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765 [741]

K. Hēr. 7. Prophecies concerning the Turkes and Antichrist.

uyng to speake a while of þe pope, because it appeareth more notoriously in the Turke, we will chiefly apply it to him: in whom so aptly it doth agree, that vnlesse this great defectiō frō fayth in so many churches, had happened by the Turke, it had bene hard to vnderstand the Apostles mynde, which now by the hystory of these Turkes, is easie and euident to be know, consideryng what a ruine hath happened to the Church of Christ, by these miserable Turkes: what Imperies, nations, kyngdomes, countreys, townes and cities be remoued frō the name and profession of Christ: how many thousands and infinite multitudes of Christen men and children, in Asia, in Afrike, and in Europe, are caryed away from Christes Church, to Mahumetes Religion, some to serue for the Turkes garde among the Ianizarites, some for souldiours, some for myners, some for gunners, to fight and warre agaynst the Christians: so that the most part of all the Churches planted once by the Apostles, are now degenerated into Turkes, onely a small handful of Christiās reserued yet in these West partes of Europe: of the which small residue, what shall also become shortly, except Christ himself do helpe, Christ onely himself doth know. How great this defection hath bene spoken of by S. Paul, MarginaliaVid. supra. pag 737. thou mayest see (gentle reader) in the table aboue described, pag. 737.

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MarginaliaThe place of S. Paule 2. Thess. 2. applied to the pope. Notwithstanding this text of the holy Apostle (as I aforesayd) may be verified also with no lesse reason, vpon the Byshop of Rome, then vpon the Turke, both for that he is a mā of sinne, that is, his seat and Citie is a great mainteyner of wickednes: and also for that he is an aduersary, that is, contrary in all his doynges and procedynges, to Christ.

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Thyrdly for that he sitteth in the temple of God, and so dyd not Mahumete.

Fourthly, because he is an exalter of himselfe, and sitteth more like a God, then a man, in Rome: wherof see more in the booke set forth in English, called the CONTESTATIONS of the Popes. 

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The lack of pagination for this section (at least in the 1570 edition where it first appeared) is almost certainly because it was a late insertion into thetext. It is also almost certain that this section was a response to the revolt of thenorthern earls in 1569 and the papal deposition of Elizabeth at the beginning of 1570. This section is illustrated with a dozen woodcuts depicting historical, or putatively historical, instances of papal dominance over secular rulers. All but one of thesewoodcuts was newly created, apparently for this section. (The woodcut depicting thehumiliation of Henry IV at Canossa, which had been used earlier in the volume, wasreused in this section). The expense involved in creating these woodcuts suggeststhat Day may have received financial support for producing this section. It iscertainly true that Archbishop Parker aided Foxe in researching this section.

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Yet while the carving of the woodcuts must have taken weeks, if not months,it would appear that the text for this section was composed fairly quickly. This section consists of a summary of the rise of the papacy, an exegesis of passages in St Paul's second letter to the Thessalonians identifying the Antichrist, as well as a summary of papal attempts to depose and dominate European rulers. This sectionconcludes with 'The Image of Antichrist', which, in turn, is an exact reprinting of ananonymous work, A solemne contestation of diverse popes for the advancing of their supremacy (London, 1560), STC 20114, which had been printed by John Daya decade earlier. (For a discussion of this work, and an argument that Foxe himselfcompiled it, see Thomas S. Freeman, 'A solemne contestation of diverse popes: A Work by John Foxe?', English Language Notes 31[1994], pp. 35-42). Apart from nuggets of information contributed by others, there is littlenew research in this section, which largely reiterates episodes already described in theActs and Monuments. What is striking, however, are the important borrowings, acknowledged and unacknowledged, from William Tyndale's Practice of Prelates.Foxe did not normally cite Tyndale's work, probably becausehe had access to better and more detailed sources. But in this section, Foxe gives an indication that Tyndale's interpretation of history had on his thought. For a discussion of this book see Thomas S. Freeman, 'A solemne contestation of diverse popes: A Work by John Foxe?' English Language Notes 31 (1994), pp. 35-42.

