkes began to lay siege against them, makyng no resistaunce, of a womanly cowardnes sent theyr messengers to the Turke MarginaliaThe castle of Altenburch yelded to the turke. to yelde themselues, ready to doe his commaundement and further hym with their vitayle. Amongest whome were three hundreth Bohemians, who were commaunded to follow the hoste, that the Turke by them might learne what strength was in the citie of Vienna: also where the kyng was, and what was to be done for the winnyng therof.

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Of whom when the Turke had vnderstandyng how all thinges stoode, and how that there was but xx. thousand men in Vienna able to beare armour, and that other Cities of Austria would soone yelde if that were gotten, and that Vienna was vitayled but for ij. monthes, and that the king was of late in Boheme, thus the Turke of all thinges beyng certified, hauyng no doubt in his mynd of victory, made speede toward Vienna: MarginaliaNeapolis besieged of the turke. and first comming to Neapolis a city but 8. myles distant from Vienna, he required them to yeld themselues: who notwithstanding withstood them and repulsed them valiātly. Then the Turkes assigned a place for the pitchyng of their tentes, which because it semed somethyng to little for such a great multitude, they toke in more ground to the compasse of 7. myles circuite. MarginaliaThe turkes army of 250. thousand souldiers. The multitude of hys army, which he there planted, is accoumted of some to extend to 250. thousand souldioures. The Turke thus beyng planted, made daily excourses ouer all the countrey of Austria, specially about the City of Vienna, wastyng and spoyling with great cruelty & murther amongest the poore Christians.

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MarginaliaVienna besieged of the turke. Moreouer to make all thynges more sure toward þe preparation of the siege, scoutes were sent abroad, and bushementes were layd about the riuer side of Danubius, to prouide that no ayde nor victual should be brought to Vienna. So it pleased the prouidence of the Lord (who disposeth all thynges) that three dayes before the comming of the turke, MarginaliaFridericus Earle Palatine captayne of Vienna. Fridericus the Earle Palatine which was then assigned by the Empire to take the charge of Vienna, was come downe by the riuer of Danubius with xiiij. thousand, and wyth a certayne troupe of horsmen well appointed and piked for the purpose. After the comming of this Friderike, prouision also of victuall was appointed to follow shortly after, by the sayd riuer of Danubius.

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In the meane tyme, they which had the caryage & trās-

porting
RR.ij.
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