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751 [727]

K. Hēr. 7. The history and tyranny of the Turkes.

possessed and depriued of his kyngdome: MarginaliaTunece recouered againe by Charles the Emperour. but Charles the Emperour, the next yeare folowyng, an. 1535. restored both the sayd kyng agayne into hys kyngdome, and delyuered in the same viage. xx. thousand captiues out of seruitude.

The same tyme the Turke also sent an other captaine into Hungarie, to warre agaynst Vaiuoda MarginaliaTaurus a citie of Persia taken of the turkes. while he hym takyng his course to Persia, planted his siege agaynst the Citie Taurus, which he in short space subdued and expugned. Albeit he long enioyed not the same: for Tahames king of the Persians, sodenly commyng vppon the Marginalia20. thousand turkes slaine of the Persian kyng. Turkes vnprepared, slue of them. xx. thousand, & tooke his concubines to the great foyle and reproche of the Turke 

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This Ottoman defeat never took place. Süleyman tried to engage theSafavid ruler in battle, but Shah Tahmasb I relied on scorched earth tactics and avoided battle.

.

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Two yeares after this, whiche was the yeare of our Lord. 1537, Solymãnus, who could not be quyet at home nor rest in peace, returning agayne out of Asia into Europe with. 270. shypes, great and litle, MarginaliaCorcyra the Iland wasted & spoyled by the turkes. set vpon Corcyra an Iland belongyng to the Venetians, which he besieged x. dayes, wastyng and burning the townes and fieldes as he went, beside the destruction of much people therein, whome partly he slue, partly ledde away captiues. MarginaliaThe Ile of Zacynthus & Cythara spoyled by the turkes. From thence 

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The following account of of Süleyman's conquests in the Aegean comes from the account written by Giovanni Crispi, the duke of Naxos, as excerpt-ed in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556),pp. 589-90. The horrified descriptions of Turkish cruelty are in Crispi's text and arenot Foxe's insertions.

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he sayled to Zacynthus and Cythara, an other Iland not farre of from Corcyra, bordering nere to the coastes of Epyrus and Grecia. MarginaliaCaptiues of the Christians. Where he sodenly by night inuading the husband men in villages and fields, sleepyng and mistrusting no harme, drew them out of their houses and possessiõs, men and women, besides chyldren, to the number of. ix. hundreth whom he made his bondslaues: burnyng moreouer their houses and caryeng away all the goodes and catell beyng without the sayd Cities of Zazinthus and Cythara. Ex Ioan. Crispo.

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MarginaliaWarre betwen the Egynetes & the turkes. From thence these helhoūds turned their course to þe siege and spoyle of Egina, a riche and populous Iland, lying betwene Grecia and Asia, Where first the Eginiãs did manfully in battaile resiste them, and were lyke to haue preuayled: but being weryed at length and oppressed with innumerable thousandes of freshe Turkes, whiche still were sent in, to rescue the other whiche were ouercome before, were compelled to flye into the Citie of Egina. MarginaliaEgina taken of the turke. Whiche Citie the cruell Turkes (or rather deuils on earth) with much labour, and violence of their great ordinaunce fet out of their shyppes, subdued and cast downe to the ground: the Citizens and inhabitauntes whereof, MarginaliaThe citizens of Egina slaine of the turkes. the Turke after he had burned their houses, and ransackte their goodes, commaūded to be slayne and killed euery one. MarginaliaThe women of Egina miserably entreated & captiued of the turkes. The wemen both noble and vnnoble, with their infantes, were geuen to the mariners to be abused, and from thence beyng shipped vnto Constantinople, were led away to perpetuall misery and slauery. Whiche was in the yeare of our Lord: 1537.

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MarginaliaThe Ile Parum & Naxus. In the same iourney Solyman also tooke the Ile in þe sayd sea of Egeum, called Parum: also the Ile adioynyng to the same named Naxus, and made them to him tributaries. MarginaliaCyclades subdued of the turke.
Ex Ioan. Cripso.
The Duke whereof was he whiche wrote the storye both of these Ilandes aforesayd, and also of the other Ilandes called Cyclades, vnder other Dukes. Ex Ioan. Crispo, Duce Naxi. &c.