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Fiftly, for þt he seduceth & hath seduced by his apostasie, the most part of all Christēdome frō the doctrine & free promises of God, into a wrōg & straūge way of saluatiō, which is, not to be iustified frely before God onely by our fayth in Christ his welbeloued sonne (vnto the which fayth the promise of God frely and graciously hath annexed all our saluation onely, and to no other thyng) but hath taught vs to worke our saluation by an infinite nūber of other thynges: MarginaliaEx Bonifacio Extrauag. In somuch that he byndeth the necessitie of our saluation also to this, that we must beleue (if we wil be saued) and receaue him to be the Vicare of Christ in earth. &c.

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But to returne agayne vnto the Turkes, amōg all the Prophesies both of the old Testamēt and of the new, there is none that paynteth out the Antichristian kyngdome of the Turkes, better then doth the reuelatiō of S. Iohn: whose wordes let vs weygh and consider. Who in the Apocalips. 9 where he speaketh of openyng the seuenth and laste seal (which signifieth the last age of the world) and there writyng of the vij. trumpets of the vij. Aungels, at the soundyng of the vj. Aungell, sayth: 

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Rev. 9:14-18.

MarginaliaApoc. 9. Lose the foure Aungels, whiche are bound in the great ryuer of Euphrates. And the foure Aūgels were losed, which were ready both day and houre, and moneth, and yeare, to slay the thyrd part of men. And the number of the horsemen were. 20. thousand tymes ten thousand: and I heard the number of them. And thus I saw in a vision, horses, and them that sat on them hauyng fireye habbergions, and of Iacinth stone, and of brimstone, and the heades of the horses were as the heades of Lyons: and out of their mouthes went forth fire and smoke and brimstone. Of these three plagues was the third part of men killed, that is of the fire, smoke and brimstone, which proceded out of their mouthes. &c.

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By the seuenth seale is ment the seuenth and last age of the world, which last age of the world, is from Christ to the iudgement and resurrection of the dead.

MarginaliaThe vii. trumpes of the vii. Angels in the Apocal expounded. By the seuen Aungels with their seuen trumpettes, is signified the seuen plagues, that come in this seuenth and last age of the world.

MarginaliaThe sixt trumpe. By the sixt trompet of the sixt Aungell is ment the sixt plague commyng last and next before the plague of the great iudgement day, which sixt plague is here described to come by the East kynges, that is, by the Turkes: as foloweth to be sene.

MarginaliaLoosing out the Angels vpon the riuer Euphrates. By losing the Aungels which had rule of the great ryuer Euphrates, is signified the letting out the East kyngs: that is, the Turkes, out of Scythia, Tartaria, Persia, and Arabia, by whom the third parte of Christendome shalbe destroyed, as we see it this day hath come to passe.

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It foloweth in the Prophesie: Their power shalbe in their mouthes, and in their tayles. For their tayles be lyke Serpentes hauyng heades, and with them they hurt. 

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Rev. 9:19

&c. MarginaliaApoc. 9. meaning that these turkes wyth the wordes of their mouthes, shall threaten great destruction of fire and sworde, to them that will not yelde vnto them: and in the end, when the Christians shall yelde vnto them, trusting to their promises, they like Serpentes, shall deceaue them in the ende, and kill them, as appeareth by the story of the Turkes aboue past, pag. 731. 729. 728. &c.

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The lyke prophesie also after the lyke wordes & sense, is to be sene and read in the 16. chap. of the Apoc. MarginaliaApoc cap. 16. Where S. Iohn entreating of seuen cuppes filled with the wrath of the lyuing God, geuen to the hands of vij. Augels, MarginaliaThe 4. beastes in the Apocalips meane the foure Monarchies. by one of the foure beastes (that is in the tyme of one of the iiij. monarchies, which was the Monarchie of Rome) speaketh likewise of the sixt Aūgell, which poured hys viale of gods wrath vpon the great ryuer Euphrates, & the waters therof dryed vp, that the way of the kynges of the East should be prepared. 

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Rev. 16:12

&c.

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By the sixt Aungell wyth the sixt viall, is ment as before, the last plague, saue one, that shall come vpō the Christians. MarginaliaThe kynges of the East. By the kynges of the East, are ment the Saracēs and xij. Ottoman Turkes. MarginaliaDrying vp of Euphrates. By drying vp of the ryuer Euphrates, is signified the way of these Turkes to be prepared by the Lordes appointment, to come out of the East to the West partes of the worlde, to molest and afflicte the Christians. It foloweth more in the text. And I saw three vncleane spirits lyke frogges, come out of the mouth of the Dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet: for they are the spirites of deuils, doyng wonders, to goe vnto the kynges of the whole earth, to assemble & gather them together to the battaile, agaynst the day of the great God omnipotent. 

