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757 [733]

K. Henry. 7. The history and tyranny of the Turkes.

there was exercised: MarginaliaVide supra. pag. 719. where the Turke, after his promise geuen before to the cōtrary, most cruelly caused all the youth of Italy to be pricked vpon sharpe stakes: some to be dashed agaynst the hard stones, other some to be cut in souder in the middest, and other mo with other kyndes of tormentes to be put to death: MarginaliaEx Bernar. [illegible text] in somuch that all the streetes and wayes of Chalcides dyd flow with the bloud of them, whiche were there slayne. In which history the foresayd writer recordeth one memorable example of maydenly chastitie, worthy of all Christians to be noted and commended. MarginaliaA notable example of maydenly chastitie. The storie 

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This story, including its emotive language, is virtually a word-for-word translation of Marco Antonio Sabellico's account of the taking of Negroponte,as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum(Basel, 1556), pp. 331-2.

is told of the Pretors daughter of that citie, who beyng the onely daughter of her father, & noted to be of an exceding singular bewtie, was saued out of þe slaughter, & brought to Mahumete the Turke, to be his concubine: But she denyeng to consent to his Turkish appetite and filthenes, was commaunded therewith to be slayne and murthered, and so dyed she a Martyr, keping both her faith and her body vndefiled vnto Christ Iesus her spouse. Ibid.

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The like crueltie also was shewed vppon them whiche kept the Castle, & afterward yeldyng themselues vpon hope of the Turkes promise, were slaine euery one. What should I speake of the miserable slaughter of Methone, & the Citizēs therof dwellyng in Peloponesus? who seyng no other remedy but needes to come into the Turkes handes, set the barne on fire where they were gathered together, men, women, and children: some women also with child voluntarily cast themselues into the Sea, rather then they would susteine the Turkes captiuitie. 

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Foxe is repeating an account he gave earlier: This account of Bayezid II's reign is largely taken from Casper Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenburg, 1580), pp. 657-63, although the narrative of Selim's accession to the throne is taken from Giovann Battisto Ramosio's history, as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum. One detail came from Johannes Cuspinian, De Turcorum origine.

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MarginaliaVid supra. pag. 720. Vid. pag. 720.

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MarginaliaThe miserable spillyng of Christen mens bloud by the wretched turkes. Miserable it is to behold, 

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These examples are Foxe's list, with the examples taken from Foxe's account of Turkish history.

long to recite, incredible to beleue all the cruell partes and horrible slaughters wrought by these miscreantes, against the Christians, through all places almost of the world, both in Asia, in Affrica, but especially in Europa. Who is able to recite the innumerable societies and companies of the Grecians martyred by the Turkes sword in Achaia, Attica, Thessalia, Macedonia, Epirus, and all Peloponesus? besides þe Iland of Rhodes and other Ilandes, and Cyclades adiacēt in the sea about, numbred to 52. of the which also Pathmos was one, where S. Iohn being banished, wrote hys reuelations. Where did euer the Turkes set any foote, but the bloud of Christians there, without pitie or measure, went to wracke? And what place or prouince is there almost thorow þe world, where þe turkes either haue not perced, or are not like shortly to enter? MarginaliaA briefe recitall of Christen townes and fortes wonne of the turke in Europe. In Thracia, & through all the coastes of Danubius, in Bulgaria, Dalmatia, in Seruia, Transiluania, Bosna, in Hungaria, also in Austria, what hauocke hath bene made by them, of Christen mens bodyes, it will rue any Christen hart to remember. At the siege of Moldauia, at the wynnyng of Buda, of Pesta, of Alba, of Walpo, Strigonium, Soclosia, Tathe, Wizigradū, Nouum Castellum in Dalmatia, Belgradum, Varadinum, Quinqueecclesie: also at the battaile of Verna, where Ladislaus K. of Polonie with all his army almost, through the rashenes of the Popes Cardinall, were slayne: at the wynnyng moreuer of Xabiacchus, Lyssus, Dinastrum: at the siege of Guntza, and of the faythfull town Scodra, where þe nūber of the shot against their walles, at þe first siege thereof, were rekened to. 2539: likewise at the siege of Vienna, where all the Christian captiues were brought before the whole army and slayne, and diuers drawne in peeces with horses: MarginaliaThe crueltie of the turke agaynst the Citizens of Constantinople.
Vide supra pag. 717.
but especially at the wynnyng of Constantinople aboue mētioned, pag. 717: also at Croia, and Methone, what beastly crueltie was shewed, it is vnspeakable. For as in Constantinople, Mahumete the dronken Turke neuer rose frō dyner, but he caused euery day, for his disport. 300. Christiā captiues of the Nobles of that Citie to be slayne before hys face: MarginaliaThe crueltie of the turke agaynste the prisoners of Methone.
Ex Leonico Chalcondyla de rebus Turcicis. lib. 10.
So in Methone, 
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This story, and the following story, both illustrating the ferocity ofMehmed II, are taken from Laonicus Chalkokondylas's Turco-Byzantine historyas excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum(Basel, 1556), pp. 179-80.