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This done 

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From here down to the Venetian treaty with the Ottomans, Foxe isdrawing on Wolfgang Dreschler's history as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas,De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), p. 234.

, Solymannus directed his nauie vnto Apulia 
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Not Apulia in in Italy but Napoli de Romania (or Napulia), a Venetianfortress in the Aegean.

, where he set on land. x. thousand footemen, &. 2000. horsemen, which spoyled lykewise and wasted those parties MarginaliaNote what hurt cõmeth by the dissension of Christiã princes. while the Emperour, the Pope, and the Venetians were together in warre and dissension. Furthermore þe next yeare folowyng. an. 1538. great attemptes began in Stiria, MarginaliaStiria is a countrey or prouince neare adioyning to Austria. but by the resistance of þe inhabytaunts, the force of the barbarous turkes was repulsed: notwtstandyng great spoyles of men & cattell were caryed frõ thēce, & the countrey miserably spoyled, In the whiche yeare also the Turke turning into Hūgary, gaue battaile vnto þe Christians in Sauia: where, through the fraudulent falsehoode of the Captaine Cassianerus (Wolfgangus nameth him Calcianus) beyng (as they say) corrupted with money, our men were put to the worse, an. 1538.

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MarginaliaThe falsehode of the turke with the Venetians. After that the Turkes had inuaded the Iland of Corcyra abouesaid, the Venetians with Solyman the Turke had ioyned truce for a certaine tyme, for the which they gaue to the Turke 300. thousand crownes, with the city of Neapolis, and Maluasia in the borders of Macedonia. But within 4. or. 5. yeares, the Turke to get a new stipend of the Venetians, brake his league, and inuaded their dominions: wherby they were enforced to enter new condicions agayne with him.

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Marginalia[illegible text] in Dalmatia ouerthrowen by the turke, & the people slayne. In the yeare of our Lord, 1540. 

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The following accounts of Süleyman's campaign in Hungary in 1540and the Hapsburg campaign in 1542 are taken from Giovann Battisto Ramusio'shistory as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), pp. 209-10. Again the horror stories of Turkish savagery are in Foxe's sources and are not the martyrologist's invention.

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the restles Turke making his returne toward Hungary, by the way passyng by Dalmatia, lay against the towne called Newcastle, beyng defended by the Spaniardes. In the which towne because they refused to yeld themselues, all the inhabitantes & souldiours were put to the sworde and slain euery one. This Nouum Castellum or Newcastle was a strong forte of the chri stians, which beyng now in the Turkes power, he had great aduauntage ouer all those quarters of Dalmatia, Stiria, Carinthia, and Hungaria. From thēce he proceded further, keping his course into Hungary, where he planted his power agaynst the city of Buda.