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Rev. 16:13-14.

&c. And it foloweth shortly after: MarginaliaIbid. And he assembled them together into a place which is called in Hebrue, Armagedon, that is, a trappe or trayne of destruction. And immediatly it followeth in the same place: And the seuenth Aungell poured out hys vyall in the ayre: and a myghty voyce came from heauen out of the throne, saying: Factum est. It is done, or finished.  
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Rev. 16:17. Foxe quoting the angel as saying 'factum est' suggests that he was consulting the Vulgate.

&c.
Whereby it is to be vnderstand, that towarde the last consummation of the world, great force shall be sene and a mighty armie of the enemies shalbe collected and gathered agaynst the people and saintes of the highest, & then commeth the consummation, with Factum est. &c.

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MarginaliaApoc. cap. 16. Wherfore it is not for naught, that the holy spirite of God in the same place, a litle before the vi. aungell do poure out his viall, doth exhort all the faithfull, saying: MarginaliaAn exhortation of the holy ghost to the faythfull. Behold I come like a theefe in the night: Blessed is he that watcheth and keepeth his garmentes, least he walke naked, and men see his filthynes. &c. 

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Rev. 16:15.

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MarginaliaApoc. cap. 13. Nicol. de Lyra, and Paulus Byshop of Burgens, and Mathias Dorinke, writyng vpon the xiij. chap. of the Apoc. and expoundyng the mystery of the second beast rysing out of the earth, hauing the hornes of a Lambe. &c. doe apply the same to Mahumete and the Turkes, with a solemne declaratiō made vpō þe same. 

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The marginal motes made by Paul de Santa Maria, archbishop of Burgos, in a copy of the celebrated 'Postilla' of Nicholas of Lyra, which the arch-bishop sent to his so, were posthumously publuished. These amplifications of Nicholas's work were criticized and largely rejected by Matthias Döring, the provincial of the Franciscans in Saxony. Foxe is drawing this summary of the comments of the three on the identification from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Basel, 1562), p. 553.

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MarginaliaThe prophecie of the Apoc. cap. 13. discussed. Which interpretatiō of theirs, although in some pointes it may seeme to haue some appearaunce of probabilitie, neither cā it be denyed but that Mahumete and the Turke be pestilent and wicked enemyes of Christ our Lorde, & most bitter persecutours of his church: yet as touching the proper and naturall meaning of the Apostle in that place, speaking of the false lambe. &c. MarginaliaThe beast hauing hornes lyke the lambe must needes meane the pope. if we cōsider wel all the circumstaunces of that beast, and marke the consequence of the text, both of that which goeth before, and foloweth after: we must needes graunt, that Nicol. de Lyra, wyth his felowes, and with all such like of þe popes schole, that follow that scholie, be deceaued, and that the descriptiō and interpretation of that falsehorned Lambe must necessarily be applyed onely to the byshop of Rome, and none other: Which is to be proued by vi. principal causes or arguments.

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MarginaliaThe first reason. The first is, for that this beast is described to beare the hornes of a lambe. By the whiche lambe, no doubt, is ment Christ. By the hornes of the lambe is signified the outward shew or resemblaunce of Christ our Sauiour: which shew or resemblance can haue no relation to Mahumete, for that he taketh himself to be aboue Christ, & Christ as an excellēt prophet of God sitting at his feete. MarginaliaEx Bonif. 8. Extr. de Maiorit. et obediēt. Wherfore seyng Mahumete cōmeth neither as equal to Christ, nor as Vicare vnder Christ, this Prophesie cā not agree in him, but onely in him which openly in playne wordes protesteth, that all Christes lambes and sheepe not singularly, but vniuersally through the whole world, are cōmitted to him, as Vicare of Christ, and successour of Peter, and that all men must confesse the same of necessitie, or els they are none of Christes sheepe. &c. Wherein it is easy to see where the pretensed hornes of the lambe do grow. 

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Foxe is quoting the passage from Boniface VIII's 1248 collection of canon laws accurately, but he is implying that the pope was claiming secular, as well as spiritual, dominion and this is untrue.

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MarginaliaThe second reason. The second argument: And he spake lyke the Dragon. &c.  

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Rev. 13:11.

A lambes hornes, and the mouth of a Dragō do not

agree
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