after that his captaine Omares had sent vnto him at Constantinople fiue hundreth prisoners of the Christians, the cruell tyraunt commaunded them all to be cut and diuided in sonder by the middle, & so being slayne, to be throwne out into the fieldes.

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MarginaliaA straunge & a prodigious wonder of a brute beast towarde a dead Christian body. Leonicus Chalcondyla, wrytyng of the same story, addeth moreouer a prodigious narratiō (if it be true) of a brute Oxe, which beyng in the fieldes, and seyng the carcases of the dead bodyes so cut in two, made there a loude noyse after the lowyng of his kynde & nature: and afterward cōmyng to the quarters of one of the dead bodyes lyeng in the field, first tooke vp the one halfe, and then cōmyng agayne, tooke vp likewise the other halfe, and so (as he could) ioyned them both together. Whiche beyng espyed of them that sawe the doyng of the brute Oxe, and meruelyng thereat, and worde beyng brought therof to Mahumete, he commaunded the quarters agayne to brought, where they were before, to proue whether the beast would come agayne: Who fayled not (as the authour recordeth) but in like sort as before, takyng the fragmentes of the dead corps, layde them agayne MarginaliaMore humanitie seene in a brute beast then in the turke. together. It foloweth more in the author, how that Mahumete beyng astonied at the straunge wonder of the Oxe, commaunded þe quarters of the christian mās body to be interred, and the Oxe to be brought to his house, & was much made of. Some sayd it to be the body of a Venetian: some affirmed, that he was an Illyrian: but whatsoeuer he was, certaine it is, that the Turke himselfe was much more bestiall then was the very brute Oxe: Which beyng a beast shewed more sense of humanitie to a dead man, then one mā dyd to an other. Ex Leonie. Chalcondyla.

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MarginaliaThe Byshop with the Citizēs of Methone slayne of the turke.
Ex Andrea de Lacuna, & alijs.
Ex Ioanne Fabro, in oratione ad Regem Henr. viij.
To this cruelty adde 

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This story comes from Wolfgang Dreschler's history as excerptedin Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556),p. 232. The slaughter of 500 inhabitants in Methoni (but not the death of thebishop) is also given in Andrea de Lacuno's history as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine, p. 219.

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moreouer, that beside these v. C. Methonians thus destroyed at Constantinople, in the sayd Citie of Methone, all the townesmen also were slayne by the foresayd Captaine Omares, and among them their Bishop likewyse was put to death. Ex Andrea de Lacuna, & ex Wolfgango et alijs.

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Ioan Faber in his Oration 

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The examples of Turkish depredations in Serbia, are taken from an oration by Johannes Faber, urging Christian unity against the Turk, printedin Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculus rerum expetendarum ac fugiendarum (Cologne,1535), fo. 237r.

made before king Henry the 8. at the appoyntment of king Ferdinandus, and declaryng therin the miserable cruelty of the Turkes toward all christians, as also towarde the bishops and ministers of the church testifieth how that in Mitilene, in Constantinople, and Trapezunda, what bishops, and Archbishops, or other ecclesiasticall and religious persons the Turkes could find they brought them out of the cities into the fieldes, there to be slayne lyke Oxen and Calues. The same Faber also writing of the batteil of Solyman in Hungary, where Ludouicus the king of Hungary was ouerthrown, declareth that 8. bishops in the same field were slayne. And moreouer, when the Archbishop of Strigon, and Paulus the Archbishop Colossensis were found dead, Solyman caused them to be taken vp, and to be beheaded and chopt in small peeces. an. 1526.

