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752 [728]

K. Henry. 7. The history and tyranny of the Turkes.

in order vpon them all. In much like sort did cruell Pharao exercise his tyrãny against the people of God in Egypt: who to destroy the generation of them, caused all the male children to be drowned in the ryuer. Whereby it is the more to be hoped, that seyng the tyranny of this Turkish Pharao is come to such an extremitie, the mercyfull goodnesse of God will the more shortly send some Moses or other vnto vs for our speedy deliueraunce. This was by the cruell Turkes done, an. 1542. witnessed by Ioannes Ramus, MarginaliaEx Ioan Ramo. de rebus Turcicis. lib. 2. which not onely writeth the story, but by the testimonie also of his owne eyes recordeth the same to be true, beholding with his eyes one of the same number in the Citie of Vienna, who hauyng wife and children in Bruxelles, either for shame or sorrow, had no mynde to returne home to his owne house. Ex Ioan. Ramo.

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MarginaliaThe falsenes of the turke in keeping no promise with the Christians. But to returne agayne 

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Foxe took the following account of Ottoman conqusts, and allegedatrocities, in Hungary during 1542-44, down to the Ottoman invasion of Persia (in1548) from Martin Stella's letters, as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, Deorigine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556), pp. 605-620. Stella was a contempor-ary to these events, who lived in Vienna, and wrote letters to his brothers in 1543 and1544, describing Turkish campaigns in Hungary.

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to þe citie of Buda, from whence we haue digressed, here is not to be pretermitted, what falshode and what cruelty the Turkes vsed toward the Christians there, after their victory. For after that Solyman the Turke vpon the yelding and submissiõ of þe mē of Buda, had geuen to them his promise of safetie and of lyfe, within short tyme, the sayd Turke pickyng a quarell with them for sellyng Oxen vnto the Christians, and for barganyng with thē, slue all the Magistrates of the sayd Citie of Buda: lyke as in all other Cities, where soeuer the Christians yelded vnto hym, he neuer, or very rarely kept his promise with thē, neither dyd euer any Christians spede better with the Turke, then they which most constantly did resiste him.

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MarginaliaAn horrible example of the beastly crueltie of the false turke. And as his promise with the Magistrates of Buda was false and wretched: so his cruelty with the souldiours therof was much more notorious and abhominable. For in the expugnatiõ of Buda, amõg the rest which were slayne, ij. cohortes or bandes of Christiã souldiours came alyue to his handes. To whom, when he semed at the first to graūt pardon of life, he cõmaunded to put on their armour agayn, and to dispose themselues in order and battayle array after the warlyke maner of the Christiãs. Which when they had accomplished readyly, accordyng to his commaundement, & he rydyng about the rankes of them, had diligently vewed and beholden them a certaine space, at length he commaunded thē to put of their armour agayne. Which done, certaine of the tallest and strongest of them he pyked out, the residue he commaunded by his souldiours commyng behynd them, with swordes to be cut in peeces and slayne. Of the other, whom he had elected and chosen, some he set for markes & buts to be shot at: some he appointed to his two sonnes, for them to flash with their swordes, and to trye their strength, which of them could geue the deeper wound (& as they termed it) the fayrer blow, whereby moste bloud might folow out of their Christian bodyes. MarginaliaEx Epist. Marti. Stellæ. de succeßibus Turcarum &c. Ex Mart. Stella. De successibus Turcarum.

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After the wynning of Buda, the Turke purposing not so to cease before he had subdued and brought vnder his obedience all Hungary, procedyng further with his armye, first brought vnder a strong hold of the Christians named Pestum or Pesta, where a great number of Christiã souldiours partly were slayne, partly were ledde away to more cruell affliction.

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MarginaliaThe castle of Vualpo wonne of the turkes Then he came to an other Castle called Walpo situate in the confines of Bosna, Croatia, and Hungary. Whiche forte or castle he besiged three monethes, while no rescue nor ayde was sent vnto them, neither from Ferdinandus kyng of Hungary, nor from any other Christen Prince or Princes. Wherupon at length the forte was geuē vp to the Turke, but more through the false trechery or cowardly hart of the souldiours, then of the Captaine. Wherein is to be noted an example not vnworthy of memory. For whē the cowardly souldiours, either for feare or for flattery, would needes surrender thēselues and the peece vnto the Turke, contrary to the mynde of their Captaine, whiche in no case would agree to their yeldyng: they thinkyng to finde fauour with the Turke, apprehended their Captaine, & gaue hym to Solyman. But see how the iustice of God sometimes by the handes of the enemy, dissposeth the end of thinges to the rewardyng of vertue, and punishyng of vice. MarginaliaA notable example of Gods iudgmentes lighting vpon themselues, which meane falsehode toward the innocent. For where they thought to saue themselues by the daunger of their faythfull Captaine, the euent turned cleane contrary, so that the Turke was to the Captaine bountyfull and very liberall: and the souldiours, notwithstandyng that they had all yelded themselues, yet were all put to death and commaunded pitiously to be slayne. Ex Ioan. Martino Stella De Turcarum in Hungaria successibus. &c.