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MarginaliaThe contention in Hungary betwene Ferdinãdus & Vaiuoda & his successours This Buda was a principall citie in Hungarie, about which great contention had bene (as ye heard before) betwen Ioannes Vaiuoda, and Ferdinandus. By reason whereof the Turke occasioned by Vaiuoda, came into Hūgary and deliuered the Citie to Vaiouda. This Vaiouda lyuyng not long after, left behind hym a sonne, whome beyng an infant he committed to the gouernaunce of one Georgius Monachus: Who beyng left tutour vnto the infant, reduced oll Transiluania, Buda, Pesta, with other parties of Hungary, which belonged to Vaiouda before, to the subiection of the child. Ferdinandus hearing therof, in a great hast and anger, leuyed an armye to recouer his landes in Hungarie, and so layd siege to Buda. Monachus seyng his part weake, first sent his legate to Ferdinandus, desiring him to talke and conferre with hym vpon matter, as he pretended, perteining to the behooffe of them both. MarginaliaThe cõmunication betwene Monachus and Ferdinandus. Wherupon both the parties beyng agreed, the place and maner of their conuention was appointed, and also the day and tyme assigned. Thus the parties (accordyng to the agreement (cõuentyng together with their armyes, with drawyng a litle a side, as they were entred in communication, sodenly among Ferdinandus men, happened a dagge to be hearde, which by the heate of the day (as is thought) losing of his owne accord, gaue a cracke. MarginaliaWhat hurt may come of rashe suspicion. The sound whereof commyng to the eares of Monachus, he supposing the same to haue bene discharged agaynst him, in great anger drew out hys sword, byddyng Ferdinandus auaunt with hys doublyng dissimulation, saying that he would neuer any more trust þe promisses of Christians, and immediatly vppon the same, MarginaliaThe turke called agayne into Hungary by the dissension betwene Monachus and Ferdinandus. sent to Solimãnus the Turke, for ayde agaynst the Christians, promising that he would surrender to him free possession of Hungary, if he would come and vanquish the armye of Ferdinãdus lying about the siege of Buda The Turke maketh no long taryinge, but taketh the occasion, and with a mighty power, flyeth into Hungary, and eftsones dischargyng the host of Ferdinandus, and puttyng them of from the siege of Buda, getteth the Citie into his owne handes, commaundyng the sonne of Vaiuoda with his mother, to folow after his camp.

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MarginaliaThe cowardly viage of Ioachimus Duke of Brandeburge, agaynst the turk In the historye of Ioannes Ramus it foloweth, that when Solyman the Turke had thus preuailed agaynst the Citie of Buda aforesayde, and agaynst other parties more of Hungarie, by the assent of the Empire, one Ioachimus Duke of Brandeburg, prince Elector was assigned with a puissant army of chosen souldiours of all nations collected, to recouer the Citie of Buda from the Turke, and to deliuer the other parties of Christendome from the feare of the Turke. 

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This occurred in 1542.

an. 1542. Which Ioachimus at his first settyng foorth, appeared so couragious and valiant, as thoughe hee would haue conquered the whole world: But this great heate was so slaked in short tyme by the Turke, that before any great ieoperdie was offered vnto him, he was glad to be discharged of the viage, and with shame enough, returned home agayne. And would God he had left behynde him in the field, no more but hys owne shame. For the enemies hauyng intelligence before of his cowardly departure, thinkyng to worke some poynt of maistry or victory before hys goyng, did set vpõ the right wyng of his army (which chiefly consisted of Dutchmē of low Germany 
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I.e., soldiers from the Low Countries.

) out of the which they tooke away with them aboue 500. stronge and valiant souldiours, not kyllyng them, but caryinge them away aliue. For whom it had bene much better to haue stand to their weapon and to haue dyed manfully vpon the Turkes, then by yeldyng themselues, to be disgarnished of weapon and armour, Marginalia500. Christē souldiours taken & caryed away of the turkes. and so to be left to the cursed curtesie of the foule Turkes. To whom what curtesie was shewed, by the sequele did appeare. For after the Turkes had ledde them out of Hungary into their owne dominion, after a most horrible and beastly sort they disfigured and mangled them, and so sent them abroad through all Grecia to be witnesses of the Turkes victory. MarginaliaThe horrible punishments practised of the turkes agaynst the Christians. Their kynd of punishmēt was this: First they had their right arme thrust through with an iron red hoate, wherby they should be vnable and vnmete to all labour, and warefarre. Secondly, their heades were shauen to the very sculs, after the maner of our Friers and Monkes, when they are newly shauē. Thirdly, they had al their pryuy members cut of frõ their bodies: to the entent to make them vnfruitful for propagatiõ: which woūd was so greuous vnto thē, that the greatest part of thē died therupõ, the few þt recouered þt torment therof, led a life more bitter & more miserable thē death it self. And this kynd of cruelty 
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This comparison of the Turks to Pharoah, and the cry for a new Moses,are Foxe's interpolations into Ramusio's account.

was executed

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in
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