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MarginaliaThe crueltie of the turke in Euboia. What christian hart will not pity the incredible slaughter done by the Turkes in Euboia, where as the said Faber testifieth that innumerable people were sticked & gored vpon stakes, diuers were thrust through with a hoate iron, children and infantes not yet wayned from the mother, were dashed against the stones, and many cut asōder in the midst. Ex Iohn Fabro & alijs.

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But neuer did countrey tast 

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Most of this story comes from Wolfgang Dreschler's history, asexcerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum(Basel, 1556), p. 230. The details, however, of the Serbian prince being killedand then flayed, come from Johann Faber's oration, excerpted in Ortwin Gratius,Fasciculus rerum expetendarum ac fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535).

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and feele more the bitter and deadly tiranny of the Turkes, then did Rasia, called Mysia inferior, and now Sernia. Where (as writeth Wolfgangus Dreschlerus) MarginaliaThe prince of Seruia slayne & slayne of the turke. the prince of the sayd countrey beyng sent for, vnder fayre pretence of words & promises, to come & speake with the Turke, after he was come of his own gentlenes, thinkyng no harme, was apprehended & wretchedly and falsly put to death, and his skin flayne of, his brother & sister brought to Constantinople for a triumphe, and all the nobles of hys countrey (as Faber addeth) had their eyes put out. &c. MarginaliaLet neuer Christen prince trust the turke.

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MarginaliaThe turkes stirred vp of the deuill to fight agaynst Christ. Briefly to conclude, 

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These concluding remarks on Turkish 'butchery' and the introductory remarks on Ottoman enslavement of Christian captives are Foxe's own.

by the vehement and furious rage of these cursed caytifes, it may seme that Satan the olde dragon, for the great hatred he beareth to Christ, MarginaliaThe turkes are butchers of the Christians. hath styrred them vp to be the butchers of all christen people, inflamyng their beastly hartes with such malice and cruelty against the name and religion of Christ, that they degeneratyng frē the nature of men to deuils, neither by reason will be ruled, nor by any bloud or slaughter satisfied. Like as in the primitiue age of the church, and in the tyme of Dioclesian and Maximinian, when the deuil saw that he could not preuayl against the person of Christ which was risen agayne, he turned all his fury vpon his sely seruaunts, thinkyng by the Romaine Emperours, vtterly to extinct the name and profession of Christ, out from the earth: So in this latter age of þe world Satan beyng let lose agayne, rageth by the Turkes, thinking to make no ende of murderyng and killing, till he haue brought (as he entendeth) the whole church of Christ, with all the professors therof, vnder foote. But the lord (I trust) will once send a Constantinus to vanquish proud Maxentius: Moses to drowne indurate Pharao: Cyrus to subdue the stout Babilonian.

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MarginaliaThe miserable state of the Christian captiues vnder the turke And thus much hetherto touching our christian brethrē, which were slain & destroyed by these blasphemous turkes. Now for so much as besides these aforesayde, many other were pluckt away violently from their country, from their wyues & children, frō liberty, and from all their possessions, into wretched captiuity, and extreme penury, it remayneth lykewise to entreat somewhat also concerning the cruel maner of the Turkes handlyng of the said Christian captiues. MarginaliaThe buying and selling of Christen captiues vnder the turkes. And first is here 

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The entire description which follows, of Ottoman treatment of theircaptives, comes from Bartolomaeus Georgevits, De origine imperiiTurcorum, asexcerpted in Theodore Bibliander, Machumetis Saracenorum principis…Alcoran(Basel, 1550), III, pp. 175-9. Foxe abridges this account but otherwise follows itfaithfully.

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to be noted that þe turke neuer cōmeth into Europe to war against the christians, but there foloweth after his army, a great number of brokers or merchauntes, such as buy men & children to sell again, bringing with them long cheins in hope of great cheats: In þe which cheins they linke thē by 50. & 60. together, such as remain vndestroyed with þe sword, whō they buy of the spoyles of them that rob and spoyle the Christian countreys: Whiche is lawfull for

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