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MarginaliaThe citie of v. churches yelded to the turkes There is in Hungary an other town bearyng the name of fiue Churches, called Quinquecclesiensis, partly spoyled before, as is aboue mētioned, pag. 723. but now through the losse of Walpo, and by the hugenesse of the Turkes ar mye (conteinyng in it. 220. thousand fightyng men) was so discouraged and put out of hope and hart, MarginaliaThe byshop leaueth hys flocke in the bryers. that the Byshop and chief nobles of þe towne fled before þe ieoperdy: the rest of the commons, which were partly preuented by the sodayne commyng of the Turkes, partly for pouertie could not auoyde, sent their messengers to the Turke, to yeld and surrender the towne, vppon promise of lyfe, vnto his handes. Whose promise how firme it stode, þe story leaueth it vncertaine. This is affirmed, that three dayes after the yelding of this Quinquecclesiensis, neuer a Turke durst enter the Citie. an. 1543. Ex Ioan. Mart. Stella. & alijs.

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MarginaliaSeclosia a towne in Hungary subdued of the turkes The next forte or hold gotten by the Turkes in Hungary, was Soclosia. The towne at the first inuasion of the Turkes, was wonne, sackte, and fiered. The Castle within the towne, did something hold out a tyme: and first requiryng truce for xiiij. dayes, to see what ayde should be sent vnto them, and to deliberate vpon the cõditions that should be proposed vnto them, after the 14. dayes expired, they trustyng to the situation and munitiõ of the place, (which was very strong) began for a certaine space stoutly to put backe the enemy: But afterward seyng their walles to be battered, their foundations to shake (for the Turke had set xij. thousand vndermyners vnder the dyches of þe castle) & their strength to diminish, and misdoubtyng themselues not to be able long to hold out, agreed in lyke maner to yeld themselues, vpon condition to escape with lyfe and goodes. MarginaliaConstantnes of wordly goods is the destruction of many a man. Which condition of sauyng their goodes, was the loosing of their lyfes, especially of the richer sorte. For the Turkes perceauyng by that condition, that they were of wealth and substaunce, omittyng the inferiour or baser sort, MarginaliaThe turke keepeth no promise. fell vpon the wealthy men for their riches, and slew them euery one. an. 1543. Ibid.

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In the whiche his history this is also to be noted, that duryng the tyme while the castle of Soclosia was besieged, the villages and pages round about the same, came of their owne accorde, submitting and yeldyng themselues vnto the Turke, bringyng in (as they were commaunded) all kynde of victuall and forage, into the Turkes campe. MarginaliaExample what commeth by Christen mens yelding to the turke. Which done, Solyman the Turke commaunded all the head men of the pages to appeare before him, which humbly obeyed & came. Then the Turke warned them to returne agayne the next day after, euery one bryngyng with him his inferiour retinue, and houshold seruauntes. Which when they had with lyke diligence also, accordyng to his commaundement, accomplished, the Turke immediatly commaunded them euery one, in the face of his whole army, to be slaine: and so was this their reward. Which reward the more that it declareth the bloudy cruelty of the Turke: the more encourage it may minister to our men, the more constauntly to withstãd hym. Ex Martino Stella.

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MarginaliaStrigonium a citie in Hūgary besieged of the turkes. An other strõg towne there is in Hungary named Strigonium, distant from Buda aboue sayd, the space of fiue Dutch myles, agaynst the which the Turkes made great preparation of ordinaunce and all other instrumentes of artillary necessary for the siege therof. Which Citie in like maner began also to be compassed & inclosed by the turkes, before it could be sufficiently prepared & garnished of our men, but that the Archbyshop onely of Strigon priuely conueyed vnto them. 200. oxen. MarginaliaNegligence of Christen princes in publicke defence. Such was then the negligence of Ferdinandus kyng of Hungary, which so slenderly looked vnto the necessary defence of his townes and cities. Moreouer such was the discorde then of Christen Kynges and Princes, whiche in their ciuill dissension & warres were so occupyed and hoate in nedeles quarels, that they had neither leysure nor remembraūce, to helpe in tyme there, where true neede required. Which slender care, and cold zeale of the Christian rulers, in not tenderyng the publicke cause, while they contend in priuate trifles, hath caused the Turke to come so farre as he hath, and yet farther is like, vnlesse the mercy of the Lord do helpe more, then our diligence. One of the chief Captaines within the citie, was Martinus Lascanus, a Spanyard.

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The Turkes in the begynnyng of the siege began first to attempt the Citizens with fayre wordes, and accustomed promises, to yeld and gētly to submit themselues. But they not ignoraunt of the Turkes promises wisely refused, and manfully stode so long as they could to the defence of their citie, now and then skyrmishing with them in out corners, and killing certaine numbers of them: sometyme with their shot disturbyng their munitions, and breakyng the wheeles of their gunnes. &c.

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MarginaliaThree speciall helpes of the turkes in wynnyng townes and cities. Three speciall meanes the Turkes vse in wynnyng great fortes & Cities: great multitude of souldiours: great ordinaunce and mortarie peeces: the thyrd is by vndermynyng. All whiche here in the siege of this Citie, lacked not. This siege continued vehement a certaine space: in whiche

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